The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Sardinian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see ((IPA-sc)) and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Sardinian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of the language.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b baca, bia, bàbaru bike
β abauditu, ebreu, nebodaza[1] between baby and bevy
d dormi, sardu, doadura, (Logudorese) andalibeni done
dz acasazare, pranzu, cazare between buds and budge
gioba, Barbagia, culingiosso, panagèlicu budge
ɖ abbaraddadu, mundu, cherveddu [keɾˈveɖːu][2] dine (Indian English)
ð abbacada, cantat [ˈkantaða], a therga[1] this
f foras, ufanu fast
ɡ gabbia, gherra, ghia, sangrau, fogu gas
ɣ buttega, sa gherra, arcu ’e chelu[1] like go, but without completely blocking air flow on the g
k corsía, àlpaca, chelu, cuadra, bruke, piachente[3] scar
l levantinu, abbalaucadu[2] lip
ʎ brigliaju, origlietas, bragliosu, contissigliu[2] roughly like million
m meledada, mamudinu, acampàda[2][4] mother
ɱ cunforma[4] some value
n nebodaza, energía[2] nest
ŋ ncheru, abbiènghidu[4] sing
ɲ apitzigàgnulu, gnagnajolu[2] roughly like canyon
ɳ afandare, mundu roughly like corndog
p pabasolu, písiri, splajare, ’alvispaltu spin
ɾ carena, dijimire atom (American English)
r rasada, ferrutzos trilled r
s secada, stantes, dilmissu between sip and ship
ʃ scelestu, lescenscia, balascios, isciri ship
t taneddu, àteu star
ts (Logudorese) tzacare, tzarra, catzare, Tzitzeddu, (Campidanese) tzaccau, tzitadi between cats and catch
ciabbata, cedda, cibbu, ciacosu, celibbadu catch
θ althrolitu, furrithu, tharalau, atheddina, istathu thin
v vacada, servu, jurafalzu, sa faína vent
z casara, ixemplu, stantes [ˈstantɛzɛ], su sole between zone and genre
ʒ (Logudorese) abbajocada, ajozi, conjugadu, ojos, (Campidanese) paxi, axedu, dexi genre
ʔ[5] pacu, connòschere, sa pache, sa luna getting (Cockney)
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a Arba, areddare, àteru, proiàt roughly like father
e meri, panagèlicu, ghèneru[6] roughly like pay
ɛ xena, lèghere, isdentadu bed
i filu, síncheru, paxi, ixemplu see
o ogru, còtzula, abbaosu[6] law (British English)
ɔ connòschere, ogros, cando off
u domu, úrtima too
 
Semivowels
j eja, (Logudorese) gioja,[7] calzulaieddu,[8] (Campidanese) Sardinnia[9] you
 
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ cantat [ˈkantaða] primary stress
ˌ propiamente [ˌpɾopi.aˈmɛntɛ] secondary stress
. via [ˈvi.a] syllable break
ː fillu [ˈfilːu] geminated consonant[2]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Phonemic /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ between vowels are usually realized as [β], [ð], [ɣ], and sometimes even omitted. Omission does not normally occur when those are the realizations for phonemic /p/, /t/, /θ/, /k/.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Gemination, here represented by ⟨ː⟩, is only distinctive for the pairs /l, lː/, /m, mː/ and /n, nː/, and and only occurs after a vowel, where it also occurs for [ɖː], [ʎː] and [ɲː] (the latter two being common realizations of /lːj/ and /nːj/, respectively).
  3. ^ Usually, /k/ is written down following either the Italian style (by using ⟨ch⟩ before e and i: e.g. anchilla, chelu, chena, chi, etc.), the Byzantine style (by using ⟨k⟩: e.g. ankilla, kelu, kena, ki, etc.) or (now rare) the Spanish style (by using ⟨qu⟩ before e and i: e.g. anquilla, quelu, quena, qui, etc.)
  4. ^ a b c Nasal consonants always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the n in /nɡ/~/nk/ is velar [ŋ], but before /v/ or /f/, it is labiodental [ɱ]. It is [m] only before /p/, /b/ or /m/ and [ɳ] before /ɖ/.
  5. ^ Glottal stops usually occur for intervocalic /k/ in some dialects of Barbagia, and for intervocalic /l/ and /n/ in some dialects of Sarrabus.
  6. ^ a b /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ are realized as [e] and [o], respectively, if the following syllable contains /i/, /u/, a palatal, or another occurrence of [e] or [o]. This is not the case if [i] results from a phonemic /ɛ/.
  7. ^ One of the cases in which the grapheme ⟨j⟩ does not represent the sound [ʒ].
  8. ^ A rare case, using the grapheme ⟨i⟩, normally representing a full vowel /i/.
  9. ^ Phonetically transcribed as [saɾˈdinːja], as opposed to Sardigna in Logudorese, transcribed as [saɾˈdiɲːa]. In Campidanese this semivowel is more usual.

Further reading