The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Slovak language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see ((IPA-sk)) and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Slovak phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Slovak.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b b, vstup do[1] bill
c radosť, loď[2] stew
d domov, prvýkrát bolo[1] door
f farba, vták[3] focus
ɡ garáž, kde[1] go
ɦ hlava ahead
j jogurt yellow
ɟ ďaleko, byť zaradený[1] dew
k koláč, ping-pong[2] scan
l láska[4] pill
vlk little
l̩ː vĺča little left (long)
ʎ ľad[4] failure
m maslo, hanba[5] milk
n noc[5] now
ɲ laň canyon
p pavúk, dub[2] spill
r robot hottest (US)
prst Spanish perro
r̩ː vŕba Spanish perro, but longer
s slnko, mráz[2] six
ʂ šach, ž[2] shell
t tulipán, hlad[2] stand
ts cena, jedz[2] bats
človek, [2] chase
v vzrast,[3] Adolf bol[1] vine
ʋ sever[3] between vine and wine
w pravda, krv,[3] Tatrou wine
x chlieb, sneh loch (Scottish)
z zima, ananás bol[1] zoo
ʐ žena, Aleš bol[1] fusion
Marginal consonants
dz dz, noc bez[1] heads
bán, cárovič bol[1] job
ɱ informácia[5] comfort
ŋ banka[5] sing
Vowels[6]
IPA Examples English approximation
Monophthongs
a matka art
ráno father
e drevo Australian left
i tri, syr kit
písať, výr leave
ɔ dom off
u ruža bull
úroda food
Marginal monophthongs
fén Australian bed
ɔː móda dog
Diphthongs
ɪɐ piaty a very brief [ɪ] followed by a short [ɐ], like Romanian bea
ɪe viera a very brief [ɪ] followed by a short [e], roughly like Australian yes
ʊo stôl a very brief [ʊ] followed by a short [o], roughly like RP water
Marginal diphthongs
ɛɐ mäso[7] a brief [ɛ] followed by a brief [ɐ], like Cockney square but shorter
ɪʊ vyššiu a very brief [ɪ] followed by a short [ʊ], roughly like use
 
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ Revúca [ˈreʋuːtsa] Primary stress always falls on the first syllable of a word.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Apart from being the main realization of the phonemes /b, d, dz, dʐ, ɡ, ɟ, z, ʐ/, [b, d, dz, dʐ, ɡ, ɟ, z, ʐ] also occur as allophones of /p, t, ts, tʂ, k, c, s, ʂ/ before the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʐ, z, ʐ, ɦ/. [v] also occurs as an allophone of /f/ in the same environment.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Apart from being the main realization of the phonemes /c, k, p, s, ʂ, t, ts, tʂ/, [c, k, p, s, ʂ, t, ts, tʂ] also occur as word-final allophones of /ɟ, ɡ, b, z, ʐ, d, dz, dʐ/ unless the following word starts with any of the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʐ, z, ʐ, ɦ/ and is pronounced without a pause, in which case they are realized as voiced [ɟ, ɡ, b, z, ʐ, d, dz, dʐ].
  3. ^ a b c d The phones transcribed [f, v, ʋ, w] are allophones of a single /v/ phoneme (but note that [f, v] are also allophones of the /f/ phoneme):
    [f] occurs word-initially before the voiceless obstruents /p, t, c, k, tʂ, s, ʂ, x/;
    [v] occurs word-initially before the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʐ, z, ʐ, ɦ/;
    [w] or [ʋ] (in our transcriptions always represented as [w]) occur in the syllable coda;
    [ʋ] occurs in all other cases (Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)).
  4. ^ a b The /l–ʎ/ contrast is neutralized before front vowels, when only /l/ occurs. The neutralization is taken further in western dialects in which /ʎ/ merges with /l/ in all environments (Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)).
  5. ^ a b c d Nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Before velar consonants they are [ŋ], and before labial consonants they are [m]; the labiodental [ɱ] appears before /f/ and /v/. Orthographic ⟨n⟩ before ⟨p⟩ and ⟨b⟩ is rare and is confined mostly to loanwords.
  6. ^ In the majority of cases only one long vowel per word may occur. The phonemic diphthongs /ɪɐ, ɪe, ɪʊ, ʊo/ count as long vowels.
  7. ^ /ɛɐ/ often merges with /e/. In phonology, it behaves like a short vowel, and for that reason it is sometimes transcribed with ⟨æ⟩. However, for speakers that distinguish it from /e/, it is clearly an opening diphthong (Pavlík 2004:94).

References

  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162
  • Kráľ, Ábel (1988), Pravidlá slovenskej výslovnosti, Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateľstvo
  • Pavlík, Radoslav (2004), "Slovenské hlásky a medzinárodná fonetická abeceda" (PDF), Jazykovedný časopis, 55: 87–109