Henry Goulburn
HenryGoulburn.jpg
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
26 January 1828 – 22 November 1830
MonarchGeorge IV
William IV
Prime MinisterThe Duke of Wellington
Preceded byJohn Charles Herries
Succeeded byViscount Althorp
In office
3 September 1841 – 27 June 1846
MonarchVictoria
Prime MinisterSir Robert Peel, Bt
Preceded byFrancis Baring
Succeeded bySir Charles Wood, Bt
Home Secretary
In office
15 December 1834 – 18 April 1835
MonarchWilliam IV
Prime MinisterSir Robert Peel, Bt
Preceded byThe Duke of Wellington
Succeeded byLord John Russell
Personal details
Born(1784-03-19)19 March 1784
London
Died12 January 1856(1856-01-12) (aged 71)
NationalityBritish
Political partyTory, Peelite
Spouse(s)Hon. Jane Montagu (died 1857)
Alma materTrinity College, Cambridge

Henry Goulburn PC FRS (19 March 1784 – 12 January 1856) was a British Conservative statesman and a member of the Peelite faction after 1846.

Background and education

Born in London, Goulburn was the eldest son of a wealthy planter, Munbee Goulburn, of Amity Hall, Vere Parish, Jamaica, and his wife Susannah, eldest daughter of William Chetwynd, 4th Viscount Chetwynd. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge.[1]

Goulburn lived in Betchworth, Dorking, in Betchworth House for much of his life.

Sugar plantation owner

Goulburn's inheritance included a number of sugar estates in Jamaica, with Amity Hall in the parish of Vere, now Clarendon Parish, being the most important. Slave labour was still being used to work the sugar plantations when he inherited the estates.[2][3]

Goulburn never visited Jamaica himself due to his health and political work. He relied on attorneys to manage his estates on his behalf. One attorney, in particular, Thomas Samson, held the top job at the estate from 1802 to 1818 and earned a reputation for cruelty towards Goulburn's slaves.

By 1818, the income from his Jamaican estates halved to less than £3,000 "although he did console himself that the condition of his slaves had probably improved".[2]

In 1818, Henry Goulburn's brother was sent to inspect the Jamaican Sugar Plantation. Thomas Samson had already been dismissed over his treatment of slaves. [1] Henry Goulburn wrote to Samson in June 1818:

“Since my brother’s return to England, I have had a great deal of conversation with him respecting the management of my Estate in Jamaica, the state of the Negroes and other particulars connected with it which from want of personal inspection of the property I have hitherto but imperfectly understood. The result had been a conviction upon my mind that as far as regards the negroes of the Estate, the system hitherto used by you had been founded altogether upon erroneous principles which (though I believe to be too commonly followed on the generality of estates in Jamaica) are such as I can never approve because I cannot consider them consistent with the duty which I owe to the negroes which belong to me....

You have recently been possessed of a considerable property which makes the management of my Estate less if at all an object to you... therefore your removal from Amity Hall cannot inconvenience you in a pecuniary point of view.”[4]

Political career

In 1808, Goulburn became Member of Parliament for Horsham. In 1810, he was appointed Under-Secretary of State for Home Affairs, and two and a half years later, he was made Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. It was in this capacity that James Meehan named Goulburn, New South Wales after him, a naming that was ratified by Governor Lachlan Macquarie. Still retaining office in the Tory government, he became a Privy Counsellor in 1821, and shortly afterwards was appointed Chief Secretary for Ireland, a position which he held until April 1827. Here, although he was frequently denounced as he was considered an Orangeman, he had a successful period of office on the whole, and in 1823 he managed to pass the Composition for Tithes (Ireland) Act 1823. In January 1828, he was made Chancellor of the Exchequer under the Duke of Wellington; like his leader, he disliked Roman Catholic emancipation, which he voted against in 1828.

In the finance domain, Goulburn's chief achievements were to reduce the interest rate on the part of the national debt and allow anyone to sell beer upon payment of a small annual fee, a complete change of policy about the drink traffic. Leaving office with Wellington in November 1830, Goulburn was Home Secretary under Sir Robert Peel for four months in 1835. When this statesman returned to office in September 1841, he became Chancellor of the Exchequer for the second time. Although Peel himself did some of the chancellor's work, Goulburn was responsible for a further reduction in the rate of interest on the national debt, and he aided his chief in the struggle, which ended in the repeal of the Corn Laws. With his colleagues, he left office in June 1846. After representing Horsham in the House of Commons for over four years, Goulburn was successively member for St Germans, for West Looe, and for the city of Armagh. In May 1831, he was elected for Cambridge University, and he retained this seat until his death.

According to the Legacies of British Slave-Ownership at the University College London, Goulburn was awarded a payment as a slave trader in the aftermath of the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 with the Slave Compensation Act 1837. The British Government took out a £15 million loan (worth £1.46 billion in 2022)[5] with interest from Nathan Mayer Rothschild and Moses Montefiore which was subsequently paid off by the British taxpayers (ending in 2015). Goulburn was associated with two different claims, he owned 277 slaves in Jamaica and received a £5,601 payment at the time (worth £543,442 in 2022).[5][6]

Goulburn was a member of the Canterbury Association from 27 March 1848.[7]

Family

Frederick Goulburn (1788–1837), the first Colonial Secretary of New South Wales, was his younger brother. Henry Goulburn married the Hon. Jane, third daughter of Matthew Montagu, 4th Baron Rokeby, in 1811. They had four children. He died on 12 January 1856, aged 71. His wife died the following year.

Notes

  1. ^ "Goulburn, Henry (GLBN801H)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  2. ^ a b "Rt. Hon. Henry Goulburn". Legacies of British Slave-ownership. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  3. ^ Morgan, Kenneth (2012). "Labour Relations during and after Apprenticeship: Amity Hall, Jamaica, 1834–1840". Slavery & Abolition. 33 (3): 457–478. doi:10.1080/0144039X.2011.606629. ISSN 0144-039X. S2CID 144937768.
  4. ^ "Slaves' Living Conditions and the childrearing problem at Amity Hall" (PDF).
  5. ^ a b UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  6. ^ "Rt. Hon. Henry Goulburn". University College London. Retrieved on 20 March 2019.
  7. ^ Blain, Rev. Michael (2007). The Canterbury Association (1848–1852): A Study of Its Members' Connections (PDF). Christchurch: Project Canterbury. pp. 36–37. Retrieved 20 March 2013.

References

Further reading

Parliament of the United Kingdom Preceded byLove Jones-Parry Sir Samuel Romilly Member of Parliament for Horsham 1808–1812 With: Joseph Marryat Succeeded bySir Arthur PiggottRobert Hurst Preceded byMatthew MontaguCharles Philip Yorke Member of Parliament for St Germans 1812–1818 With: William Henry Pringle Succeeded bySeymour BathurstCharles Arbuthnot Preceded byHenry Fitzgerald-de Ros Sir Charles Hulse Member of Parliament for West Looe 1818–1826 With: Sir Charles Hulse Succeeded byJohn BullerCharles Buller Preceded byWilliam Stuart Member of Parliament for Armagh 1826–1831 Succeeded byViscount Ingestre Preceded byThe Viscount PalmerstonWilliam Cavendish Member of Parliament for Cambridge University 1831–1856 with William Yates Peel 1831–1832 Charles Manners-Sutton 1832–1835 Hon. Charles Law 1835–1850 Loftus Wigram 1850–1856 Succeeded byLoftus Wigram Spencer Horatio Walpole Political offices Preceded byCharles Jenkinson Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department 1810–1812 Succeeded byJohn Hiley Addington Preceded byRobert Peel Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies 1812–1821 With: Henry Edward Bunbury 1812–1816 Succeeded byR. W. Horton Preceded byCharles Grant Chief Secretary for Ireland 1821–1827 Succeeded byWilliam Lamb Preceded byJohn Charles Herries Chancellor of the Exchequer 1828–1830 Succeeded byViscount Althorp Preceded byViscount Duncannon Home Secretary 1834–1835 Succeeded byLord John Russell Preceded byFrancis Baring Chancellor of the Exchequer 1841–1846 Succeeded bySir Charles Wood, Bt