Heracleum persicum
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Heracleum
H. persicum
Binomial name
Heracleum persicum

Heracleum persicum, commonly known as Persian hogweed or by its native name Golpar (Persian: گلپر) is a species of hogweed, a perennial herbaceous plant in the carrot family Apiaceae. It grows wild in humid mountainous regions in Iran and some adjacent areas. Having been introduced in the 1830s, it has spread across Scandinavia. It is now very common in northern Norway, where one of its names is Tromsø palm.[1] [2] The plant has also been spotted in Sweden.[3] In Finland, it has been declared an invasive species.[4]

Persian hogweed is a polycarpic perennial,[5][6] that is, a mature plant flowers and bears fruit season after season.

Invasiveness status

In Europe, Persian hogweed is included since 2016 in the list of Invasive Alien Species of Union concern (the Union list).[7] This implies that this species cannot be imported, cultivated, transported, commercialized, planted, or intentionally released into the environment in the whole of the European Union.[7]


Food uses

The seeds are used as a spice in Persian cooking. The very thin, small mericarps (seed-like fruits) are aromatic and slightly bitter. They are usually sold in powdered form and are often erroneously sold as "angelica seeds". The powder is sprinkled over broad beans, lentils and other legumes, and potatoes.

Ground golpar (H. persicum) seeds

Golpar is also used in soups and stews. It is often used sprinkled over pomegranate arils.[8] Golpar is also mixed with vinegar into which broad beans are dipped before eating.[9]

Golpar can be used in small amounts (1 or 2 tsp per pound) when cooking beans to reduce the effect of gas in the digestive tract associated with consuming beans.[10][failed verification][dubious ]

In Persian cuisine, the petals are used in the spice mixture advieh to flavor rice dishes, as well as in chicken, Fish and bean dishes.[citation needed]

The tender leaves and leaf stalks can also be pickled (known as golpar torshi).[citation needed]

Chemical composition

The chemicals composition in golpar (Persian hogweed) are: hexyl acetate, acetyl acetate, methyl butyrate, ethyl butyrate, and various other acids that are responsible for its pungent smell. Also, there is a kind of oily and volatile essential oil in the Heracleum persicum plant, which is used to flavor some foods.[11]

Public health and safety

The sap of the Tromsø palm contains furanocoumarins, which in combination with ultraviolet light, leads to phytophotodermatitis.[6] There is some anecdotal evidence that H. persicum may be less dangerous than H. mantegazzianum with respect to phototoxicity.[1]

Control measures

Known ways to fight Tromsø palm are the constant cutting of new shoots. When cutting down, protective equipment is recommended, and metal cutting tools should be cleaned after use because the juice is oxidizing.[citation needed]

See also


  1. ^ a b Alm, Torbjørn (2013). "Ethnobotany of Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fisch., an invasive species in Norway, or how plant names, uses, and other traditions evolve". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 9 (1): 42. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-9-42. ISSN 1746-4269. PMC 3699400. PMID 23800181.
  2. ^ Straumsheim Grønli, Kristin (July 10, 2006), Bjørnekjeks tar kvelertak på naturen (Hogweed takes stranglehold on nature), archived from the original on 2011-09-23, retrieved September 12, 2011
  3. ^ "Heracleum mantegazzianum, Heracleum sosnowskyi and Heracleum persicum". EPPO Bulletin. 39 (3): 489–499. 2009. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2009.02313.x.
  4. ^ "Jättiputket (Heracleum persicum -ryhmä) - Vieraslajit.fi". vieraslajit.fi.
  5. ^ a b Booy, Olaf; Cock, Matthew; Eckstein, Lutz; Hansen, Steen Ole; Hattendorf, Jan; Hüls, Jörg; Jahodová, Sárka; Krinke, Lucás; Marovoková, Lanka; Müllerová, Jana; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Charlotte; Otte, Annette; Pergl, Jan; Perglová, Irena; Priekule, Ilze; Pusek, Petr; Ravn, Hans Peter; Thiele, Jan; Trybush, Sviatlana; Wittenberg, Rüdiger (2005). The giant hogweed best practice manual: guidelines for the management and control of invasive weeds in Europe (PDF). Hørsholm: Center for Skov, Landskab og Planlægning/Københavns Universitet. ISBN 978-87-7903-209-5. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  6. ^ a b Meier, Sophie; Taff, Gregory N.; Aune, Jens B.; Eiter, Sebastian (2017). "Regulation of the Invasive Plant Heracleum persicum by Private Landowners in Tromsø, Norway". Invasive Plant Science and Management. 10 (2): 166–179. doi:10.1017/inp.2017.11.
  7. ^ a b "List of Invasive Alien Species of Union concern - Environment - European Commission". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  8. ^ Fujimori, Sachi (December 12, 2013). "Get cooking with pomegranates, the super fruit that's in season". NorthJersey.com. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
  9. ^ "Persian Lentil & Beetroot Salad with Golpar". Spice Mountain. Retrieved 2023-12-03.
  10. ^ "Gas in the Digestive Tract: Digestive Diseases - NIDDK". Archived from the original on 2014-10-11. Retrieved 2010-11-08.
  11. ^ Changxing, L.; Dongfang, D.; Lixue, Z.; Saeed, M.; Alagawany, M.; Farag, M. R.; Chenling, M.; Jianhua, L. (June 2019). "Heracleum persicum: chemical composition, biological activities and potential uses in poultry nutrition". World's Poultry Science Journal. 75 (2): 207–218. doi:10.1017/S0043933919000205. ISSN 0043-9339.