Herbert Butterfield

Young, clean-shaven man
Herbert Butterfield
Born(1900-10-07)7 October 1900
Oxenhope, England
Died20 July 1979(1979-07-20) (aged 78)
Sawston, England
Pamela Crawshaw
(m. 1929)
Academic background
Alma materPeterhouse, Cambridge
Academic work
School or tradition
InstitutionsPeterhouse, Cambridge
Doctoral students
Notable works
  • The Whig Interpretation of History (1931)
  • The Origins of Modern Science (1949)
Notable ideasWhig history

Sir Herbert Butterfield FBA (7 October 1900 – 20 July 1979) was an English historian and philosopher of history, who was Regius Professor of Modern History and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.[3] He is remembered chiefly for a short volume early in his career entitled The Whig Interpretation of History (1931) and for his Origins of Modern Science (1949). Butterfield turned increasingly to historiography and man's developing view of the past. Butterfield was a devout Christian and reflected at length on Christian influences in historical perspectives.

Butterfield thought that individual personalities were more important than great systems of government or economics in historical study. His Christian beliefs in personal sin, salvation and providence were a great influence in his writings, a fact he freely admitted. At the same time, Butterfield's early works emphasised the limits of a historian's moral conclusions, "If history can do anything it is to remind us that all our judgments are merely relative to time and circumstance".


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Butterfield was born on 7 October 1900 in Oxenhope, West Yorkshire, and was raised a devout Methodist, which he remained for life. Despite his humble origins, receiving his education at the Trade and Grammar School in Keighley, in 1919 he won a scholarship to study at Peterhouse, Cambridge, graduating with a BA in 1922, followed by an MA four years later. Butterfield was a fellow at Cambridge from 1928 to 1979 and in the 1950s, he was a fellow of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. He was Master of Peterhouse (1955–1968), Vice-Chancellor of the University (1959–1961) and Regius Professor of Modern History (1963–1968). Butterfield served as editor of the Cambridge Historical Journal from 1938 to 1955 and was knighted in 1968.[4]

He married Edith Joyce Crawshaw in 1929 and had three children. He died on 20 July 1979.[citation needed]


Butterfield's main interests were historiography, the history of science, 18th-century constitutional history, Christianity and history as well as the theory of international politics.[5] He delivered the Gifford Lectures at the University of Glasgow in 1965. As a deeply religious Protestant, Butterfield was highly concerned with religious issues, but he did not believe that historians could uncover the hand of God in history. At the height of the Cold War, he warned that conflicts between self-righteous value systems could be catastrophic:

The greatest menace to our civilization is the conflict between giant organized systems of self-righteousness – each only too delighted to find that the other is wicked – each only too glad that the sins of the other give it pretext for still deeper hatred.[6]

The Whig Interpretation of History

Butterfield's book, The Whig Interpretation of History (1931), became a classic for history students and is still widely read.[7] Butterfield had in mind especially the historians of his own country but his criticism of the retrospective creation of a line of progress toward the glorious present can be and has subsequently been applied generally. The "Whig interpretation of history" is now a general label applied to various historical interpretations.

Butterfield found the Whig interpretation of history objectionable because it warps the past to see it in terms of the issues of the present and attempts to squeeze the contending forces of the past into a form that reminds us of ourselves. Butterfield argued that the historian must seek the ability to see events as they were perceived by those who lived through them. Butterfield wrote that "Whiggishness" is too handy a "rule of thumb... by which the historian can select and reject, and can make his points of emphasis".[8]

He also wrote about how simple pick-and-choose history misses the point, "Very strange bridges are used to make the passage from one state of things to another; we may lose sight of them in our surveys of general history, but their discovery is the glory of historical research. History is not the study of origins; rather it is the analysis of all the mediations by which the past was turned into our present".[9] In 1944, Butterfield wrote in The Englishman and His History that,

We are all of us exultant and unrepentant whigs. Those who, perhaps in the misguided austerity of youth, wish to drive out that whig interpretation, (that particular thesis which controls our abridgment of English history,) are sweeping a room which humanly speaking cannot long remain empty. They are opening the door for seven devils which, precisely because they are newcomers, are bound to be worse than the first. We, on the other hand, will not dream of wishing it away, but will rejoice in an interpretation of the past which has grown up with us, has grown up with the history itself, and has helped to make the history... we must congratulate ourselves that our 17th-century forefathers... did not resurrect and fasten upon us the authentic middle ages... in England we made peace with our middle ages by misconstruing them; and, therefore, we may say that "wrong" history was one of our assets. The whig interpretation came at exactly the crucial moment and, whatever it may have done to our history, it had a wonderful effect on English politics... in every Englishman there is hidden something of a whig that seems to tug at the heart-strings.[10]

Christianity and History

Butterfield's 1949 book Christianity and History, asks if history provides answers to the meaning of life, answering in the negative: [11]

Butterfield and his Anglo-Catholic contemporary, Christopher Dawson, have been referred to as prominent "providential" historians.[12]

The Origins of Modern Science

According to Brian Vickers, in the 1949 book The Origins of Modern Science Butterfield makes simplistic generalisations which "seem unworthy of a serious historian". Vickers considers the book a late example of the earliest stage of modern analysis of the history of Renaissance magic in relation to the development of science, when magic was largely dismissed as being "entertaining but irrelevant".[13]

Prizes and accolades

In 1922, Butterfield was awarded the University Member's Prize for English Essay, writing on the subject of English novelist Charles Dickens and the way in which the author straddled the fields of history and literature.

In 1923, Butterfield won the Le Bas Prize for his first publication, The Historical Novel; the work was published in 1924.[14]

Also in 1924, Butterfield won the Prince Consort Prize for a work on the problem of peace in Europe between 1806 and 1808. At the same time, he was given the Seeley Medal.[15]


See also


  1. ^ John D. Fair, Harold Temperley: A Scholar and Romantic in the Public Realm, University of Delaware Press, 1992, p. 11.
  2. ^ Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1970 (2nd ed.), p. 85.
  3. ^ Haslam, Jonathan (15 July 2011). "The Life and Thought of Herbert Butterfield by Michael Bentley – review". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  4. ^ "No. 44600". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 May 1968. p. 6299.
  5. ^ Gifford Lectures – Biography of Butterfield Archived 22 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine by Dr Brannon Hancock
  6. ^ Christianity, Diplomacy and War (1952)
  7. ^ William Cronon, "Two Cheers for the Whig Interpretation of History" (American Historical Association, September 2012) online at https://www.historians.org/publications-and-directories/perspectives-on-history/september-2012/two-cheers-for-the-whig-interpretation-of-history.
  8. ^ Butterfield 1931, p. 10.
  9. ^ "Whig History at Eighty | Wilfred M. McClay".
  10. ^ Herbert Butterfield, The Englishman and His History (Cambridge University Press, 1944), pp. 1–4, 73.
  11. ^ Herbert Butterfield, Christianity and History (London: Bell, 1949) 88-89, 130. There have been reprints and revisions in 1950, 1954, 1957, 1960, 1964, 1967 and 3009.
  12. ^ Brian Q. Cannon, “Providential History: The Need for Continuing Revelation,” in Window of Faith: Latter-day Saint Perspectives on World History, ed. Roy A. Prete (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005), 142–60.
  13. ^ Vickers, Brian, ed. (1984). "Introduction". Occult and Scientific Mentalities in the Renaissance. pp. 1–56. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511572999.002. ISBN 9780511572999.
  14. ^ Butterfield, Sir Herbert (1924). The historical novel: an essay. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
  15. ^ McIntire, C.T. (2008). Herbert Butterfield: Historian as Dissenter. Yale University Press. pp. 29–36. ISBN 978-0300130089. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
  16. ^ Butterfield, Herbert (1 January 1929). The Peace Tactics of Napoleon, 1806-1808. The University Press.
  17. ^ Butterfield, Herbert (1 January 1965). The Whig Interpretation of History. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393003185.
  18. ^ Butterfield, Herbert (1 January 1939). Napoleon. Duckworth.
  19. ^ books.google.com
  20. ^ Butterfield, Herbert (1 January 1970). The Englishman and His History. Archon Books. ISBN 9780208009937.
  21. ^ Butterfield, Herbert (1 January 1948). Lord Acton. Historical Assn.
  22. ^ http://rootx.com/i/the-origins-of-modern-science-1300-1800/ Archived 20 May 2015 at archive.today
  23. ^ Butterfield, Sir Herbert (1 January 1951). History and human relations. Macmillan.
  24. ^ McIntire, C. T. (1 October 2008). Herbert Butterfield: Historian as Dissenter. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300130089.
  25. ^ Butterfield, Herbert (1 January 1951). The Reconstruction of an Historical Episode: The History of the Enquiry Into the Origins of the Seven Years' War : Being the Eighteenth Lecture on the David Murray Foundation in the University of Glasgow Delivered on 20th April, 1951. Jackson.
  26. ^ Butterfield, Herbert (1 January 1952). Liberty in the modern world. Ryerson Press.
  27. ^ Butterfield, Herbert (1 January 1952). Christianity in European History. Collins.
  28. ^ Butterfield, Sir Herbert (1 January 1953). Christianity, diplomacy and war. Abingdon-Cokesbury Press.
  29. ^ Butterfield, Herbert (1 January 1955). Man on His Past: The Study of the History of Historical Scholarship. CUP Archive.
  30. ^ Butterfield, Herbert (1 January 1957). George III and the historians. Collins. ISBN 9787250009045.
  31. ^ Butterfield, Herbert (1 August 1981). The Origins of History. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 9780465053445.


Further reading

Media related to Herbert Butterfield at Wikimedia Commons