Hesperotestudo ("Western turtle") is an extinct genus of tortoise native to North and Central America from the Oligocene to the Late Pleistocene. Species of Hesperotesudo varied widely in size, with the largest species reaching sizes comparable to extant giant tortoises, with carapaces over a metre (3.3 ft) in length. Historically considered a subgenus of Geochelone, it is now considered to be distantly related to that genus. Its closest relatives are the extant Gopherus (gopher tortoises) and the extinct Stylemys. The ancestor of the three genera arrived in North America during the Early Eocene. The bodies of Hesperotesudo species were extensively covered with large dermal ossicles, which in life were covered in keratin. It has been suggested that species of Hesperotestudo were relatively tolerant of cold weather. Hesperotestudo became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene and beginning of the Holocene co-incident with the arrival of the first humans in North America, and sites have been found where Hesperotestudo were butchered.
Species list is based on Vlachos, 2018