Heze
菏泽市
Hotseh
Location of Heze City jurisdiction in Shandong
Coordinates (Heze municipal government): 35°14′03″N 115°28′47″E / 35.2343°N 115.4796°E / 35.2343; 115.4796Coordinates: 35°14′03″N 115°28′47″E / 35.2343°N 115.4796°E / 35.2343; 115.4796
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceShandong
County-level divisions9
Township-level divisions158
Municipal seatMudan District
Government
 • MayorSun Aijun (孙爱军)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city12,256 km2 (4,732 sq mi)
 • Urban
1,416 km2 (547 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,416 km2 (547 sq mi)
Population
 (2019 census)[2]
 • Prefecture-level city8,781,700
 • Density720/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
 • Urban
1,346,717
 • Urban density950/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
 • Metro
1,346,717
 • Metro density950/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
274000
Area code(s)0530
ISO 3166 codeCN-SD-17
Licence plate prefixes鲁R
Heze
Traditional Chinese菏澤
Simplified Chinese菏泽
Former names
Caozhou
Chinese
PostalTsaochow

Heze, formerly known as Caozhou, is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Shandong province, China. It is home to 8,287,693 inhabitants, of whom 1,346,717 live in the built-up area around the seat of government in Mudan District.[3] The westernmost prefecture-level city in Shandong, it borders Jining to the east and the provinces of Henan and Anhui to the west and south respectively.

Name

In Chinese, the name of the city is sometimes miswritten as "", owing to the similarity of the characters.

History

Caozhou was at the center of the Nian Rebellion during the 1850s and 60s.

In August 1949, Heze was detached from Shandong and given to the experimental province of Pingyuan. It returned to Shandong just over three years later.

In April 1953, Heze and Jining gained counties from the former prefecture of Huxi after its abolishment.

City Flower

Mudan is the city flower of Heze. The earliest documentary of Mudan is in Classic of Poetry (诗经), which is almost 3,000 years away from now. Mudan is also called the King of flower from Bencao Gangmu(本草纲目). It is a symbol of honor, peace, wealth, love, aristocracy, and feminine beauty. There are 9 types of Mudan based on the colors: red, white, purple, yellow, blue, green, black, pink, and multi-colored.[4]

Geography

Heze has a monsoon-influenced climate that lies between the humid subtropical and humid continental zones (Köppen Cwa/Dwa), with four well-defined seasons. The city is warm and nearly rainless in spring, hot and humid in summer, crisp in autumn and cold and dry in winter. The mean annual temperature is 14.22 °C (57.6 °F), with the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranging from −0.5 °C (31.1 °F) in January to 27.1 °C (80.8 °F) in July. Nearly 70% of the annual precipitation occurs from June to September. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48% in July to 60% in May, the city receives 2,411 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Heze (1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.2
(64.8)
23.2
(73.8)
28.5
(83.3)
33.7
(92.7)
38.1
(100.6)
42.0
(107.6)
41.8
(107.2)
38.4
(101.1)
36.0
(96.8)
32.7
(90.9)
26.8
(80.2)
20.6
(69.1)
42.0
(107.6)
Average high °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
8.3
(46.9)
14.2
(57.6)
21.4
(70.5)
26.6
(79.9)
31.4
(88.5)
31.7
(89.1)
30.4
(86.7)
26.7
(80.1)
21.5
(70.7)
13.5
(56.3)
6.6
(43.9)
19.7
(67.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
2.9
(37.2)
8.4
(47.1)
15.3
(59.5)
20.7
(69.3)
25.6
(78.1)
27.1
(80.8)
25.8
(78.4)
21.1
(70.0)
15.2
(59.4)
7.6
(45.7)
1.4
(34.5)
14.2
(57.6)
Average low °C (°F) −4.2
(24.4)
−1.3
(29.7)
3.6
(38.5)
10.1
(50.2)
15.3
(59.5)
20.3
(68.5)
23.3
(73.9)
22.2
(72.0)
16.9
(62.4)
10.6
(51.1)
3.2
(37.8)
−2.3
(27.9)
9.8
(49.7)
Record low °C (°F) −20.4
(−4.7)
−15.6
(3.9)
−11.3
(11.7)
−4.4
(24.1)
3.8
(38.8)
10.2
(50.4)
15.4
(59.7)
12.1
(53.8)
4.8
(40.6)
−1.3
(29.7)
−12.9
(8.8)
−17.5
(0.5)
−20.4
(−4.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 6.8
(0.27)
10.1
(0.40)
21.3
(0.84)
27.3
(1.07)
56.4
(2.22)
63.8
(2.51)
159.1
(6.26)
143.9
(5.67)
71.0
(2.80)
33.9
(1.33)
19.4
(0.76)
8.4
(0.33)
621.4
(24.46)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.6 3.7 5.3 5.7 6.6 8.0 11.8 9.0 7.2 6.0 4.3 3.6 73.8
Average relative humidity (%) 67 63 62 64 69 67 81 84 79 73 71 69 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 159.0 151.2 191.9 226.8 257.7 252.1 213.3 217.5 204.4 206.6 173.7 156.8 2,411
Percent possible sunshine 51 49 52 58 60 58 48 53 55 59 56 52 54
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 1971–2000)[5][6]

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Heze administers nine county-level divisions. The municipal executive, legislature and judiciary are in Mudan District (牡丹区), together with CPC and Public Security bureaux.

There are two districts and seven counties:

These are further divided into 158 township-level divisions.

Map

Demographics

According to the 2010 population census, there were 8,287,693 people living in this area.

Culture

Places of Interests

Foods

Transportation

Famous Figures

Economy

Heze is the largest center in China for the cultivation of the "national flower" peony, after which the Mudan District was named. Over 30% of its GDP comes from the sale of peony.

Sister Cities

Mobile, Alabama[15]

References

  1. ^ 最新人口信息 www.hongheiku.com (in Chinese). hongheiku. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  2. ^ 最新人口信息 www.hongheiku.com (in Chinese). hongheiku. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  3. ^ "China: Shāndōng (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  4. ^ "牡丹起源和发展历史变迁 _中国". www.sohu.com. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  5. ^ 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  6. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
  7. ^ "曹州牡丹园 - 菏泽旅游景点大全". wg365.org. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  8. ^ "牌坊城里有瑰宝 清代石雕建筑百寿坊、百狮坊全国罕见 - 焦点新闻 - 菏泽频道 - 鲁网". heze.sdnews.com.cn. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  9. ^ "郓城水浒好汉城". www.haohancheng.cn. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  10. ^ "单县经典羊汤是非物质文化遗产".
  11. ^ "牡丹饼-洛龙区特产牡丹饼专题". shop.bytravel.cn. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  12. ^ "郓城美食——皮家烧鸡_陌上青禾_新浪博客". blog.sina.com.cn. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  13. ^ "曹州烧饼-牡丹区特产专题". m.bytravel.cn. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  14. ^ "菏泽机场预计2020年底通航运营投用后将开通10条航线_山东各地 _山东新闻_新闻_齐鲁网". news.iqilu.com. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  15. ^ "Sister Partnerships by US State – Asia Matters for America".