This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Italian. (November 2017) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Italian article. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 2,688 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Italian Wikipedia article at [[:it:Storia della Juventus Football Club]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|it|Storia della Juventus Football Club)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.

The history of Juventus F.C. covers over 120 years of the football from the club based in Turin, Italy (established in 1897) that would eventually become the most successful team in the history of Italian football and amongst the elite football clubs of the world.[1] Iuventūs is Latin for "youth".[2] According to the International Federation of Football History & Statistics, an international organization recognized by FIFA, Juventus were Italy's best club of the 20th century and the second most successful European club in the same period.[3]

Early years

Historic first ever club shot with the original pink and black kit
Historic first ever club shot with the original pink and black kit
The Juventus team during the 1905 season in which they won their first league title
The Juventus team during the 1905 season in which they won their first league title

Juventus were founded as Sport-Club Juventus in late 1897 by pupils from the Massimo d'Azeglio Lyceum school in Turin, among them the brothers Eugenio and Enrico Canfari,[4] but were renamed as Foot-Ball Club Juventus two years later.[5] The club joined the Italian Football Championship in 1900. In 1904, the businessman Ajmone-Marsan revived the finances of the football club Juventus, making it also possible to transfer the training field from piazza d'armi to the more appropriate Velodrome Umberto I. During this period, the team wore a pink and black kit. Juventus first won the league championship in 1905 while playing at their Velodrome Umberto I ground. By this time, the club colours had changed to black and white stripes, inspired by English side Notts County.[6] There was a split at the club in 1906 after some of the staff considered moving Juve out of Turin.[5] President Alfred Dick[7] was unhappy with this and left with some prominent players to found FBC Torinese (later Torino F.C.) which in turn spawned the Derby della Mole.[8] Juventus spent much of this period steadily rebuilding after the split, surviving World War I.[6]

League dominance

FIAT owner Edoardo Agnelli gained control of the club in 1923 and built a new stadium.[5] This helped the club to its second scudetto (league championship) in the 1925–26 season, after beating Alba Roma with an aggregate score of 12–1 (Antonio Vojak's goals were essential that season).[6] The club established itself as a major force in Italian football since the 1930s, becoming the country's first professional club and the first with a decentralised fan base,[9][10] which led it to win a record of five consecutive Italian championships the first four under the management of Carlo Carcano and form the core of the Italy national team during the Vittorio Pozzo's era, including the 1934 world champion squad.[11] With star players such as Raimundo Orsi, Luigi Bertolini, Giovanni Ferrari and Luis Monti amongst others.

The Magical Trio (Trio Magico) from left to right: Omar Sívori, John Charles and Giampiero Boniperti
The Magical Trio (Trio Magico) from left to right: Omar Sívori, John Charles and Giampiero Boniperti

Juventus moved to the Stadio Comunale, but for the rest of the 1930s and the majority of the 1940s they were unable to recapture championship dominance. After the Second World War, Gianni Agnelli was appointed honorary president.[5] The club added two more league championships to its name in the 1949–50 and 1951–52 seasons, the latter of which was under the management of Englishman Jesse Carver. Two new strikers were signed during 1957–58: Welshman John Charles and Italian Argentine Omar Sívori, playing alongside longtime member Giampiero Boniperti. That season saw Juventus awarded with the Golden Star for Sport Excellence to wear on their shirts after becoming the first Italian side to win ten league titles. In the same season, Sívori became the first ever player at the club to win the European Footballer of the Year.[12] The following season, they beat Fiorentina to complete their first league and cup double, winning Serie A and Coppa Italia. Boniperti retired in 1961 as the all-time top scorer at the club, with 182 goals in all competitions, a club record which stood for 45 years.[13]

The 1960s saw the club won the league just once more in 1966–67.[6] The 1970s saw Juventus further solidify their strong position in Italian football and under former player Čestmír Vycpálek won the scudetto in 1971–72 and 1972–73,[6] with players such as Roberto Bettega, Franco Causio and José Altafini breaking through. During the rest of the decade, they won the league twice more, with defender Gaetano Scirea contributing significantly. The later win was under Giovanni Trapattoni, who also led the club to their first ever major European title (the UEFA Cup) in 1977 and helped the club's domination continue on into the early part of the 1980s.[14] During Trapattoni's tenure, many Juventus players also formed the backbone of the Italy national team during Enzo Bearzot's successful managerial era, including the 1978 World Cup, UEFA Euro 1980 and 1982 world champion squads.[15][16]

European stage

The Trapattoni era was highly successful in the 1980s and the club started the decade off well, winning the league title three more times by 1984.[6] This meant Juventus had won 20 Italian league titles and were allowed to add a second golden star to their shirt, thus becoming the only Italian club to achieve this.[14] Around this time, the club's players were attracting considerable attention and Paolo Rossi was named European Footballer of the Year following his contribution to Italy's victory in the 1982 World Cup, where he was named Player of the Tournament.[17]

Frenchman Michel Platini was also awarded the European Footballer of the Year title for three years in a row in 1983, 1984 and 1985, which is a record.[12] Juventus are the only club to have players from their club winning the award in four consecutive years.[12] It was Platini who scored the winning goal in the 1985 European Cup final against Liverpool, but this was marred by a tragedy which changed European football.[18] That year, Juventus became the first club in the history of European football to have won all three major UEFA competitions[19][20] and after their triumph in the Intercontinental Cup the club also became the first, and thus far, the only in association football history, to have won all possible confederation competitions,[21][22] an achievement that it revalidated with the title won in the 1999 UEFA Intertoto Cup.[23] With the exception of winning the closely contested Italian Championship of 1985–86, the rest of the 1980s were not very successful for the club. As well as having to contend with Diego Maradona's Napoli, both of the Milanese clubs, Milan and Internazionale, won Italian championships.

However, Juventus did win a Coppa Italia-UEFA Cup double in 1990 under the guidance of former club legend Dino Zoff.[6] In 1990, Juventus also moved into their new home, the Stadio delle Alpi, which was built for the 1990 World Cup.[24] Despite the arrival of Italian star Roberto Baggio later that year for a world record transfer fee, the early 1990s under Luigi Maifredi and subsequently Trapattoni once again also saw little success for Juventus, as they only managed to win the UEFA Cup in 1993.[25]

Renewed international success

Marcello Lippi took over as Juventus manager at the start of the 1994–95 campaign.[5] His first season at the helm of the club was a successful one, as Juventus recorded their first Serie A championship title since the mid-1980s, as well as the Coppa Italia.[6] The crop of players during this period featured Ciro Ferrara, Roberto Baggio, Gianluca Vialli and a young Alessandro Del Piero. Lippi led Juventus to their first Supercoppa Italiana and the Champions League the following season, beating Ajax on penalties after a 1–1 draw in which Fabrizio Ravanelli scored for Juventus.[26]

The club did not rest long after winning the European Cup: more highly regarded players were brought into the fold in the form of Zinedine Zidane, Filippo Inzaghi and Edgar Davids. At home, Juventus won the 1996–97 and 1997–98 Serie A titles, as well as the 1996 UEFA Super Cup[27] and the 1996 Intercontinental Cup.[28] Juventus reached the 1997 and 1998 Champions League finals during this period, but lost out to Borussia Dortmund and Real Madrid respectively.[29][30]

After a two-and-a-half-season absence, Lippi returned to the club in 2001, following his replacement Carlo Ancelotti's dismissal, signing big name players such as Gianluigi Buffon, David Trezeguet, Pavel Nedvěd and Lilian Thuram, helping the team to two more scudetto titles during the 2001–02 and 2002–03 seasons.[6] Juventus were also part of an all Italian Champions League final in 2003, but lost out to Milan on penalties after the game ended in a 0–0 draw.[31] At the conclusion of the following season, Lippi was appointed as the Italy national team's head coach, bringing an end to one of the most fruitful managerial spells in Juventus' history.[14] Five Juventus players were part of the 2006 world champion squad.[32]

Calciopoli scandal

Fabio Capello was appointed as Juventus' coach in 2004 and led the club to two more consecutive Serie A first places. In May 2006, Juventus became one of the five clubs linked to the Calciopoli scandal. In July, Juventus was placed at the bottom of the league table and relegated to Serie B for the first time in its history. The club was also stripped of the 2005 title won under Capello, while the 2006 title, after a period sub judice, was assigned to Inter Milan.[33]

Many key players left following the demotion to Serie B, including Lillian Thuram, star striker Zlatan Ibrahimović and defensive stalwart Fabio Cannavaro. However, other big name players such as Gianluigi Buffon, Alessandro Del Piero, David Trezeguet and Pavel Nedvěd remained to help the club return to Serie A while youngsters from the Primavera (youth team) such as Sebastian Giovinco and Claudio Marchisio were integrated into the first team.

As part of the sanctions, Juventus was initially docked 30 points to start the 2006-07 Serie B season. This would have made it difficult for Juve to return to Serie A until 2008–09 at the earliest. However, just before the start of the season, the penalty was reduced to nine points on appeal. While Juve still started the season with negative points, it now had a fighting chance of returning to Serie A. They finished the season as league winners, allowing them to be promoted straight back to Serie A after the season. Captain Del Piero claimed the top scorer award with 21 goals.

As early as 2010, Juventus considered challenging the stripping of their scudetto from 2005 and the non-assignment of the 2006 title, dependent on the results of trials connected to the 2006 scandal.[34] When former general manager Luciano Moggi's conviction in criminal court in connection with the scandal was partially written off by the Supreme Court on 23 March 2015,[35] the club sued the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) for €443 million for damages caused by their 2006 relegation. FIGC president Carlo Tavecchio offered to discuss reinstatement of the lost scudetti in exchange for Juventus dropping the lawsuit.[36] On 9 September 2015, the Supreme Court released a 150-page document that explained its final ruling of the case: despite that Moggi's remaining charges were cancelled without a new trial due to statute of limitations,[35] the court confirmed that Moggi was actively involved in the sporting fraud which was intended to favour Juventus and increase his own personal benefits.[37] Eventually, in 2016 the TAR tribunal rejected the request of compensation promoted by Juventus.[38] On 15 March 2017, Moggi's lifetime ban was definitively confirmed on final appeal.[39]

Return to Serie A

After returning to Serie A in the 2007–08 season, Juventus appointed Claudio Ranieri as manager.[40] They finished in third place in their first season back in the top flight and qualified for the Champions League third qualifying round in the preliminary stages. Juventus reached the group stages, where they beat Real Madrid in both home and away legs, before losing in the knockout round to Chelsea. Ranieri was sacked following a string of unsuccessful results, with Ciro Ferrara being appointed as manager on a temporary basis for the last two games of the 2008–09 season.[41] Ferrara was subsequently appointed as the manager for the 2009–10 season.[42]

Ferrara's stint as Juventus manager, however, proved to be unsuccessful, with Juventus knocked out of Champions League and Coppa Italia, as well as just lying on the sixth place in the league table at the end of January 2010, leading to the dismissal of Ferrara and the naming of Alberto Zaccheroni as caretaker manager. Zaccheroni could not help the side improve as Juventus finished the season in seventh place in Serie A. For the 2010–11 season, Jean-Claude Blanc was replaced by Andrea Agnelli as the club's president. Agnelli's first action was to replace Zaccheroni and director of sport Alessio Secco with Sampdoria manager Luigi Delneri and director of sport Giuseppe Marotta.[43] However, Delneri failed to improve their fortunes and was dismissed. Former player and fan favourite Antonio Conte, fresh after winning promotion with Siena, was named as Delneri's replacement.[44] In September 2011, Juventus relocated to the new Juventus Stadium.[45]

Resurgence (2011–2020)

Playmaker Andrea Pirlo playing for Juventus in 2012
Playmaker Andrea Pirlo playing for Juventus in 2012

With Conte as manager, Juventus went unbeaten for the entire 2011–12 Serie A season. Towards the second half of the season, the team was mostly competing with northern rivals Milan for first place in a tight contest. Juventus won the title on the 37th matchday after beating Cagliari 2–0 and Milan losing to Internazionale 4–2. After a 3–1 win in the final matchday against Atalanta, Juventus became the first team to go the season unbeaten in the current 38-game format.[46] Other noteworthy achievements included the biggest away win (5–0 at Fiorentina), best defensive record (20 goals conceded, fewest ever in the current league format) in Serie A and second best in the top six European leagues that year.[47] In 2013–14, Juventus won a third consecutive scudetto with a record 102 points and 33 wins.[48][49] The title was the 30th official league championship in the club's history.[50] They also achieved the semi-finals of Europa League, where they were eliminated at home against ten-man Benfica's catenaccio, missing the final at the Juventus Stadium.[51][52]

Juventus captain Giorgio Chiellini receives the 2017 Coppa Italia from the President of Italy Sergio Mattarella
Juventus captain Giorgio Chiellini receives the 2017 Coppa Italia from the President of Italy Sergio Mattarella

In 2014–15, Massimiliano Allegri was appointed as manager, with whom Juventus won their 31st official title, making it a fourth-straight, as well as achieving a record tenth Coppa Italia for the double.[53] The club also beat Real Madrid in the semi-finals of the Champions League 3–2 on aggregate to face Barcelona in the final in Berlin for the first time since the 2002–03 Champions League.[54] Juventus lost the final to Barcelona 3–1 after an early fourth-minute goal from Ivan Rakitić, followed by an Álvaro Morata equalizer in the 55th minute. Barcelona took the lead again with a goal from Luis Suárez in the 70th minute, followed by a final minute goal by Neymar as Juventus were caught out on the counterattack.[55] On 14 December 2015, Juventus won the Serie A Football Club of the Year award for the 2014–15 season, the fourth time in succession.[56] On 25 April 2016, the club won their fifth-straight title (and 32nd overall) since last winning five straight between 1930–31 and 1934–35, after second place Napoli lost to Roma to give Juventus mathematical certainty of the title with three games to spare; last losing to Sassuolo on 25 October 2015, which left them in 12th place, before taking 73 points of a possible 75.[57] On 21 May 2016, the club then won the Coppa Italia for the 11th time and their second straight title, becoming the first team in Italy's history to win Serie A and Coppa Italia doubles in back-to-back seasons.[58][59][60]

On 17 May 2017, Juventus won their 12th Coppa Italia title in a 2–0 win over Lazio (the first team to win three consecutive championships).[61] Four days later on 21 May, Juventus became the first team to win six consecutive Serie A titles.[62] On 3 June 2017, Juventus reached a second Champions League Final in three years, but were defeated 1–4 by defending champions Real Madrid—a stampede in Turin happened ten minutes before the end of the match.[63][64] On 9 May 2018, Juventus won their 13th Coppa Italia title, and fourth in a row, in a 4–0 win over Milan, extending the all-time record of successive Coppa Italia titles.[65] Four days later on 13 May, Juventus secured their seventh consecutive Serie A title, extending the all-time record of successive triumphs in the competition.[66] On 10 July 2018, Juventus broke the record for a fee paid for a player over 30 years old and the record for a fee paid by an Italian club by purchasing the 33-year-old Cristiano Ronaldo from Real Madrid for €112 million, or £99.2 million.[67] On 16 January 2019, Juventus and Milan, who were tied for Supercoppa Italiana wins with seven each, played against each other: Juventus won their eight Supercoppa Italiana after beating Milan 1–0.[68] On 20 April 2019, Juventus secured their eighth consecutive Serie A title, further extending the all-time record of successive triumphs in the competition.[69] Following Allegri's dismissal,[70] Maurizio Sarri was appointed manager of the club ahead of the 2019–20 season.[71] On 26 July 2020, Juventus were confirmed 2019–20 Serie A champions, reaching an unprecedented milestone of nine consecutive league titles.[72]

Recent years (2020–present)

On 8 August 2020, Sarri was sacked from his managerial position, one day after Juventus were eliminated from the Champions league by Lyon.[73] On the same day, former player Andrea Pirlo was announced as the new coach, signing a two-year contract.[74] On 20 January 2021, Juventus won their ninth Supercoppa Italiana title after a 2–0 victory against Napoli.[75] With Internazionale's championship in 2021, Juventus' run of nine consecutive titles came to an end,[76] but managed to secure a fourth place finish on the final day of the league, granting Juventus qualification to the following season's Champions League.[77] On 19 May, Juventus won their 14th Coppa Italia.[78] On 28 May, Juventus sacked Pirlo from his managerial position,[79][80] and announced Allegri's return to the club as manager after two years away from management.[81]

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Works cited