Hmu
Qiandong Miao
Black Miao, hveb Hmub
Pronunciation[m̥ʰū]
Native toChina
Regionmostly Guizhou
Ethnicitymostly Miao, some Yao
Native speakers
(2.1 million cited 1995)[1]
Hmong–Mien
Standard forms
  • Standard Miao
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
hea – Northern
hmq – Eastern
hms – Southern
neo – Ná-Meo
Glottologeast2369

The Hmu language (hveb Hmub), also known as Qiandong Miao (黔东 Eastern Guizhou Miao), Central Miao, East Hmongic, or (somewhat ambiguously) Black Miao, is a dialect cluster of Hmongic languages of China. The best studied dialect is that of Yǎnghāo (养蒿) village,[not verified in body] Taijiang County, Guizhou Province, China.

Qanu 咯努, a Hmu variety, had 11,450 speakers as of 2000, and is spoken just south of Kaili City, Guizhou.[2] The Qanu are ethnoculturally distinct from the other Hmu.

Names

Autonyms include m̥ʰu33 in Kaili, mo33 in Jinping County, mu13 in Tianzhu County, m̥ə33 in Huangping County, qa33 nəu13 in some parts of Qiandongnan (Miaoyu Jianzhi 苗语简志 1985), and ta11 mu11 in Rongshui Miao Autonomous County, Guangxi.[3] Ná-Meo, spoken by the Mieu people of Cao Minh Commune, Tràng Định District, Lạng Sơn Province, Vietnam, may be closely related.[4]

Subdivisions and distribution

Wang (1985)

Wang Fushi (1985)[5] groups the Qiandong Miao languages as follows.

Wu (2009)

Wu Zhengbiao (2009)[7] divides Hmu into 7 different dialects. Past classifications usually included only 3 or 4 dialects. For example, Li Jinping & Li Tianyi (2012),[8] based on past classifications, divide Hmu into the 3 dialects of Northern,[9] Southern,[10] and Eastern.[11] Datapoint locations of representative dialects are from Li Yunbing (2000).[12]

Others

Sanqiao 三锹 (三橇) is a mixed Kam–Hmu language spoken in Liping County and Jinping County, Guizhou, China by about 6,000 people.[15]

Classification

Hmu has been recognized as a branch of Hmongic since the 1950s. Wang (1985) recognized three varieties. Matisoff (2001) treated these as distinct languages, which is reflected in Ethnologue. Lee (2000) added a fourth variety, Western Hmu (10,000 speakers), among the Yao,[12] and Matisoff (2006) lists seven (Daigong, Kaili [N], Lushan, Taijiang [N], Zhenfeng [N], Phö, Rongjiang [S]).

Writing

Northern Qiandong Miao, also known as Central Miao and as Eastern Guizhou Hmu (黔东方言 Qián-Dōng fāngyán), was chosen as the standard for Hmu-language textbooks in China, based on the pronunciation of Yǎnghāo (养蒿) village.[16][failed verification]

Phonology

The phonemic inventory and alphabetic transcription are as follows.

Northern Hmu consonants
Labial Alveolar Palatalized
alveolar
Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal voiced m /m/ n /n/ ni /nʲ/ ng /ŋ/
aspirated hm /m̥ʰ/ hn /n̥ʰ/ hni /n̥ʲʰ/
Plosive tenuis b /p/ d /t/ di /tʲ/ g /k/ gh /q/ (/ʔ/)
aspirated p /pʰ/ t /tʰ/ ti /tʲʰ/ k /kʰ/ kh /qʰ/
Affricate tenuis z /ts/ j /tɕ/
aspirated c /tsʰ/ q /tɕʰ/
Central
fricative
voiced w /v/ r /z/ y /ʑ/ v /ɣ/
tenuis f /f/ s /s/ x /ɕ/ h /h/
aspirated hf /fʰ/ hs /sʰ/ hx /ɕʰ/ hv /xʰ/
Lateral
fricative
tenuis dl /ɬ/ dli /ɬʲ/
aspirated hl /ɬʰ/ hli /ɬʲʰ/
Lateral approximant l /l/ li /lʲ/

[ʔ] is not distinct from a zero initial (that is, if we accept /ʔ/ as a consonant, there are no vowel-initial words in Hmu), and only occurs with tones 1, 3, 5, 7.

The aspirated nasals and fricatives do not exist in Southern or Eastern Hmu; cognates words use their unaspirated homologues. Further, in Eastern Hmu, di, ti merge into j, q; c merges into x; r (Northern /z/) merges into ni; and v is pronounced [w]. In Southern Hmu, words cognate with hni (and some with ni) are pronounced [nʲʑ]; those with r are [nz]; and some words exchange s and x.

Northern Hmu vowels
Front Central Back
oral nasal oral nasal oral nasal
Close i /i/ u /u/
Mid ai /ɛ/ en /en/ e /ə/ o /o/ ong /oŋ/
Open a /ɑ/ ang /ɑŋ/

Ai /ɛ/ does not occur after palatalized consonants. /en/ after palatalized consonants is spelled in.

Diphthongs
Closing
Close component is front ei /ej/
Close component is back eu /əw/

Additional diphthongs occur in Chinese loans.

All dialects have eight tones. There is no sandhi. In the chart below, Northern Hmu is represented by Yanghao village (Kaili City), Eastern Hmu by 偶里 village (Jinping County), and Southern Hmu by 振民 (Rongshui County).

Hmu tone
Tone Letter Northern Eastern Southern
1 b ˧ 3 ˧ 3 ˧ 3
3 d ˧˥ 35 ˨̤ 2 ˧˥ 35
5 t ˦ 4 ˦˥ 45 ˦ 4
7 k ˥˧ 53 ˨˦ 24 ˨˦ 24
2 x ˥ 5 ~ ˦˥ 45 ˦˨ 42 ˥˧ 53
4 l ˩̤ 1 ˨˩ 21 ˧˩ 31
6 s ˩˧̤ 13 ˥ 5 ˨̤ 2
8 f ˧˩ 31 ˩˨̤ 12 ˨˩˧ 213

The lowest tones—Northern tones 4 and 6, Eastern tones 3 and 8, and Southern tone 6—are said to make the preceding consonant murmured (breathy voiced), presumably meaning that these are murmured tones as in other Hmongic languages. They are marked with ⟨◌̤⟩ in the chart.

References and notes

  1. ^ Northern at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Eastern at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Southern at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Ná-Meo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ "Qanu" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-20. Retrieved 2021-08-17 – via Asia Harvest.
  3. ^ Guangxi Minority Languages Orthography Committee (2008). Guǎngxī mínzú yǔyán fāng yīn cíhuì 广西民族语言方音词汇 [Vocabularies of Guangxi Ethnic Languages] (in Chinese). Beijing: Minzu chubanshe.
  4. ^ Nguyễn Văn Thắng (2007). Ambiguity of Identity: The Mieu in North Vietnam. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books.
  5. ^ Wang, Fushi 王辅世, ed. (1985). Miáo yǔ jiǎn zhì 苗语简志 [Miao Language Brief History] (in Chinese). Beijing: Minzu chubanshe.
  6. ^ a b Hsiu, Andrew (2015). The Classification of Na Meo, a Hmong-Mien Language of Vietnam. Paper presented at SEALS 25, Chiang Mai, Thailand – via Academia.edu.
  7. ^ Wu, Zhengbiao 吴正彪 (2009). "Qiándōng fāngyán Miáo yǔ tǔyǔ huàfēn wèntí de zài tàntǎo" 黔东方言苗语土语划分问题的再探讨 [A Further Exploration into the Division of Miao Patois in Qiandong Dialect]. Jíshǒu dàxué xuébào (shèhuì kēxué bǎn) 吉首大学学报(社会科学版) [Journal of Jishou University (Social Science Edition)] (in Chinese). 30: 117–121. doi:10.13438/j.cnki.jdxb.2009.06.018.
  8. ^ Li, Jinping 李锦平; Li, Tianyi 李天翼 (2012). Miáo yǔ fāngyán bǐjiào yánjiū 苗语方言比较研究 [A Comparative Study of Miao Dialects] (in Chinese). Chengdu: Xinan jiaotong daxue chubanshe.
  9. ^ Representative dialect: Yanghao, Sankeshu, Kaili City 贵州凯里三棵树养蒿
  10. ^ Representative dialect: Gaolian, Xiajiang, Congjiang County 贵州从江下江高联
  11. ^ Representative dialect: Meihua, Zhulin, Tianzhu County 贵州天柱竹林梅花
  12. ^ a b Li, Yunbing 李云兵 (2000). Miáo yǔ fāngyán huàfēn yíliú wèntí yánjiū 苗语方言划分遗留问题研究 (in Chinese). Beijing: Zhongyang minzu daxue chubanshe.
  13. ^ a b c Tu, Guanglu 涂光禄; Yang, Jun 杨军 (2008). Jǐnpíng Xiàn Hàn Dòng Miáo yǔ fāngyán zhì 锦屏县汉侗苗语方言志 (in Chinese). Guiyang: Guizhou daxue chubanshe. ISBN 978-7-81126-044-1.
  14. ^ a b Chen, Qiguang 陈其光 (2013). Miáo yáo yǔwén 苗瑶语文 [Miao and Yao Language] (in Chinese). Beijing: Zhongyang minzu daxue chubanshe.
  15. ^ Yu, Dazhong 余达忠 (2017). "Jìndài xiāng qián guì biānqū de zúqún hùdòng hé "sān qiāo rén" de xíngchéng" 近代湘黔桂边区的族群互动和“三锹人”的形成 [Ethnic Interactions and the Formation of the Sanqiu People in the Borderland of Modern Hunan, Guizhou and Guangxi Provinces]. Guìzhōu shīfàn xuéyuàn xuébào 贵州师范学院学报 [Journal of Guizhou Education University] (in Chinese). 33 (1). doi:10.13391/j.cnki.issn.1674-7798.2017.01.002.
  16. ^ Sh, Defu 石德富 (2006). Miáo yǔ jīchǔ jiàochéng (Qiándōngfāng yán) 苗语基础教程(黔东方言) [Basic Miao Language Course (Qiandongfang Dialect)]. Beijing shi: Zhongyang minzu daxue chubanshe.

Further reading

  • Ma, Xueliang 馬學良; Tai, Changhou 邰昌厚 (1956). "Guìzhōu shěng dōng nánbù Miáo yǔ yǔyīn de chūbù bǐjiào" 貴州省東南部苗語語音的初步比較 [A Preliminary Survey of the Phonology of the Miao Dialects in the Southeast of Kweichou]. Yŭyán yánjiū 语言研究 (in Chinese). 1: 265–282.
  • Ji, Anlong 姬安龙 (2012). Miáo yǔ Táijiāng huà cānkǎo yǔfǎ 苗语台江话参考语法 [A Reference Grammar of Taijiang Miao] (in Chinese). Kunming: Yunnan minzu chubanshe.