Hong Kong English
Native toHong Kong
RegionEast Asia
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3eng
Glottologhong1245
Location of Hong Kong
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Hong Kong English

Hong Kong English is the English language as it is used in Hong Kong. The variant is either a learner interlanguage or emergent variant, primarily a result of Hong Kong's British overseas territory history and the influence of native Hong Kong Cantonese speakers.

Background

English is one of the official languages in Hong Kong, and is used widely in the Government, academic circles, business and the courts. All road and government signs are bilingual. Those who spoke English or were taught English were considered the elite and upperclassmen.[1]

Since the Handover, English in Hong Kong remains primarily a second language, in contrast to Singapore where English has been shifting toward being a first language. The falling English proficiency of local English language teachers has come under criticism.[2] The proportion of the Hong Kong population who report using English (that is, all forms) as their "usual spoken language" increased from 2.8% in 2006 to 4.3% in 2016, while 51.1%, 63.5% and 65.6% respectively, reported being able to speak, write and read the language.[3]

Status

The existence of Hong Kong English, as a distinct variety of the English language, is still a matter of debate among many scholars.

Evidence suggesting variant established

In the literature examining the existence of Hong Kong English as a distinct variety, scholars have sought evidence of expression of the variant which may be classified according to the following criteria:

Using these criteria, scholars have said that Hong Kong English possesses the attributes of a distinct variety.

Hong Kong English is also featured as a separate entity in the Oxford Guide to World English, under the sub-heading of "East Asia".[10] Hong Kong English is also included as a separate variety of English within the International Corpus of English, with a dedicated local research team collecting data to describe the usage of English in Hong Kong.[11]

Evidence suggesting variant not established

It has also been argued that there is no such thing as Hong Kong English[12] and the predominance of recent works discuss Hong Kong phonology in terms of erroneous deviation from varieties such as British and American English. In one co-authored work describing a study conducted of five Hong Kong speakers of English, it was concluded, controversially, as they conceded, that HKE was at most an emergent variety and perhaps no more than a "learner interlanguage".[13]:12 In the Dynamic Model of Postcolonial Englishes, it has been classified as in the third phase, that of Nativisation,[14] but more recently it has been shown that many young people are happy to identify themselves as speakers of Hong Kong English, so it may be regarded as progressing into the fourth phase, that of Endonormative Stabilisation.[15] Furthermore, by the criteria identified in the above section, scholars have noted that there is very little literature produced in English which is meant for local consumption.[4]

Intelligibility and recognition

It has been demonstrated that English spoken in Hong Kong is highly intelligible to listeners from elsewhere,[16] which helps explain why an increasing number of people are happy to be identified as speakers of this variety.[17] However, it has been noted that language use is highly politicised and compartmentalised in Hong Kong, where the two official languages are seen as having different and distinct uses. Indeed, it has been argued that even English language teachers in Hong Kong would refuse to acknowledge the local variant of English within a classroom setting,[4] opting instead for more "standard" variations.

It has been argued that the lack of recognition of Hong Kong English as a variety on par with other Asian varieties, such as Indian English or Singaporean English, is due to a lack of research.[10]

Pronunciation

As a result of the colonial legacy, the pronunciation of Hong Kong English was assumed to be originally based on British English,[18] However, nowadays, there are new features of pronunciation derived from American English,[13] and the influence of American English has emerged.[19] Furthermore, there seem to be some innovative developments that are unique to Hong Kong English, such as a split in the realisation of /v/ as [f] or [w].[20] Some of the more salient features are listed below.

Segments

Intonation

Others

American/British spelling and word usage

Hong Kong vocabulary/expressions

Nullah Road, Mong Kok
Nullah Road, Mong Kok

Some words and phrases widely understood in Hong Kong are rare or unheard of elsewhere. These often derive from Chinese, Anglo-Indian, or Portuguese/Macanese.

See also

References

  1. ^ Eoyang, Eugene Chen (2000). "From the Imperial to the Empirical: Teaching English in Hong Kong". Profession: 62–74. JSTOR 25595704.
  2. ^ Glenwright, Phil (2005). "Grammar Error Strike Hard: Language Proficiency Testing of Hong Kong Teachers and the Four 'Noes'". Journal of Language, Identity & Education. 4 (3): 201–226. doi:10.1207/s15327701jlie0403_2. ISSN 1534-8458. S2CID 144687817.
  3. ^ Census and Statistics Department. "Main Tables". 2016 Population By-census. Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Archived from the original on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d Pang, Terence T. T. (2003). "Hong Kong English: A Stillborn Variety?". English Today. 19 (2): 12–18. doi:10.1017/S0266078403002037. S2CID 145090545.
  5. ^ Hung, Tony T. N. (2000). "Towards a Phonology of Hong Kong English". World Englishes. 19 (3): 337–356. doi:10.1111/1467-971X.00183.
  6. ^ Benson, Phil (2000). "Hong Kong Words: Variation and Context". World Englishes. 19 (3): 373–380. doi:10.1111/1467-971X.00185.
  7. ^ Bolton, Kingsley (2000). "The Sociolinguistics of Hong Kong and the Space for Hong Kong English". World Englishes. 19 (3): 265–285. doi:10.1111/1467-971X.00179.
  8. ^ Bolton, Kingsley; Lim, Shirley (2000). "Futures for Hong Kong English". World Englishes. 19 (3): 429–443. doi:10.1111/1467-971X.00191.
  9. ^ Cummings, Patrick J.; Wolf, Hans-Georg (2011). A Dictionary of Hong Kong English: Words from the Fragrant Harbor. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 9789888083305.
  10. ^ a b Wong, May Lai-Yin (2013). "Concord Patterns with Collective Nouns in Hong Kong English. With Illustrative Material from the International Corpus of English (Hong Kong Component)". Linguistik Online. 37 (1). doi:10.13092/lo.37.514.
  11. ^ "The International Corpus of English". The ICE Project. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  12. ^ Luke, K. K.; Richards, Jack C. (1982). "English in Hong Kong: Functions and status". English World-Wide. 3: 47–61. doi:10.1075/eww.3.1.04kan.
  13. ^ a b Setter, Jane; Wong, Cathy S.P.; Chan, Brian H.S. (2010). Hong Kong English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748635979. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  14. ^ Schneider, E. W. (2007). Postcolonial English: Varieties Around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-052-183-140-6.
  15. ^ Hansen Edwards, J. G. (2015). "Hong Kong English: Attitudes, Identity, and Use". Asian Englishes. 17 (3): 184–208. doi:10.1080/13488678.2015.1049840.
  16. ^ Kirkpatrick, A.; Deterding, D.; Wong, J. (2008). "The International Intelligibility of Hong Kong English". World Englishes. 27 (3–4): 359–377. doi:10.1111/j.1467-971X.2008.00573.x.
  17. ^ Hansen Edwards, J. G. (2016). "The Politics of Language and Identity: Attitudes Towards Hong Kong English pre and post the Umbrella Movement". Asian Englishes. 18 (2): 157–164. doi:10.1080/13488678.2016.1139937.
  18. ^ a b c d e Hung, T. N. (2012). "Hong Kong English". In E. L. Low; Azirah Hashim (eds.). English in Southeast Asia: Features, Policy and Language in Use. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 113–133.
  19. ^ a b Chan, J. Y. H. (2013). "Contextual Variation and Hong Kong English: Contextual Variation and Hong Kong English". World Englishes. 32: 54–74. doi:10.1111/weng.12004.
  20. ^ a b c Hung, T. N. (2007). "Innovation in Second Language Phonology". In T. Hoffmann; L. Siebers (eds.). World Englishes: Problems, Properties and Prospects. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 227–237.
  21. ^ Sewell, Andrew (2009). "World Englishes, English as a Lingua Franca, and the case of Hong Kong English". English Today. 25 (1): 37–43. doi:10.1017/S0266078409000066. S2CID 54170922. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  22. ^ a b c Deterding, D.; Wong, J.; Kirkpatrick, A. (2008). "The Pronunciation of Hong Kong English". English World-Wide. 29 (2): 148–175. doi:10.1075/eww.29.2.03det. hdl:10072/42146.
  23. ^ Hansen Edwards, J. G. (2016). "Sociolinguistic Variation in Asian Englishes: The Case of Coronal Stop Deletion". English World-Wide. 37 (2): 138–167. doi:10.1075/eww.37.2.02han.
  24. ^ Sewell, Andrew (2017). "Pronunciation Assessment in Asia's World City: Implications of a Lingua Franca Approach in Hong Kong". In Isaacs T.; Trofimovich P. (eds.). Second Language Pronunciation Assessment: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Bristol: Multilingual Matters / Channel View Publications. pp. 237–255. JSTOR 10.21832/j.ctt1xp3wcc.17.
  25. ^ Setter, Jane (2006). "Speech Rhythm in World Englishes: The Case of Hong Kong". TESOL Quarterly. 40 (4): 763–782. doi:10.2307/40264307. JSTOR 40264307.
  26. ^ "Glossary of Terms Commonly Used in Government Departments". Civil Service Bureau. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  27. ^ "About EAA". Estate Agents Authority. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  28. ^ "Glossary of Terms Commonly Used in Government Departments". Civil Service Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  29. ^ Cassell Giant Paperback Dictionary, 1994
  30. ^ "What Exactly Is a "Jetso"?". HK Magazine. 15 July 2016. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 23 July 2019 – via South China Morning Post.