House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Casa de Bragança-Saxe-Coburgo-Gota
Bragance-Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Parent house
Country
Flag Portugal (1830).svg
, Kingdom of Portugal, Empire of Brazil
Founded9 April 1836
Final rulerManuel II
Titles
Dissolution2 July 1932 (death of Manuel II)
Deposition5 October 1910

The House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha[1] (also known as the House of Saxe-Coburg-Braganza or the Constitutional Branch of the Braganzas)[2] is a term used to categorize the last four rulers of the Kingdom of Portugal, and their families, from 1853 until the declaration of the republic in 1910. Its name derives from the four kings descended in a patrilineal line from King Ferdinand II of Portugal (of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry) and in a matrilineal line from Queen Maria II of Portugal (of the House of Braganza).

The designation Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is prevalent mainly in the writings of non-Portuguese historians and genealogists, as European custom classifies a descendant branch on the basis of patrilineal descent, which means that the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is a cadet branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry.

Nonetheless, the 1838 Portuguese constitution stated that the House of Braganza was the ruling house of Portugal, by way of Queen Maria II, and her descendants still continued to style themselves as members of the House of Braganza, as opposed to Saxe-Coburg-Braganza.[3] With the death of King Manuel II without legitimate issue in 1932, the dynasty became extinct.[1]

History

The royal house was founded by Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, who on 9 April 1836 married Queen Maria II of Portugal. Members of the royal house held the Portuguese title of Infante/Infanta of Portugal, as well as the German titles of Prince/ss of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke/Duchess of Saxony.[4] On 15 November 1853, Queen Maria II died, and her eldest son succeeded to the throne as Pedro V, the first king of the Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha dynasty.

The dynasty remained on the throne until the outbreak in Portugal of the 5 October 1910 revolution when King Manuel II of Portugal was deposed and the Portuguese First Republic was established. Manuel II went into exile in Fulwell Park, England, where he died on 2 July 1932.

Modern claims

Before his death in 1932, King Manuel II had been in negotiations with the rival Miguelist branch of the House of Braganza, who had claimed the Portuguese throne since 1834, in opposition to the Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha dynasty. On the King's death, the claim to the defunct throne of Portugal passed to Miguelist descendant Duarte Nuno of Braganza.[5][6]

In 1932, a woman known as Maria Pia of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Braganza[7][8] claimed to be the illegitimate daughter of King Carlos I of Portugal and claimed the right to the titles of Duchess of Braganza and to be the rightful Queen of Portugal.[9] Maria Pia claimed that King Carlos I legitimized her through a royal decree and placed her in the line of succession, however no proof was presented to demonstrate this and the King similarly did not have the personal authority to do so. Maria Pia's paternity was never proven and her claim not widely accepted.

Rulers

Family tree

Fernando IIMaria II
Stephanie of Hohenzollern-SigmaringenPedro VLuís IMaria Pia of SavoyJoão, Duke
of Beja
Maria AnnaGeorge, King of SaxonyAntóniaLeopold, Prince of HohenzollernAugusto, Duke of Coimbra
Amélie of OrléansCarlos IAfonso, Duke of PortoNevada Stoody Hayes
Prince Luís FilipeManuel IIAugusta Victoria of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Almanach de Gotha (175th ed.). Justus Perthes. 1938. p. 112.
  2. ^ Maclagan, Michael (2002). Lines of Succession. Tables by Jiri Louda. Time Warner Books. p. 187. ISBN 0-316-72428-9.
  3. ^ CONSTITUIÇÃO POLITICA DA MONARCHIA PORTUGUEZA p. Title 1, Chapter 1, Article 5.
  4. ^ Almanach de Gotha (146th ed.). Justus Perthes. 1909. p. 66.
  5. ^ "Monarchist Breach Closed In Portugal". The New York Times. 1930-05-18. p. N1.
  6. ^ "Successor Expects Throne". The New York Times. 1932-07-06. p. 19.
  7. ^ "Princess Maria Pia of Saxe-Coburg, duchess of Braganza" in CHILCOTE, Ronald H.; The Portuguese Revolution: State and Class in the Transition to Democracy, page 37. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers; Reprint edition (August 31, 2012).
  8. ^ "...Her Royal Highness D. Maria Pia of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Braganza, the Crown Princess of Portugal" in Jean Pailler; Maria Pia of Braganza: The Pretender. New York: ProjectedLetters, 2006;
  9. ^ Jean Pailler; Maria Pia of Braganza: The Pretender. New York: ProjectedLetters, 2006.

Further reading

*Royal House*House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and GothaCadet branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Preceded byHouse of Braganza Ruling House of the Kingdom of Portugal 1853–1910 Monarchy Abolished