Sura 11 of the Quran
هُود
Hūd
ClassificationMeccan
PositionJuzʼ 11 to 12
Hizb no.22 to 24
No. of Rukus10
No. of verses123
No. of Sajdahsnone
Opening muqaṭṭaʻātʾAlif Lām Rā الر

Hud (Arabic: هود‎, Hūd),[1] is the 11th chapter (Surah)[2] of the Quran and has 123 verses (ayat). It relates in part to the prophet Hud. Regarding the timing and contextual background of the revelation (asbāb al-nuzūl), it is an earlier "Meccan surah", which means it is believed to have been revealed in Mecca, instead of later in Medina.

Verses 105-112 are preserved in the Ṣan‘ā’1 lower text.[3]

Summary

Salih inviting his people to see the She-CamelIlluminated collection of Stories of the Prophets
Salih inviting his people to see the She-Camel
Illuminated collection of Stories of the Prophets

The History of Noah 26-27 He is sent as a public preacher 28 The chiefs of his people reject him as a liar 29-32 Noah protests his integrity - Refuses to drive away his poor followers - Deprecates being thought a seer or an angel 33 His people challenge him to bring on the threatened judgment 34-35 Noah declares that God destroys and saves whom he pleaseth 36 Noah’s people declare his message a forgery 37 God tells Noah that no more of his people will believe on him 38 He is commanded to make an ark 39 Noah builds the ark and is derided by the people 40-41 Embarks with his followers and one pair each of the animals 42-43 Noah in vain entreats his unbelieving son to embark 44 The waters abate and the ark rests on Al Júdi 45 Noah pleads with God for his son 46 God reproves him for his intercession for his son 47 Noah repents and asks pardon for his fault 48 He descends from the ark 49 This history a secret revealed to Muhammad

The History of Hūd 50-52 He is sent to call Ád from idolatry 53 The Ádites reject him as a liar 54-57 Hūd protests his integrity, and declares his trust in God to save him from their plots 58 God delivers Hūd and his followers 59-60 The Ádites reject their messenger and are destroyed

The History of Sálih 61 He is sent to call the Thamúdites from idolatry 62 They reject his message 63-64 Sálih protests his integrity, and gives them a she-camel as a sign from God 65 They kill the camel, and are threatened with destruction 66 Sálih and his followers are saved from destruction 67-68 The Thamúdites are miserably destroyed

The History of Abraham and Lot 69 God’s messengers sent to Abraham—He entertains them 70 He is filled with fear because they refuse to eat his meat 70-71 The angels quiet his fears and tell him they are sent to the people of Lot 71-73 Sarah receives the promise of Isaac and Jacob 74 Abraham intercedes for the people of Lot 75 The angels refuse his request 76 Lot is anxious for the safety of his angel visitors 77-79 The Sodomites attack his house 80 The angels warn Lot to leave the city and inform him of the destruction impending over his people and his wife 81-82 The cities are overthrown and the people killed by a shower of bricks

The History of Shuaib 83 He is sent to call the Midianites from idolatry 84-86 He reproaches them for dishonest weights and measures 87 The people reject him, refusing to leave their idols 88-90 Shuaib protests his integrity, and exhorts them to flee the fate of the people of Noah, Hūd, Sálih, and Lot 91 The people threaten to stone him 92-94 Shuaib threatens them with Divine judgment 95-96 God destroys the infidels, but saves Shuaib and his followers

The History of Moses 97 He is sent with signs to Pharaoh and his princes 98-100 They reject him, and are consigned to hell-fire 101-105 Exhortation and warning drawn from the fate of these cities 106-109 The condition of the righteous and wicked in judgment 110 Muhammad not to doubt about the religion of the Quarish

Exegesis

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Quran 11 opens with a discussion on the nature of man and the punishment that awaits those who defy God. Thereafter, the main content of the surah is a series of stories of prophets who warned their people to follow God, the people persisting in defying God, and God punishing and killing them.

25-49 The story of Noah

Verses 11:25-49 tell the story of Noah and how his people did not believe his commands to follow God. The unbelievers are drowned in a flood, which includes Noah's son; Noah asks God about this act, but God rebukes Noah as being ignorant and says that Noah's son is "not a member of his family." Surah 66, At-Tahrim, elaborates on this and says that Noah's wife is an unbeliever in hell who was unfaithful to her husband.[1]:11:25–49

50-60 The prophet Hud is sent to the ʿĀd

Verses 11:50-60 deal with the prophet Hud, the namesake of the Surah. He was sent to the ʿĀd, an Omani tribe which according to history crumbled sometime between the 3rd and 6th century AD. The ʿĀd do not believe Hud, and Hud and those who do believe are rescued by God, followed by God inflicting a "dreadful doom" on them so that they were "accursed in the world."

61-68 The people of Thamud and the prophet Saleh

Verses 11:61-68 concern the people of Thamud and the prophet Saleh. Saleh tries to convince Thamud to repent, but once more the unbelievers ignore the prophet. Saleh offers a she-camel as an offering of peace, but says that it should be left alone. If anything befalls it, the people will be punished. The camel is hamstrung, Saleh and those who believe are rescued, and the unbelievers are smitten by a "blast from heaven."

69-84 Sodom and Gomorrah

The Quranic version of the Biblical story of Sodom and Gomorrah is in Verses 11:69-84. Abraham and Sarah are given the news of their son and grandson's forthcoming birth (Isaac and Jacob), after which they plead for mercy for Lot's people. God refuses the request, saying that the punishment cannot be averted. Lot offers his daughters to the men of Sodom, but they respond with disinterest and say "you know what we want."

80-84 Homosexuality

Verses 11:80-84 confirms the Biblical account of homosexuality as being the crime of Lot's people. Angels descend to protect Lot and his daughters, and the city is destroyed by a stone rain. Lot's wife perishes as well.

85-95 The prophet Shu'aib sent to Midian

Verse 11:85-95 deal with the prophet Shu'aib sent to Midian. Once more, the people ignore the prophet's warnings; this time, Shu'aib reminds the people of the fate of the people of Noah, Hud, Saleh, and Lot. It doesn't work, and the people spare Shu'aib from death by stoning only because he comes from a powerful clan. Shu'aib and those who believe are rescued by God. Afterward, the unbelievers "[were] seized by a punishment from heaven, and lay overturned in their homes in the morning as though they had not dwelt there at all."

The remaining verses discuss the general theme once more, with occasional references to Moses. The harsh punishment is explained as "We did not wrong them; they wronged themselves." Other gods are decried as false, powerless, and useless. Believers are commanded to walk the straight path and follow God, and those who disbelieve will suffer in Hell.

References

  1. ^ a b Ibn Kathir (d.1373). "Tafsir Ibn Kathir (English): Surah Hud". Quran 4 U. Tafsir. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  2. ^ Virginia Hooker; Norani Othman (2003). Malaysia: Islam, Society and Politics. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 211. ISBN 978-981-230-161-1.
  3. ^ Behnam Sadeghi & Mohsen Goudarzi, "Sana'a and the Origins of the Qu'ran", Der Islam, 87 (2012), 37.
  4. ^ Wherry, Elwood Morris (1896). A Complete Index to Sale's Text, Preliminary Discourse, and Notes. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.