INSAT-1D (Full name: Indian National Satellite - 1D)
Mission typeCommunications, Cloud Observation
COSPAR ID1990-051A Edit this at Wikidata
SATCAT no.20643
Mission duration7 years
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeINSAT-1
ManufacturerFord Aerospace
Launch mass1,190 kilograms (2,620 lb) (Lift - off Mass)[1]
Dry mass550 kilograms (1,210 lb)[1]
Power1000 W (Solar array);[1] Nominal Power: 1200.0 W [2]
Start of mission
Launch dateJune 12, 1990, 05:52:00 UTC [3][4]
RocketDelta 4925[5]
Launch siteCape Canaveral LC-17B
Deployment date (2023-01-20UTC23:04:34Z) UTC
End of mission
DisposalDecommissioned (mission life over)[1]
Deactivated14 May 2002 (2002-05-15)
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
Longitude83° east [1]
Semi-major axis42,164.88 kilometres (26,200.04 mi)
Perigee altitude35,741 kilometres (22,208 mi)
Apogee altitude35,846 kilometres (22,274 mi)
Inclination14.30 degrees[6]
Period23.93 hours
Epoch14 November 2013, 15:52:38 UTC[6]

INSAT-1D was 4th and the concluding multipurpose geostationary satellite of the INSAT-1 (first-generation seven-year responsibility for the operation of the INSAT space segment.[7]

But the success of this launch meant a lot to India - a country that was setting up its national computer networks. Relying on a lot of communication circuits, microwave, coaxial, and fibre-optic telecommunication links throughout the country causes a huge problem; and thus the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) planned at the start of the INSAT-1 series to always have at least two satellites in space to meet the increasing demand of telecommunication links for India's civilian community. INSAT-1A and INSAT-1C had already faced immature death and their plans had suffered a serious setback. Another satellite INSAT-1B, launched in 1983, exceeded its planned seven-year working life.[8]


INSAT 1D was built by Ford Aerospace (now Loral Inc) for the Indian National Satellite System.[9] Initially, the launch was scheduled for 29 June 1989. Unfortunately, 10 days before that, during launch preparation, a launchpad hoist cable broke and a crane hook fell on it damaging its C-band reflector. The fully insured satellite was repaired by Ford Aerospace at a reported cost of $10 million. But that mishap was followed by solar panel damage of cost $150,000 suffered during the 1989 San Francisco earthquake. The satellite was finally launched from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Space Force Station, United States with the Delta 2 rocket. It had a 7-year life expectancy.[2]


The satellite was box-shaped, measuring 2.18 × 1.55 × 1.42 metres (7.2 × 5.1 × 4.7 ft).[2][1] A solar sail and 11.5-square-metre (124 sq ft) solar panel extended overall length to 19.4 m (64 ft) when deployed. It was housed 12 C-band transponders for telephone and data communications and two S-band transponders for direct broadcast service. A very high-resolution radiometer (VHRR) was installed for meteorological imagery for long-term weather forecasting, storm warning and resource management.[1]

INSAT-1D played a vital role in replacing INSAT-1B. Moreover, at that moment India already had hired Arabsat's 12 transponders at high cost (the rate of $800,000 per transponder per year). Failure of the 1D mission would compel the government to hire more transponders.[8]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "ISRO Satellite Centre, Bengaluru - SALIENT FEATURES OF INSAT-1D".
  2. ^ a b c "NASA-INSAT 1D (NSSDCA/COSPAR ID: 1990-051A)". NASA.
  3. ^ "Archived ISRO Website". Archived from the original on 2014-10-17.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  4. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  5. ^ "Department of Space Indian Space Research Organization - INSAT-1D". 12 June 1990.
  6. ^ a b "INSAT 1B Satellite details 1983-089B NORAD 14318". N2YO. 14 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  7. ^ "INSAT-2". eoPortal.
  8. ^ a b "Filling a crucial gap; The satellite will improve vital communication links". Amarnath K. Mknon, India Today. July 15, 1990.
  9. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Insat 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 29 March 2018.

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