City of Iligan
Flag of Iligan
Official seal of Iligan
  • The Industrial Center of the South
  • City of Majestic Waterfalls
Anthem: Martsa Iliganon
(English: Iligan March)
Map of Northern Mindanao with Iligan highlighted
Map of Northern Mindanao with Iligan highlighted
Iligan is located in Philippines
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 8°14′N 124°15′E / 8.23°N 124.25°E / 8.23; 124.25
RegionNorthern Mindanao
ProvinceLanao del Norte (geographically only)
District Lone district
CityhoodJune 16, 1950
Highly urbanized cityNovember 22, 1983
Barangays44 (see Barangays)
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorFrederick W. Siao (NP)
 • Vice MayorMarianito D. Alemania (NP)
 • RepresentativeCelso G. Regencia (Lakas)
 • City Council
 • Electorate185,452 voters (2022)
 • Total813.37 km2 (314.04 sq mi)
262 m (860 ft)
Highest elevation
1,195 m (3,921 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
 (2020 census)[3]
 • Total363,115
 • Density450/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
 • Households
 • Gross domestic product₱77.015 billion (2022)[4]
$1.36 billion (2022)[5]
 • Income class1st city income class
 • Poverty incidence
% (2021)[6]
 • Revenue₱ 2,472 million (2020)
 • Assets₱ 11,534 million (2020)
 • Expenditure₱ 2,360 million (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityIligan Light and Power Incorporated (ILPI)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
IDD:area code+63 (0)63
Native languagesMaranao

Iligan, officially the City of Iligan (Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Iligan; Maranao: Bandar a Iligan; Filipino: Lungsod ng Iligan), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the region of Northern Mindanao, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 363,115 people making it the second most populous city in Northern Mindanao after Cagayan de Oro.[3]

It is the largest city in the province of Lanao del Norte both in population and land area wherein it is geographically situated and grouped under the province by the Philippine Statistics Authority, but administered independently from the province. It was once part of Central Mindanao (Region 12) until the province was moved under Northern Mindanao (Region 10) in 2001.[7] Iligan is approximately 90 kilometers away from the capital of the province, Tubod, and approximately 800 kilometers from the capital of the Philippines, Manila.

Iligan has a total land area of 813.37 square kilometres (314.04 sq mi), making it one of the 10 largest cities in the Philippines in terms of land area. Among the 33 highly urbanized cities of the Philippines, Iligan is the third-least dense, with a population density of 421 inhabitants per square kilometer, just behind Butuan and Puerto Princesa.[8]


The name Iligan is from the Higaunon (Lumad/Native of Iligan) word "Ilig" which means "to go downstream".[9] However, some also claim that the name of Iligan was taken and inspired by the Higaunon term "iligan" or "ilijan", which means "fortress of defense", an appropriate term due to frequent attacks incurred by pirates as well as other Mindanao tribes.[10]


Pre-Spanish colonial area

Iligan had its beginnings in the village of Bayug, four kilometers north of the present Poblacion. It was the earliest pre-Spanish settlement of native sea dwellers. In the later part of the 16th century, the inhabitants were subdued by the Visayan migrants from the island-nation called the Kedatuan[11] of Dapitan, on Panglao island.[11]

In the accounts of Jesuit historian Francisco Combes, the Moluccan Sultan of Ternate invaded Panglao. This caused the Dapitans to flee in large numbers to a re-established Dapitan, Zamboanga del Norte.[11]

Spanish colonial era

Camp Overton in 1900, a U.S. Army base, currently the location of Global Steel Philippines Inc.

In Dapitan, the surviving Datu of Panglao Pagbuaya, received Legazpi's expedition in 1565. Later, Pagbuaya's son Manook was baptized Pedro Manuel Manook. Sometime afterward in by the end of the 16th century after 1565 Manook subdued the higaunon (animist) village of Bayug and turned it into one of the earliest Christian settlements in the country.[12] Although the settlement survived other raids from other enemies, especially Muslims from Lanao, the early settlers and converts moved their settlement from Bayug to Iligan, which the Augustinian Recollects founded in 1609,[13] thus establishing the oldest town in northern Mindanao. During its Christianization, Iligan received a hundred Spanish soldiers to found and fortify the colony.[14]

The Jesuits replaced the Recollects in 1639. Iligan was the Spaniards' base of operations in attempting to conquer and Christianize the Lake Lanao area throughout its history. A stone fort called Fort St. Francis Xavier was built in 1642 where Iliganons sought refuge during raids by bandits. But the fort sank due to floods. Another fort was built and this was named Fort Victoria or Cota de Iligan.[citation needed]

In 1850, because of floods, Don Remigio Cabili, then Iligan's gobernadorcillo, built another fort and moved the poblacion of the old Iligan located at the mouth of Tubod River west of the old market to its present site.[citation needed]

Being the oldest town in Northern Mindanao, Iligan was already a part of the once undivided Misamis Province by the year 1832. However, it did not have an independent religious administration because its diocese by then was based at Misamis, the provincial capital. It was one of the biggest municipalities of Misamis Province.[citation needed]

The Spaniards abandoned Iligan in 1899, paving the way for the landing of the American forces in 1900.[citation needed]

American era

Iligan, circa 1903-1913

In 1903, the Moro Province was created. Iligan, because of its Moro residents, was taken away from the Misamis Province. Then, Iligan became the capital of the Lanao District and the seat of the government where the American officials lived and held office. Later in 1907, the capital of the Lanao District has transferred to Dansalan.[15]

In 1914, under the restructuring of Moroland after the end of the Moro Province (1903–1913), Iligan became a municipality composed of eight barrios together with the municipal district of Mandulog. After enjoying peace and prosperity for about 40 years, Iligan was invaded by Japanese forces in 1942.[citation needed]

The liberation of Iligan by the Philippine Commonwealth forces attacked by the Japanese held sway in the city until 1944 to 1945 when the war ended. On November 15, 1944, the city held a Commonwealth Day parade to celebrate the end of Japanese atrocities and occupation.[16]

Postwar era

Establishment of the Iligan Steel Mill

Main article: Iligan Steel Mill

This section needs expansion with: a discussion of the impact of the steel industry on the local industry of Iligan. You can help by adding to it. (December 2023)

The Iligan Steel Mill was established in 1952 as a government-initiated project of the National Shipyards and Steel Corporation (NASSCO).[17] After NASSCO applied for a $62.3 million loan from the United States-based Eximbank to fund projects, the latter suggested a transfer of the facilities' management to the private entity. The company was sold in 1963 to Iligan Integrated Steel Mills, Inc. of the Jacinto family.[17]


Main article: Cities of the Philippines

Using the same territorial definition as a municipality, Iligan became a chartered city of Lanao del Norte on June 16, 1950.[18] It was declared a first-class city in 1969 and was reclassified as First Class City "A" on July 1, 1977, by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 465. In 1983, Iligan was again reclassified as a highly urbanized city.

Rising conflicts during the late 1960s

Main article: First term of the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos

The election of Ferdinand Marcos as President of the Philippines saw a large influx of Christian groups settling in Mindanao, displacing many locals and resulting in numerous land ownership conflicts.[19][20] The Marcos administration encouraged these new settlers to form militias, which were eventually nicknamed the Ilaga. The Ilaga were often associated with committed human rights abuses targeted at the Moro and Lumad people. This resulted in a lingering animosity and a cycle of violence between Moro and Christian communities which still persists today.[21][22] Despite this local violence, prominent Moro thought leaders were mostly not politically active until the news of the 1968 Jabidah massacre ignited the Moro insurgency. Reports of Moro men being recruited into the Philippine Army and then being massacred when they had a dispute with their commanding officers led to the conviction that Moros were being treated as second class citizens. Ethnic tensions arising from this led to the formation of secessionist political movements,[23] such as Cotabato Governor Datu Udtog Matalam's Muslim Independence Movement and Lanao del Sur congressman Haroun al-Rashid Lucman's Bangsamoro Liberation Organization.[22] Additionally, the 1969 Philippine balance of payments crisis led to social unrest throughout the country, and violent crackdowns on protests led to the radicalization of many students,[24] with some joining the New People's Army, bringing the New People's Army rebellion to Mindanao for the first time.[25]

Iligan during the Marcos era

Main articles: Marcos dictatorship, Moro conflict, and Human rights abuses of the Marcos dictatorship

Towards the end of the last term allowed to him by the Philippine Constitution, Marcos placed the Philippines under Martial Law in 1972, which had the effect of further increasing tensions in Mindanao.[22] It marked the beginning of a 14-year period of one-man rule, historically remembered for its human rights abuses[26][27][28] In Iligan, one incident documented by a 1975 fact finding mission of Amnesty International documented the killing of twelve detainees, which was staged the incident to make it look like a prison break.[29]: "31"  The witness was himself detained without a warrant at the time, and was regularly being subjected to torture and forced labor.[29]

The proclamation of Martial law also helped escalate the moro secessionist situation by banning political parties and organizatiions.[22] The formal establishment of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) one month after Marcos' proclamation of Martial Law thus marked a shift to a more military phase of the Moro conflict, taking in the members of the former BMLO, and attracting members who had become dissatisfied with the MIM.[22] Lanao Del Sur and Iligan itself were deeply affected by the conflict, with the Armed Forces of the Philippines' conflicts with MNLF and its later splinter group the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) affecting combatants and civilians alike.[22]

Aside from political groups, Marcos' proclamation of Martial law also shuttered press outlets - television stations, national newspapers, weekly magazines, community newspapers, and radio stations - throughout the country, including in Iligan and Lanao Del Sur.[30] The 14 years of the Marcos dictatorship saw the killings of many Mindanao journalists,[31] with prominent examples being Bulletin Today Lanao provincial correspondent Demosthenes Dingcong, [32][33] Philippine Post Iligan correspondent and radio commentator Geoffrey Siao,[34][35] and DXWG Iligan commentator Charlie Aberilla.[34][36]

Numerous activists arose from Iligan during the 1970s, despite significant personal risks. These included Iligan natives such as prominent Nurse empowerment advocate Minda Luz Quesada (who would later be invited to the Philippines' 1987 Constitutional Convention);[37] Electrical workers' union leader David S. Borja;[38] religious youth organizer Edwin Laguerder;[39] activist professor and writer Ester Kintanar of the MSU Iligan Institute of Technology;[40] and even activist politicians such as Masiding Alonto Sr. who was a prominent supporter of opposition leader Ninoy Aquino.[41] Some of these activists were eventually killed in the pursuit of their beliefs, including farm workers organizers James Orbe[42] and Herbert Cayunda.[43]

Dingcong, Quezada, Borja, Kintanar, Laguerder, Alonto Sr., Orbe, and Cayunda were all later recognized by having their names inscribed on the Wall of Remembrance of the Philippines' Bantayog ng mga Bayani, which honors those who fought for the restoration of democracy and against the authoritarian regime of the time.[44]

Contemporary history

Asian Financial Crisis and recovery

This section needs expansion with: further details of the economic recovery after the reopening of the National Steel Corporation. You can help by adding to it. (December 2023)

During the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the city experienced a severe economic slowdown. A number of industrial plants were closed, notably the National Steel Corporation.[45]

The city saw its some economic recovery with the reopening of the National Steel Corporation, renamed Global Steelworks Infrastructures, Inc. (GSII) in 2004.[46] In October 2005, GSII officially took a new corporate name: Global Steel Philippines (SPV-AMC), Inc.[47]

Lone district

Republic Act No. 9724, an Act separating the City of Iligan from the First Legislative District of the Province of Lanao del Norte was approved by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on October 20, 2009.


Iligan is bounded on the north by three municipalities of Misamis Oriental (namely Lugait, Manticao and Opol), to the south by three municipalities of Lanao del Norte (Baloi, Linamon and Tagoloan) and two municipalities of Lanao del Sur (Kapai and Tagoloan II), to the north-east by the city of Cagayan de Oro, to the east by the municipality of Talakag, Bukidnon; and to the west by Iligan Bay.

To the west, Iligan Bay provides ferry and container ship transportation. East of the city, flat cultivated coastal land gives way to steep volcanic hills and mountains providing the waterfalls and cold springs for which the area is well known.


Climate data for Iligan, Philippines
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.1
Record low °C (°F) 21.7
Average rainfall mm (inches) 106.1
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 23.2 19.5 22.0 22.8 29.6 28.9 29.0 29.8 28.1 28.8 26.1 24.1 311.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 390.6 370.1 545.6 573.0 378.2 225.0 229.4 254.2 246.0 294.5 360.0 421.6 4,288.2
Source 1: Average Climate of Iligan City[48]
Source 2: Climate of Iligan City[49]

Iligan falls within the third type of climate wherein the seasons are not very pronounced. Rain is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year. Because of its tropical location, the city does not experience cold weather. Neither does it experience strong weather disturbances due to its geographical location (being outside the typhoon belt) And also because of the mountains that are surrounding the city.


Lluch Street
Echiverri Street

Iligan is politically subdivided into 44 barangays.[50]. Depending on the barangay, it is subdivided to puroks or zones.


Population census of Iligan
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 2,872—    
1918 10,078+8.73%
1939 28,273+5.03%
1948 25,725−1.04%
1960 58,433+7.07%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1970 104,493+5.98%
1975 118,778+2.60%
1980 167,358+7.10%
1990 226,568+3.08%
1995 273,004+3.56%
YearPop.±% p.a.
2000 285,061+0.93%
2007 308,046+1.08%
2010 322,821+1.72%
2015 342,618+1.14%
2020 363,115+1.15%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[53][54][55][56]

Iliganons are composed of a Cebuano-speaking majority and local minorities, mainly Maranaos, and other cultural minorities and immigrants. It is not only rich in natural resources and industries but it is also the home of a mix of cultures: the Maranaos of Lanao, the Higaonon of Bukidnon, and many settlers and migrants from other parts of the country. It is known for its diverse culture.


Cebuano is the most spoken language in the city, with 92.27% reporting it as their first language. Minor languages include Maranao, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Chavacano, and Waray. The majority of the population can speak and understand Tagalog (Filipino) and English, the official languages of the country.[57] Tagalog (Filipino) and English are taught in the city's schools.


Interior of Saint Michael Cathedral in Iligan

The majority of Iligan citizens are Christians (mainly Roman Catholics). The city is also the center of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Iligan which has 25 parishes in Iligan City and twelve municipalities of Lanao del Norte (Linamon, Kauswagan, Bacolod, Maigo, Kolambugan, Tubod, Baroy, Lala, Kapatagan, Sapad, Salvador, and Magsaysay). It covers an area of 3,092 square kilometers with a population of 1,551,000, which 65.5% of the population are Roman Catholics.[58]

Muslims are the largest minority, comprising 11.48% of the population. They are mainly Sunnites.[59]


Poverty incidence of Iligan


Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[60][61][62][63][64][65][66]

Downtown Iligan


Iligan is known as the Industrial Center of the South as its economy is largely based on heavy industries. It produces hydroelectric power for the Mindanao region through the National Power Corporation (NAPOCOR), the site of the Mindanao Regional Center (MRC) housing Agus V, VI, and VII hydroelectric plants. Moreover, Holcim Philippines' largest Mindanao cement plant is located in the city. It also houses industries like steel, tinplate, cement, and flour mills.[citation needed]

After the construction of Maria Cristina (Agus VI) Hydroelectric Plant by National Power Corporation (NPC, NAPOCOR) in 1950, the city experienced rapid industrialization and continued until the late 1980s. The largest steel plant in the country, National Steel Corporation (NSC), was also established in 1962.[67]

During the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the city experienced a severe economic slowdown. A number of industrial plants were closed, notably the National Steel Corporation.[68]

The city saw its economic revival with the reopening of the National Steel Corporation, renamed Global Steelworks Infrastructures, Inc. (GSII) in 2004.[69] In October 2005, GSII officially took a new corporate name: Global Steel Philippines (SPV-AMC), Inc.[70]


Gazpachos, a homegrown local restaurant in Iligan

Aside from heavy industries, Iligan is also a major exporter and producer of various plants and crops.[citation needed]



As of the fiscal year 2018, Iligan has a current operating income of ₱2,052.89 million. The income grew by 8% compared to the fiscal year of 2017 in which Iligan's operating income was ₱1,900 million. According to the 2017 Financial Report by the Commission on Audit, Iligan's total assets amounted to ₱10.27 billion.[citation needed]


Maria Cristina Falls

Iligan is commonly known as the "City of Majestic Waterfalls" because of the numerous waterfalls located within its area. The many waterfalls in the area attract tourists from all over the world with their beauty and power. There are about 24 waterfalls in the city. The most well-known is the Maria Cristina Falls. It is also the primary source of electric power of the city, harnessed by the Agus VI Hydroelectric Plant.

Other waterfalls in the city are Tinago Falls, accessible through a 300-step staircase in Barangay Ditucalan. Mimbalut Falls in Barangay Buru-un, Abaga Falls in Barangay Suarez, and Dodiongan Falls in Barangay Bonbonon.[citation needed]

Limunsudan Falls in Barangay Rogongon about 50 kilometers from the city proper of Iligan. These are the highest waterfalls in the Philippines, at 265 m (870 feet).[citation needed]

Iligan is home to the famous San Miguel of Iligan. It is an image of Saint Michael the archangel that dons a Native American Headdress especially when he goes to battle against Satan.[71] The animist Lumad, the Muslim Moro and the Christian Visayans, Chavacanos, and Latinos who live together peacefully in Iligan all celebrate this festival dedicated to San Miguel and they have Eskrima dances dedicated to him.[72] The Eskrima martial art called San Miguel Eskrima is related to this Saint.


Iligan City Hall

Iligan is a highly urbanized city and is politically independent of the province of Lanao del Norte. Registered voters of the city no longer vote for provincial candidates such as the Governor and Vice Governor, unlike its nearby towns that make up the provinces as a result of its charter as a city in the 1950s.[citation needed]

Iligan's seat of government, the city hall, is located at Buhanginan Hills in Barangay Pala-o. The local government structure is composed of one mayor, one vice mayor, and twelve councilors. Each official is elected publicly to a 3-year term and can be re-elected up to 3 terms in succession. The day-to-day administration of the city is handled by the city administrator.[citation needed]

Mayors since 1986

Vice Mayors since 1986



The Port of Iligan is located along the northern central coastal area of Mindanao facing Iligan Bay with geographical coordinates of approximately 8°13′56″N 124°13′54″E / 8.23222°N 124.23167°E / 8.23222; 124.23167.[73]

It serves the port users and passengers coming from the hinterlands of the provinces of Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, parts of Misamis Oriental, and the Cities of Iligan and Marawi.[73]

Passenger and cargo shipping lines operating in the Port of Iligan serve the cities of Manila, Cebu City, and Ozamiz.

There are around seven private seaports in Iligan operated by their respective heavy industry companies. These private seaports can be found in Barangays Maria Cristina, Suarez, Tomas L. Cabili, Santa Filomena, and Kiwalan.


Laguindingan Airport serves the City of Iligan and the rest of Northern Mindanao

The main airport is Laguindingan Airport, located in the municipality of Laguindingan, Misamis Oriental, which opened on June 15, 2013.[74] The airport replaced Lumbia Airport as the main airport of Misamis Oriental and Northern Mindanao.[75] It has daily commercial flights to and from Manila, Cebu, Davao, Iloilo, and Clark via Philippine Airlines and Cebu Pacific.

Maria Cristina Airport is located in Balo-i, Lanao del Norte and was the main airport of Iligan in the late 1980s. Aerolift Philippines, a now-defunct regional airline, ceased its services when its passenger plane crashed into some structures at the end of the runway of the Manila Domestic Airport in 1990 which resulted to its bankruptcy.[76][77] Thus, it ended its service to Iligan's airport at Balo-i which also resulted in the closure of the airport. Philippine Airlines served the city for many years before ending flights in 1998 due to the Asian financial crisis.

Bus terminals

A highway portion of the Butuan–Cagayan de Oro–Iligan Road (National Route 9) at Iligan City.

There are two main bus terminals in Iligan.

Rural Transit (RTMI) and Super 5 Land Transport and Services Inc. are the dominant public bus companies with daily trips from and to Iligan. Passenger vans and jeeps also service various municipalities in Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, and Misamis Oriental.

City transportation

The public modes of transportation within the city are jeepneys (both traditional and modern) and pedicabs. Tartanillas service main roads in Barangay Pala-o and Barangay Tambacan.


The City of Iligan has one state university and seven private colleges specializing in Engineering and Information Technology, Health Services, Maritime Science, Business and Administration, Primary and Secondary Education, and Arts and Social Sciences.

With a total of 181 schools (106 public; 75 private; 17 madaris) including vocational and technical schools, Iligan has an average literacy rate of 94.71, one of the highest in the whole Philippines.

Mindanao State University – Iligan Institute of Technology

The Mindanao State University – Iligan Institute of Technology (MSU-IIT) is one of the few autonomous external campuses of the Mindanao State University (MSU) and "the light-bearer of the several campuses of the MSU System."[78] It is considered one of the best universities in the Philippines with excellence in Science and Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, Information Technology, and Natural Sciences.[79] The institution has also produced many topnotchers and rankers in multiple board exams.


Basic education

Notable personalities

The Macapagal-Macaraeg Heritage House and Historical Marker
Former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo briefly resided in Iligan, the hometown of her maternal grandparents
Miss Universe 2011 3rd runner-up Shamcey Supsup was born in Iligan

Sister cities


See also


  1. ^ City of Iligan | (DILG)
  2. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  3. ^ a b Census of Population (2020). "Region X (Northern Mindanao)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  4. ^ "All Provinces and HUCs in Northern Mindanao Continue to Expand in 2022; City of Cagayan de Oro Records the Fastest Growth with 9.4 Percent". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 9, 2023.
  5. ^ "PH₱56.598 per dollar (per International Monetary Fund on Representative Exchange Rates for Selected Currencies for December 2022)". IMF. Retrieved December 9, 2023.
  6. ^ "PSA Releases the 2021 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. April 2, 2024. Retrieved April 28, 2024.
  7. ^ Godinez-Ortega, C. (September 9, 2001). Iligan City 'moves' to Northern Mindanao, Philippine Daily Inquirer. P. A13.
  8. ^ "Philippine Statistics Authority | Republic of the Philippines".
  9. ^ Ladaga, John Oliver (January 24, 2016). "Iligan: The City of Failing Waters". PressReader. SunStar Davao. Retrieved August 7, 2022.
  10. ^ "ILIGAN CITY". Department of the Interior and Local Government. DILG REGION 10. August 2, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2022.
  11. ^ a b c "Significant battles in Bohol: Battle of the Bo-ol Kingdom" By The Bohol Chronicle
  12. ^ History of Iligan during Spanish times Archived June 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Accessed July 28, 2022.
  13. ^ All About Iligan, Accessed July 28, 2022.
  14. ^ San Agustín, Conquistas, lib. 2 cap 37: 545
  15. ^ Prof. Patrocenia T. Acut, Iligan During the American Period, Iligan City Official Website
  16. ^ Prof. Leonor Buhion Enderes, Japanese Occupation in Iligan City, Iligan City Official Website
  17. ^ a b Tomacruz, Sofia. "SteelAsia offers to revive defunct National Steel". Rappler. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  18. ^ "R.A. No. 525, Iligan City Charter". Archived from the original on July 20, 2012. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
  19. ^ See Francia, Luis H. (2013). History of the Philippines: From Indios Bravos to Filipinos. New York: Overlook Press. ISBN 978-1-4683-1545-5.
  20. ^ For an in-depth survey of indigenous peoples and forced land seizures in the Philippines, see Eder, James F. (June 1994). "Indigenous Peoples, Ancestral Lands and Human Rights in the Philippines". Cultural Survival Quarterly. Archived from the original on December 22, 2018.
  21. ^ The Bangsamoro Struggle for Self-Determintation: A Case Study (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2020 – via
  22. ^ a b c d e f Mackerras, Colin, ed. (2004). Ethnicity in Asia. London: RoutledgeCurzon. p. 143. ISBN 0-203-38046-0.
  23. ^ George, T. J. S. (1980). Revolt in Mindanao: The Rise of Islam in Philippine Politics. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-580429-5. OCLC 6569089.
  24. ^ Rodis, Rodel (January 30, 2015). "Remembering the First Quarter Storm". Archived from the original on January 31, 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
  25. ^ Miclat, Gus (2002). "Our Lives Were Never the Same Again". In Arguillas, Carolyn O. (ed.). Turning Rage Into Courage: Mindanao Under Martial Law. MindaNews Publications, Mindanao News and Information Cooperative Center. OCLC 644320116.
  26. ^ "Alfred McCoy, Dark Legacy: Human rights under the Marcos regime". Ateneo de Manila University. September 20, 1999.
  27. ^ Abinales, P.N.; Amoroso, Donna J. (2005). State and society in the Philippines. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0742510234. OCLC 57452454.
  28. ^ "Gone too soon: 7 youth leaders killed under Martial Law". Rappler. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  29. ^ a b Amnesty 1975
  30. ^ "Infographic: The day Marcos declared Martial Law". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on September 11, 2017. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  31. ^ Maslog, Crispin C. (1993). The rise and fall of Philippine community newspapers. Intramuros, Manila: Published by the Philippine Press Institute with funding from Konrad Adenauer Foundation. ISBN 971-8703-09-8. OCLC 29830136.
  32. ^ "Florante de Castro, killed 1984, not 1986". Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility. December 11, 2006. Retrieved October 25, 2022.
  33. ^ "The Marcos Regime and the Making of a Subservient Philippine Press (Part 2)". Human Rights Violations Victims' Memorial Commission. Government of the Philippines. October 13, 2021. Retrieved October 25, 2022.
  34. ^ a b David Briscoe (August 6, 1985). "More Than a Dozen Journalists Killed in Philippines in a Year". Associated Press. Retrieved October 27, 2022.
  35. ^ "Journalists Appeal to Marcos". The Washington Post. August 31, 1985. Retrieved October 27, 2022.
  36. ^ Richel Umel (August 30, 2013). "Radioman shot dead in Iligan City". Retrieved October 24, 2022.
  37. ^ "Minda Luz Quesada - Bantayog ng mga Bayani". May 31, 2023.
  38. ^ "David Borja - Bantayog ng mga Bayani". May 31, 2023.
  39. ^ "Edwin Laguerder - Bantayog ng mga Bayani". June 11, 2023.
  40. ^ "Ester Kintanar - Bantayog ng mga Bayani". June 11, 2023.
  41. ^ "Datu Masiding Alonto - Bantayog ng mga Bayani". May 31, 2023.
  42. ^ "James Orbe - Bantayog ng mga Bayani". June 20, 2023.
  43. ^ "Herbert Cayunda - Bantayog ng mga Bayani". May 27, 2023.
  44. ^ "Iligan - Bantayog ng mga Bayani".
  45. ^ Maricar T. Manuzon, A Giant Awakens Archived February 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Philippine Business Magazine
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