Immigration to the Philippines is the process by which people migrate to the Philippines to reside in the country. Many, but not all, become citizens of the Philippines.

History

Prehistorical migration

Main article: Models of migration to the Philippines

Modern theories of the peopling of the Philippines islands are interpreted against the wider backdrop of the migrations of the Austronesian peoples. They comprise two major schools of thought, the "Out of Sundaland" models and the "Out of Taiwan" model. Of the two, however, the most widely accepted hypothesis is the Out-of-Taiwan model, which largely corresponds to linguistic, genetic, archaeological, and cultural evidence.[1] It has since been strengthened by genetic and archaeological studies that broadly agree with the timeline of the Austronesian expansion.[2][3][4][5]

Migration during the Spanish period

By the 16th century, Spanish colonization brought new groups of people to the Philippines mainly Spaniards and Mexicans. Many settled in the Philippines, and intermarried with the indigenous population. This gave rise to the Filipino mestizo or individuals of mixed Austronesian and Hispanic descent.[citation needed] There was migration of a military nature from Latin-America (Mexico and Peru) to the Philippines, composed of varying races (Amerindian, Mestizo and Criollo) as described by Stephanie J. Mawson in her book "Convicts or Conquistadores? Spanish Soldiers in the Seventeenth-Century Pacific".[6] Also, in her dissertation paper called, ‘Between Loyalty and Disobedience: The Limits of Spanish Domination in the Seventeenth Century Pacific’, she recorded an accumulated number of 15,600 soldier-settlers sent to the Philippines from Latin-America during the 1600s.[7] In which timeframe, the total population of the Philippines was only about 667,612.[8] Old Spanish censuses state that as much as 33.5% or one third of the population of the main island of Luzon had full or partial Hispanic or Latino (Mestizo, Mulatto and Native-American) descent.[9]

The current modern-day Chinese Filipinos are mostly the descendants of immigrants from Southern Fujian in China from the 20th century and late 19th century, possibly numbering around 2 million, although there are an estimated 27 percent of Filipinos who have partial Chinese ancestry,[10][11][12] stemming from precolonial and colonial Chinese (Sangley) migrants from the past centuries especially during the Spanish Colonial Era.[13] Intermarriage between the groups is evident in the major cities and urban areas,[14] and spans back to Spanish colonial times, where a colonial middle-class group known as the Mestizo de Sangley (Chinese mestizos) descend from.[15] Its descendants during the late 19th century produced a major part of the ilustrado intelligentsia of the late Spanish Colonial Philippines, that were very influential with the creation of Filipino nationalism and the sparking of the Philippine Revolution.[16]

There are also Japanese people, which include escaped Christians (Kirishitan) who fled the persecutions of Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu which the Spanish empire in the Philippines had offered asylum from to form part of the Japanese settlement in the Philippines.[17] In the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of Japanese people traders also migrated to the Philippines and assimilated into the local population.[18]

Migration during the American period

The Philippines was a former American colony and during the American colonial era, there were over 800,000 Americans who were born in the Philippines.[19] As of 2013, there were 220,000 to 600,000 American citizens living in the country.[20] There are also 250,000 Amerasians scattered across the cities of Angeles City, Manila, and Olongapo.[21]

Population

Main article: Demographics of the Philippines

The total number of immigrants and expats in Philippines as of the 2010 censuses is 177,365.[22]

According to a 2013 country migration report, the recent most notable nationalities of foreign aliens with work permits include Koreans, Chinese, Japanese, Americans, and British (either British citizen or British National (Overseas) – from British Hong Kong). Most of these foreign aliens with work permits are based in the National Capital Region (Metro Manila), followed by Calabarzon (Southern Tagalog), and Central Visayas, representing the more developed regions of the country. Most of them are employed in the manufacturing sector, although they tend to be involved in other sectors as well. The majority work in administrative, executive and managerial positions. The top three nationalities of registered aliens are Chinese (59,000), Koreans (39,000) and Americans (26,000).[23]

Immigrants and expats by country, according to the 2010 Census of Population and Housing:[24]

Laws

Main articles: Philippine nationality law and Visa policy of the Philippines

The Philippine Immigration Act prescribes fourteen different visas grouped into two broad categories:

Some visas have been introduced by subsequent legislation or proclamation of the President which are not classified by the Philippine Immigration Act as either being a Section 9 or Section 13 visa. These visas are called special visas and are issued to groups such as retirees, investors and entrepreneurs.

The Bureau of Immigration was given the sole authority to enforce and administer immigration and foreign nationals registration laws including the admission, registration, exclusion and deportation and repatriation of foreign nationals. It also supervises the immigration from the Philippines of foreign nationals.

Commonwealth Act No. 473, the Revised Naturalization Law, approved June 17, 1939, provided that persons having certain specified qualifications may become a citizen of the Philippines by naturalization.[25]

List of immigrants by country of origin

See also: Ethnic groups in the Philippines

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The following groups are relatively recent immigrants and expatriate groups that mostly immigrated in the modern era, specifically around the 20th century especially from post-WW2 Philippine independence to the present era. Recent modern immigrants, expatriates, foreign students, foreign citizens with work permits and resident aliens are all included. Common reasons for modern immigration into the Philippines include employment, education, tourism, marriage migration counter flow from returning overseas Filipino workers and emigrants, etc.

Name Description Notes
South Korea Koreans This group refers to the recent Korean immigrants from South Korea (ROK) (locally known as Korean (English), Koryano / Koryana / Koreano / Koreana / taga-Korea / galing Korea (Filipino), jaepillipin hangug-in [재필리핀 한국인] / jaepillipin gyomin [재필리핀 교민 / 在非僑民] (Korean)), though there also might be a very rare few migrant workers from North Korea (DPRK).[26] Recently, Koreans have been notable among the alien employment permit holders. The Japanese were the largest group from 1978 until 2006. Numbers of Koreans were not very remarkable until the 1990s when their numbers started to rise. This was the time when Filipinos started to work in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), and the latter 1990s was the start of significant marriage migration from the Philippines—mostly Filipino women marrying Korean men. The migration of overseas Filipino workers to the Republic of Korea has been accompanied by a significant counter flow of Koreans to the Philippines, as well as the intensification of trade ties between the Philippines and the Republic of Korea (Asis, 2010). By 2007, Koreans have outranked the Japanese as the largest national group who have obtained employment permits, and they have become the largest group of tourist arrivals. Furthermore, Koreans account for a sizable share of foreign students and students as special permit holders.[23] Most of them are transient students and expatriates.[27] Most are tourists or students studying in the Philippines.[28] Due to this trend, there is a small rising community of Koreans in the Philippines and a small number of mixed Korean Filipino descendants, colloquially called Kopino or sometimes Korinoy. They mostly speak in Korean and/or English, while the locally raised Kopinos also speak in the local style of English and Filipino(Tagalog) or a mix thereof (Taglish), or other Philippine languages, along with Korean to their family.
China Taiwan Hong Kong Macau Singapore Malaysia IndonesiaChinese This group refers to the recent Chinese immigrants from Mainland China (PRC) (locally known as Mainlander / Mainland Chinese (English), taga-Tsina / galing China (Filipino), Huá-qiáo [华侨] / Huá-fēi rén [华菲人] (Mandarin), or Tāi-dio̍k-á [大陸仔] / Tiong-kok-lâng [中國人] (Philippine Hokkien)), Taiwan (ROC) (locally known as Taiwanese (English), taga-Taiwan / galing Taiwan (Filipino), Táiwān rén [臺灣人] (Taiwanese Mandarin), Tâi-oân-lâng [台灣人] (Philippine Hokkien)), Hong Kong (PRC) (locally known as Hong konger / from Hong Kong (English), taga-Hong Kong / galing Hong Kong (Filipino), hoeng1 gong2 jan4 [香港人] / gong2 jan4 [港人] (Hong Kong Cantonese), Hiong-káng-lâng [香港人] / Keńg-tang-lâng [廣東人] (Philippine Hokkien)), Macau (PRC) (locally known as Macanese (English), taga-Macau / galing Macau (Filipino), Ou3 mun4 jan4 [澳門人] (Macanese Cantonese), Ò-mn̂g-lâng [澳門人] / Keńg-tang-lâng [廣東人] (Philippine Hokkien)), and also migrant overseas Chinese groups from Singapore (locally known as Singaporean / Chinese Singaporean (English), taga-Singapore / galing Singapore / taga-Singapura / galing Singapura (Filipino), Sin-ka-pho-lâng [新加坡人] (Philippine Hokkien)), Malaysia (locally known as Malaysian / Malaysian Chinese (English), Instik na Malay / taga-Malaysia / galing Malaysia (Filipino), Má-lâi-se-a-lâng [馬來西亞人] (Philippine Hokkien)), and Indonesia (locally known as Indonesian / Indonesian Chinese (English), Instik na Indones / taga-Indonesia / galing Indonesia (Filipino), Ìn-nî-lâng (Philippine Hokkien)). There are also some Chinese people who immigrated from British Hong Kong during the 20th century, that carried British National (Overseas) passports and citizenship. There has been a recent spike in tourists, foreign alien workers, and foreign students from China. Some have naturalized with Filipino citizenship and try to integrate with the historical local modern Chinese Filipino community. The main difference with these groups is that the historical Chinese Filipino community predominantly speaks English and Filipino(Tagalog), or other Philippine languages, and claims Philippine Hokkien as the heritage language of the majority, while this group mainly speaks in Standard Chinese (Mandarin) and/or English (Those from Hong kong and Macau may also speak Cantonese). The Mandarin-speaking Chinese Filipinos who have sent their children to local schools and been raised here as locally raised second generation now also speak in the local style of English and Filipino(Tagalog) or a mix thereof (Taglish), or other Philippine languages, along with Mandarin or Cantonese to their family.
Japan Japanese This group refers to the recent modern Japanese immigrants from Japan (locally known as Japanese (English), Hapon / Hapones / Haponesa / taga-Japan / galing Japan (Filipino), Zaifi Nihonjin [在菲日本人 / 在比日本人] (Japanese)), as opposed to the historical Japanese Filipinos of centuries past mentioned above. Most Japanese living in the Philippines in modern times are now fresh new immigrants of the recent decades, most of which came either as students to learn English, as tourists or marine divers, or as businessmen to set up businesses or commercial partnerships. Since there have been many overseas Filipino workers or migrants in Japan, especially with the issue of female overseas Filipino entertainers in Japan, there have been a few modern Japanese Filipino descendants (colloquially called Japino / Nihongo Pilipino / Nippongo Pilipino / Nikkeijin [日系人] / Nikkei Firipinjin [日系フィリピン人 / にっけいフィリピンじん]) that have returned to the Philippines with their Filipina mothers. These days, most Japanese Filipinos can be found around Davao or Cebu, with only a few around Metro Manila, though historically there used to be many around Metro Manila. They mostly speak in Japanese and/or English, while the few locally raised Japinos also speak in the local style of English and Filipino(Tagalog) or a mix thereof (Taglish), or other Philippine languages, along with Japanese to their family.
United States Americans Some of these multiracial individuals are descended from Americans who settled in the Philippines during the United States colonial period as mentioned above, and others from tourists, local professionals, students, businessmen who have settled in the Philippines in the contemporary period. This group refers to recent modern American immigrants from the United States (locally known as American (English), Kano / Amerikano (Filipino)). The group are the American citizens residing in the Philippines, which is composed of both American expatriates and Americans of Philippine ancestry which are returnee migrants from Filipino Americans (Fil-Am) of the United States. As of 2011, the U.S, State Department estimated that there are an estimated four million Americans of Philippine ancestry in the United States, and more than 300,000 to 600,000 American citizens in the Philippines.[29] They mostly speak in English, while the locally raised American Filipinos or Amerasians also speak in the local style of English and Filipino(Tagalog) or a mix thereof (Taglish), or other Philippine languages. Sometimes, European or African or Latin American tourists and expatriates in the Philippines are confused with American tourists or expatriates, leading to many also being called Kano (short for Amerikano).
India Nepal Bangladesh Sri Lanka PakistanMaldives Singapore MalaysiaIndian This group refers to the recent modern Indian immigrants from India (locally known as Indian (English), Bumbay / Indiyano (Filipino)) and also sometimes those from Nepal (locally known as Nepali (English), Bumbay / taga-Nepal / galing Nepal (Filipino)), Bangladesh (locally known as Bengali (English), Bumbay / taga-Bangladesh / galing Bangladesh (Filipino)), Sri Lanka (locally known as Sri Lankan / Ceylonese (English), Bumbay / taga-Sri Lanka / galing Sri Lanka (Filipino)), Pakistan (locally known as Pakistani (English), Bumbay / taga-Pakistan / galing Pakistan (Filipino)), Maldives (locally known as Maldivian (English), Bumbay / taga-Maldives / galing Maldives (Filipino)), or South Asia in general, and even those from Singapore (locally known as Singaporean / Indian Singaporean (English), taga-Singapore / galing Singapore / taga-Singapura / galing Singapura (Filipino)) and Malaysia (locally known as Malaysian Indian (English), Bumbay na Malay / Indian na Malay / taga-Malaysia / galing Malaysia (Filipino)). Likewise as those from above, besides from the historical Indian Filipinos, there have been recent immigrants, largely businessmen, traders, and a few students. They mostly speak in English or different languages from India like Tamil, Sindhi, Punjabi, Hindi, and Marathi, while the locally raised Indian Filipinos also speak in the local style of English and Filipino(Tagalog) or a mix thereof (Taglish), or other Philippine languages, along with either of the above-mentioned Indian languages to their family and friends.
United KingdomBritish This group refers to the recent modern British immigrants from the United Kingdom (locally known as British / Brit (English), Ingles / Briton/ taga-UK / galing UK / taga-Britanya / galing Britanya (Filipino)), especially due to significant overseas Filipino population in the UK. Likewise as those from above, there have been a few recent immigrants or expatriates, largely businessmen, traders, diplomats, professionals, tourists, or returnee migrants from overseas Filipinos who have brought home marriages with the British or people from the UK in general. Their official population is unknown.[citation needed] They mostly speak in English, while the locally raised British Filipinos (from local expatriate or returnee overseas Filipino-British descendants) also speak in the local style of English and Filipino(Tagalog), or a mix thereof (Taglish), or other Philippine languages. They are sometimes confused with Americans, just like other Europeans, leading to many being called Kano (short for Amerikano). There are also some Chinese people who immigrated from British Hong Kong during the 20th century, that carried British National (Overseas) passports and citizenship.
IranIranians This group refers to the recent modern Iranian immigrants from Iran (locally known as Iranian / Persian (English), Persyano / taga-Iran / galing Iran (Filipino)). Most are transient students, especially due to low tuition fees and the use of English as the medium of instruction in schools of the Philippines. Likewise as those from above, there have been a few recent immigrants or expatriates, largely students, businessmen, traders, diplomats, professionals, tourists, or returnee migrants from overseas Filipinos who have brought home marriages with Iranians. Those staying after being students or children of overseas Filipinos with Iranians have made a small local community of Iranian Filipinos, making those raised in the Philippines being able to speak in the local style of English and Filipino(Tagalog) or a mix thereof (Taglish), or other Philippine languages, along with Farsi (Persian) to their family.
Spain Mexico Brazil Peru Chile United States Puerto RicoSpanish, Hispanic This group refers to the recent modern Latino or Spanish immigrants from Spain (locally known as Spaniard / Spanish (English), Espanyol / Kastila / taga-Espanya / galing Espanya (Filipino), Español (Spanish)) and also those from Mexico (locally known as Mexican (English), Meksikano / Mehikano / Meksikana / taga-Meksiko / galing Mexico (Filipino), Mexicano / Mexicana / Español (Spanish)), Brazil (locally known as Brazilian (English), Brazilyano / Brazilenyo / Brazilenya / Portuges / taga-Brazil / galing Brazil (Filipino)), Peru (locally known as Peruvian (English), Perubyano / Perubyana / taga-Peru / galing Peru (Filipino), Peruano / Peruana / Español (Spanish)), Chile (locally known as Chilean (English), Tsilian / Tsileno / Tsilena / taga-Tsile / galing Tsile (Filipino), Chileno / Chilena / Español (Spanish)), and even Spanish-speakers from United States (locally known as American / Latin American (English), Latino / Latina / Amerikano / taga-US / galing US / taga-Amerika / galing Amerika (Filipino), Latino / Latina / Americano / Americana / Español (Spanish)) or Puerto Rico (locally known as Puerto Rican / American / Latin American (English), Puertorikenyo / Latino / Latina / Amerikano / taga-Puerto Rico / galing Puerto Rico / taga-US / galing US / taga-Amerika / galing Amerika (Filipino), Puertorriqueño / Puertorriqueña / Latino / Latina / Americano / Americana / Español (Spanish)), or Latin America in general. Likewise as those from above, besides from the historical Spanish Filipinos or Spanish Mexican Filipinos, there have been a few recent immigrants or expatriates, largely businessmen, traders, diplomats, and tourists. They mostly speak in Spanish (or Portuguese for Brazilians) and/or English, while those naturalized or locally raised modern Spanish Filipinos or Mexican Filipinos or etc., also eventually learn to speak in the local style of English and Filipino(Tagalog) or a mix thereof (Taglish), or other Philippine languages, along with Spanish (or Portuguese for Brazilians) to their family. They are sometimes confused with Americans, just like other Europeans, leading to many being called Kano (short for Amerikano).
Israel Europe United States Spain Germany AustriaPoland AustriaJewish This group refers to the recent modern Jewish or Israeli immigrants from Israel or other countries in Europe or the United States with Jewish populations (locally known as Jew / Israeli (English), Hudyo / Israeli (Filipino)). Likewise as those from above, besides from the historical Jews in the Philippines, there have been a few recent immigrants or expatriates, largely businessmen, traders, diplomats, and tourists. Majority of the Jews in the Philippines are of the Sephardic branch of Judaism.[30] The official population is unknown. Some integrate with the small local Jewish community. They mostly speak in English and/or Hebrew, or other languages of the country they were raised in if not Israel, while those few naturalized or locally raised Jewish Filipinos, also eventually learn to speak in the local style of English and Filipino(Tagalog) or a mix thereof (Taglish), or other Philippine languages, along with Hebrew to their family. They are sometimes confused with Americans, just like other Europeans, leading to many being called Kano (short for Amerikano).
Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Bahrain Qatar Kuwait Egypt Lebanon Arabs This group refers to the recent modern Arab immigrants from the Middle East (locally known as Arab (English), Arabo (Filipino)), such as those from Saudi Arabia (locally known as Saudi (English), taga-Saudi / galing Saudi (Filipino)), United Arab Emirates (locally known as Emirati (English), taga-Dubai / galing Dubai (Filipino)), Bahrain (locally known as Bahraini (English), taga-Bahrain / galing Bahrain (Filipino)), Qatar (locally known as Qatari (English), Qatari / taga-Qatar / galing Qatar (Filipino)), Kuwait (locally known as Kuwaiti (English), Kuwaiti / taga-Kuwait / galing Kuwait (Filipino)), Egypt (locally known as Egyptian (English), Ehipto / taga-Ehipto / galing Ehipto (Filipino)), Lebanon (locally known as Lebanese (English), Lebanes / taga-Lebanon / galing Lebanon (Filipino)) etc., especially countries with significant overseas Filipino populations. Likewise as those from above, besides from the historical Filipinos of Arab descent, there have been a few recent immigrants or expatriates, largely businessmen, traders, diplomats, tourists, or returnee migrants from overseas Filipinos who have brought home marriages with Arabs. Majority of Arabs in the Philippines are Muslim. Their official population is unknown.[citation needed]
Indonesia Malaysia Singapore Brunei East Timor Malays This group refers to the recent modern Malay immigrants from Indonesia (locally known as Indonesian (English), Indones / taga-Indonesia / galing Indonesia (Filipino), Malaysia (locally known as Malaysian (English), Malay / taga-Malaysia / galing Malaysia (Filipino)), Singapore (locally known as Singaporean / Malay Singaporean (English), taga-Singapore / galing Singapore / taga-Singapura / galing Singapura (Filipino)), Brunei (locally known as Bruneian (English), Burnay / taga-Brunei / galing Brunei (Filipino)), and East Timor (locally known as Timorese (English), Timorense / taga-East Timor / galing East Timor (Filipino)), especially due to border proximity, history, relationship in ASEAN, and overseas Filipino populations. Likewise as those from above, besides from the historical Sangirese and Filipinos of Malay descent with precolonial rulers in the pre-Hispanic era, there have been a few recent immigrants or expatriates, largely fishermen, laborers, businessmen, traders, diplomats, tourists, exchange students, expatriates or returnee migrants from overseas Filipinos who have brought home marriages. Many are either Muslim or Christian. Their official population is unknown.[citation needed]
VietnamVietnamese This group refers to the recent modern Vietnamese immigrants from Vietnam (locally known as Vietnamese (English), taga-Vietnam / galing Vietnam / taga-Byetnam / galing Byetnam (Filipino)). Likewise as those from above, there have been a few recent immigrants or expatriates, largely refugees, students, businessmen, traders, diplomats, tourists, or returnee migrants from overseas Filipinos who have brought home marriages with Vietnamese. Vietnamese have been trading with the Philippines for centuries, as noted with multiple illustrations of Vietnamese in the Boxer Codex (1590). A notable case of modern Vietnamese in the Philippines are refugees from the Vietnamese boat people crisis, that now reside in small villages in Palawan. Their official population is unknown.[citation needed]
Thailand Thais This group refers to the recent modern Thai immigrants from Thailand (locally known as Thai (English), Siyames / taga-Thailand / galing Thailand (Filipino)). Likewise as those from above, there have been a few recent immigrants and expatriates, largely businessmen, traders, diplomats, tourists, students, or returnee migrants from overseas Filipinos who have brought home marriages with Thais. They have also brought over Thai buddhism. Their official population is unknown.[citation needed]
African Union Africans This group refers to the recent modern Sub-Saharan African immigrants from Sub-Saharan countries in the continent of Africa (locally known as African (English), Afrikano / Afrikana / Aprikano / Aprikana / taga-Afrika / galing Afrika / Negro (colloquial) / Negra (colloquial) (Filipino)). Most are transient students, especially due to low tuition fees and the use of English as the medium of instruction in schools of the Philippines. Likewise as those from above, there have been a few recent immigrants or expatriates, largely students, businessmen, traders, diplomats, professionals, tourists, or returnee migrants from overseas Filipinos who have brought home marriages from African countries. They are also sometimes confused with African Americans in the Philippines, leading to many being referred to as Kano (short for Amerikano).
GreeceGreeks This group refers to the recent modern Greek immigrants from Greece (locally known as Greek (English), Griyego / Griyega / taga-Greece / galing Greece / taga-Gresya / galing Gresya (Filipino)). Likewise as those from above, besides a few select historical Greeks that immigrated to the Philippines like the founder of Adamson University, there have been a few recent immigrants or expatriates, largely businessmen, traders, diplomats, tourists, or returnee migrants from overseas Filipinos who have brought home marriages with Greeks. The local Greek community in the Philippones have also brought over Eastern Orthodoxy in the Philippines, specifically Greek Orthodoxy. Their official population is unknown.[citation needed] They are sometimes confused with Americans, just like other Europeans, leading to many being called Kano (short for Amerikano).
Germany Austria SwitzerlandGermans / Austrians / Swiss This group refers to the recent modern German / Austrian / Swiss immigrants from Germany (locally known as German (English), Aleman / Alemano / Alemana / taga-Germany / galing Germany / taga-Alemanya / galing Alemanya (Filipino)), Austria (locally known as Austrian (English), Awstriyako / Awstriyaka / Aleman / taga-Austria / galing Austria / taga-Awstriya / galing Awstriya (Filipino)), and Switzerland (locally known as Swiss (English), Suwiso / Suwisa / Aleman / taga-Switzerland / galing Switzerland / taga-Swisa / galing Swisa (Filipino)), especially those with significant overseas Filipino populations. Likewise as those from above, besides from historical select Austrian or German figures in Philippine history like Ferdinand Blumentritt or Catholic clergy, there have been a few recent expatriates or immigrants, largely tourists, retirees, catholic clergy, businessmen, traders, diplomats, or returnee migrants from overseas Filipinos who have brought home marriages with Germans, Austrians, and Swiss. They are sometimes confused with Americans, just like other Europeans, leading to many being called Kano (short for Amerikano).
Guam Papua New Guinea Northern Mariana Islands Palau Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Samoa NauruPacific Islanders This group refers to the recent modern Pacific Islander immigrants from countries in Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia, such as Guam (United States) (locally known as Guamanian / Chamorro (English), taga-Guam / galing Guam (Filipino)), Palau (locally known as Palauan (English), taga-Palau / galing Palau (Filipino)), Papua New Guinea (locally known as Papuan (English), taga-Papua / galing Papua (Filipino)), Northern Marianas (United States) (locally known as Northern Mariana Islander / Chamorro (English), taga-Marianas / galing Marianas (Filipino)), Palau (locally known as Palauan (English), taga-Palau / galing Palau (Filipino)), FS of Micronesia (locally known as Micronesian (English), taga-Micronesia / galing Micronesia (Filipino)), Fiji (locally known as Fijian (English), taga-Fiji / galing Fiji (Filipino)), Samoa (locally known as Samoan (English), taga-Samoa / galing Samoa (Filipino)), Nauru (locally known as Naruan (English), taga-Nauru / galing Nauru (Filipino)), etc. Likewise as those from above, there have been a few recent immigrants or expatriates, largely tourists, laborers, students, businessmen, traders, diplomats, or returnee migrants from overseas Filipinos who have brought home marriages with them.
Poland Polish / Poles This group refers to the recent modern Polish immigrants from Poland (locally known as Polish / Pole (English), Polko / Polka / taga-Poland / galing Poland / taga-Polonya / galing Polonya (Filipino)). Likewise as those from above, there have been a few recent expatriates and immgrants, largely tourists, retirees, businessmen, traders, diplomats, or returnee migrants from overseas Filipinos who have brought home marriages with Poles. They are sometimes confused with Americans, just like other Europeans, leading to many being called Kano (short for Amerikano).
RussiaRussians This group refers to the recent modern Russian immigrants from Russia (locally known as Russian (English), Ruso / Rusa / taga-Russia / galing Russia / taga-Rusiya / galing Rusiya (Filipino)). Likewise as those from above, there have been a few recent expatriates, largely tourists, retirees, businessmen, traders, diplomats, or returnee migrants from overseas Filipinos who have brought home marriages with Russians. They have also brought over Eastern Orthodoxy in the Philippines, specifically Russian Orthodoxy. Their official population is unknown.[citation needed] They are sometimes confused with Americans, just like other Europeans, leading to many being called Kano (short for Amerikano).
United NationsOthers Other ethnic groups and/or nationalities not mentioned above include various ethnicities, e.g., people from Australia, Canada, Ireland, France, Italy, New Zealand, Sweden, Netherlands, Afghanistan, Turkey, South Africa, Norway, Tunisia, Belgium, Congo, Algeria, Ecuador, Denmark, Myanmar, Oman, Hungary, Jordan, Argentina, Armenia, Cape Verde, Colombia, Suriname, Albania, Finland, Kiribati, Yemen, Serbia, Belarus, Ukraine, Cambodia and other ethnic groups from other countries.

They are largely expatriates or immigrants, mostly businessmen, traders, professionals, diplomats, tourists, exchange students, retirees, and returnee migrants from overseas Filipinos who have brought home marriages.

See also

Sources

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