State Intelligence Agency (Indonesia)
Badan Intelijen Negara
The National Intelligence Agency (Indonesia).svg
Indonesian State Intelligence Agency seal
Agency overview
Formed7 May 1946
JurisdictionIndonesia
HeadquartersJl. Seno Raya, Pejaten Timur, Pasar Minggu. South Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
6°16′07″S 106°51′05″E / 6.268715°S 106.851351°E / -6.268715; 106.851351Coordinates: 6°16′07″S 106°51′05″E / 6.268715°S 106.851351°E / -6.268715; 106.851351
Annual budget480 million USD (2020)[1]
Agency executives
Websitewww.bin.go.id

Badan Intelijen Negara ("State Intelligence Agency"), commonly referred to as BIN, is Indonesia's primary intelligence agency. Prior to 2001, it was known as Bakin (Badan Koordinasi Intelijen Negara, "State Intelligence Coordinating Agency"); its name was changed as part of a general restructuring of the agency.[2] BIN is responsible both for co-ordinating information sharing and operations between Indonesia's other intelligence agencies and for mounting operations on its own.

At the time of its name change in 2001, BIN's role in co-ordinating was deemphasised, but, in the wake of the 2002 Bali bombing, that aspect of the agency's operations was the subject of renewed focus as part of an all-around expansion of the agency's budget and operations.[3] The agency is currently headed by Budi Gunawan, as of 9 September 2016.[4] Previous leaders are Sutiyoso from July 2015 to September 2016,[5] Sutanto from 21 October 2009 to 19 October 2011, Syamsir Siregar from 2004 to 2009, and Hendropriyono from 2001 to 2004.[6]

History

1943–1965

The origin of the state intelligence agency can be traced to Japanese occupation, in 1943,at which time Japan established a local version of the intelligence agency known as the Nakano Military Intelligence School. The former soldier Defenders of the Homeland (Peta), Zulkifli Lubis, graduated from the school and was also the Republican first Commander of Intelligence.

After independence, August 1945, the Government of Indonesia established the first intelligence agency of the republic, which was called Badan Istimewa (the Special Agency) commonly referred to as (BI).Colonel Zulkifli Lubis returned to lead the agency along with about 40 former Peta soldiers who were special military investigators. After entering a special intelligence training period in the Ambarawa region, in early May 1946 around 30 young graduates became members of the Indonesian State Secret Agency (BRANI). This agency became the umbrella for the intelligence movement with several "ad hoc" units, even overseas operations.

In July 1946, the Minister of Defense (Menhan) Amir Sjarifuddin formed the "Defense Agency B" headed by a former police commissioner. As a result, on 30 April 1947 all intelligence agencies were merged under the Minister of Defense, including Brani, to become Part V of the B Defense Agency.

In 1949 the Minister of Defense Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX was not satisfied with the performance and performance of the intelligence at that time which was running independently and was not well coordinated, so Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX formed Dinas Chusus (the Special Service) commonly referred to as (DC), which was expected to be able to face the challenges of the threat of the state and nation in the future, and able to protect the Republic of Indonesia. The DC recruitment program is the intelligence program of the first non-military civilian cadres in Indonesia trained by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Intelligence candidates were sent to the Philippine island of Saipan to take part in a training program until several forces were then resumed training in Indonesia. The alumni were placed in various clandestine operations which were very closed and capable of penetrating enemy hearts such as operations (Operation Trikora, Dwikora, G30. S PKI, etc.). DC is known by the pseudonym Ksatria Graha, who are trained professional intelligence cadres, which are an important part that cannot be separated from the history of Indonesian intelligence.

In early 1952, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, T.B. Simatupang, demoted the intelligence agency to Badan Informasi Staff Angkatan Perang (the Armed Forces Staff Information Agency) (BISAP). As a result of competition within the military, during 1952–1958, the entire force and police had their own intelligence services without national coordination. So on 5 December 1958, the President Sukarno formed the Intelligence Coordinating Body (BKI) with Colonel Laut Pirngadi as the head.

Subsequently,10 November 1959, BKI was changed back to Badan Pusat Intelijen (the Central Intelligence Agency) commonly referred to as (BPI) headquartered at Jalan Madiun, headed by Dr. Soebandrio. In the era of the 1960s until the beginning of the New Order era, Soebandrio's influence on the BPI was very strong, followed by the war of communist and non-communist ideology in the military, including intelligence.

1965–present

After the 1965 upheaval, Soeharto headed Operasi Pemulihan Keamanan dan Ketertiban (the Operation Command for Restoring Security and Order) Kopkamtib. Subsequently, in all regions (Regional Military Command / Kodam) an Satuan Tugas Intelijen (Intelligence Task Force) (STI) was formed. Then on 22 August 1966, Suharto established Komando Intelijen Negara (the State Intelligence Command) (KIN) with Brigadier General Yoga Sugomo as the head who was directly responsible to him.

As a strategic intelligence agency, BPI was merged into KIN which also had Operasi Khusus (Special Operations) Opsus under Lt. Col. Ali Moertopo with assistants Leonardus Benyamin (Benny) Moerdani and Aloysius Sugiyanto. In less than a year, 22 May 1967 Soeharto issued a Presidential Decree (Keppres) to design KIN to Badan Koordinasi Intelijen Negara become (the National Intelligence Coordinating Board) (BAKIN). Maj. Gen. Soedirgo was appointed as the first head of BAKIN.

During the time of Maj. Gen. Sutopo Juwono, BAKIN had Deputy II under Colonel Nicklany Soedardjo, Perwira Polisi Militer ( Military Police Officer) POM officer who graduated from Fort Gordon, USA. In early 1965, Nicklany created the PM's intelligence unit, namely Detasemen Pelaksana Intelijen (the Intelligence Implementing Detachment) (Den Pintel) POM. Officially, Den Pintel POM became Satuan Khusus Intelijen (the Special Intelligence Unit) Satsus Intel, then in 1976 it became Satuan Pelaksana (the Implementing Unit) Satlak and in the 1980s it became the Implementing Unit (UP) 01.

Starting in 1970 there was a reorganization of BAKIN with the addition of Deputy III to the Opsus post under Brigadier General TNI Ali Moertopo. As a Suharto insider. Opsus is considered the most prestigious in BAKIN, ranging from domestic affairs Penentuan Pendapat Rakyat of West Irian[7] and the birth of the political machine Golongan Karya (Golkar)[8] to the Indochina issue.[9] In 1983, as Deputy Head of BAKIN, L.B. Moerdani expanded his intelligence activities to become Badan Intelijen Negara (the Strategic Intelligence Agency) (BAIS). Subsequently, BAKIN remained as a contra-subversion directorate of the New Order.

After removing L.B.Moerdani as Minister of Defense and Security (Menhankam), in 1993 Suharto reduced Bais' mandate and changed its name to Badan Intelijen ABRI (ABRI Intelligence Agency) BIA. In 2000, President Abdurrahman Wahid changed BAKIN to become Badan Intelijen Negara (the State Intelligence Agency) (BIN) until now.

Thus, since 1945 s.d. now, the state intelligence organization has changed its name six times:[10]

  1. BRANI (Badan Rahasia Negara Indonesia/Indonesian State Secret Agency).
  2. BKI (Badan Koordinasi Intelijen/Intelligence Coordination Agency).
  3. BPI (Badan Pusat Intelijen/Central Intelligence Agency).
  4. KIN (Komando Intelijen Negara/State Intelligence Command).
  5. BAKIN (Badan Koordinasi Intelijen Negara/State Intelligence Coordination Agency).
  6. BIN (Badan Intelijen Negara/State Intelligence Agency).

Organizational structure

Main organization

The organizational structure mainly based from Presidential Decree No. 90/2012 (State Intelligence Agency).[11] The organizational structure of the BIN was last amended by the Presidential Decree No. 79/2020 (Second Amendment of Presidential Decree No. 90/2012 Re: State Intelligence Agency). The decree was signed on 20 July 2020.[12] Under the Presidential Regulation, the BIN's organizational structure consists of 9 deputies, which later expanded by Chief BIN Decree No. 04/2020:[13]

Regional BIN Offices
Regional BIN Offices are regional offices located in each provinces that carried BIN functions in domestic intelligence. These offices are subordinate to Deputy II.

Training facility

BIN possessed primary education and training facility called STIN, Sekolah Tinggi Intelijen Negara (State Intelligence College). It has undergraduate, master, and doctoral level education for intelligence in Indonesia. All BIN graduates will become part BIN human resource after graduation.[14] During COVID-19 pandemic situation, in September 2019, Budi Gunawan announced that STIN will open Medical Intelligence program.[15] In April 2021, STIN opened their Medical Intelligence program, along with the expansion of the programs under STIN.[16]

The current training programs of STIN are:

Aside of the STIN, BIN possessed another education and training facility called Education and Training Center, under the Main Secretariat office. Unlike training provided by STIN, training in Education and Training Center are much specialized.[13]

Para-commando unit

BIN also possessed at least one para-commando force unit. A unit codenamed "Rajawali" (Eagle) disclosed by Bambang Soesatyo, Speaker of People's Consultative Assembly. The existence of the unit surprised many Indonesians, as most Indonesians never know that the unit really exist. The unit signified with black full-body clad military attire, similar like Koopsus combat attire. In the press release, BIN acknowledged that Rajawali Force is a BIN specialized trained force trained in "special threats handling and deterrence". BIN also said that the unit does not has specific name attached, and every year, the name of the force always changed. Most of the details of the unit other than this are not disclosed.[17][18][19]

Activities

References

  1. ^ DPR RI, Komisi I. "Anggaran Meningkat, Kinerja BIN Diharapkan Meningkat". DPR.go.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  2. ^ "Indonesia's new Intelligence Agency. How?, Why?, and What for?". Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2006.
  3. ^ ."Indonesia's expanding spy network alarms reformers". The Christian Science Monitor. 4 February 2004. Retrieved 28 May 2006.
  4. ^ "Budi Gunawan Inaugurated as BIN Head". Tempo.co. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  5. ^ "Intelligence chief-to-be optimistic after health check". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 22 October 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  6. ^ "Syamsir Siregar, seasoned intelligence officer". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 20 November 2005. Retrieved 28 May 2006.
  7. ^ Sitompul, Martin (10 August 2018). "Muslihat Opsus di Papua". Historia - Majalah Sejarah Populer Pertama di Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  8. ^ Matanasi, Petrus (23 July 2020). "Sejarah KNPI: Lahir Karena Obsesi Ali Moertopo". mediakasasi.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  9. ^ a b Conboy, Kenneth J. (2004). Intel: Inside Indonesia's Intelligence Service. ISBN 9789799796448.
  10. ^ History of BIN
  11. ^ Sekretariat Kabinet Republik Indonesia (30 October 2012). "Peraturan Presiden Nomor 90 Tahun 2012 tentang Badan Intelijen Negara" (PDF). JDIH Sekretariat Kabinet Republik Indonesia. Retrieved 17 April 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  12. ^ Sekretariat Kabinet Republik Indonesia (20 July 2020). "Peraturan Presiden Nomor 79 Tahun 2020 tentang Perubahan Kedua atas Peraturan Presiden Nomor 90 Tahun 2012 tentang Badan Intelijen Negara" (PDF). JDIH Sekretariat Kabinet Republik Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 17 April 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. ^ a b c Badan Intelijen Negara (30 December 2020). "Peraturan Badan Intelijen Negara Nomor 04 Tahun 2020 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Badan Intelijen Negara" (PDF). JDIH Badan Intelijen Negara. Retrieved 17 April 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. ^ Sekolah Tinggi Intelijen Negara. "Program Studi - Sekolah Tinggi Intelijen Negara". Sekolah Tinggi Intelijen Negara (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 August 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  15. ^ Jemadu, Liberty; Yasir, Muhammad (11 September 2020). "Pandemi Covid-19, Kepala BIN Buka Program Studi Intelijen Medik di STIN". suara.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 August 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  16. ^ Radiansyah (21 April 2021). "STIN Buka Pendaftaran, Peluang Bagi Peminat Dunia Intelegent - Potensi Bisnis". Potensi Bisnis (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 August 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  17. ^ Kholid, Idham. "Bangganya Bamsoet pada Pasukan Khusus Rajawali dari BIN". detiknews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  18. ^ detikcom, Tim. "Pakar Intelijen Mengungkap Fakta 'Pasukan Khusus Rajawali' BIN". detiknews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  19. ^ Laoli, Neverius (15 September 2020). "Penjelasan BIN terkait keberadaan Pasukan Khusus Rajawali yang lagi viral - Page all". kontan.co.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 August 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  20. ^ Conboy, Kenneth J. (2004). Intel: Inside Indonesia's Intelligence Service. ISBN 9789799796448.
  21. ^ "Indonesian spying on East Timorese exiles".
  22. ^ "Is Indonesia a terrorist base?".
  23. ^ Conboy, Ken (2004). Intel: Inside Indonesia's Intelligence Service. Jakarta: Equinox Publishing. p. 229. ISBN 979-97964-4-X.
  24. ^ Packham, Ben (19 November 2013). "Indonesia spied on Australia in 2004, says ex-intelligence chief". The Australian. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  25. ^ Nicholson, Brendan (15 November 2004). "Indonesia 'bugged' Australia". The Age. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  26. ^ "Jakarta's intelligence service hires Washington lobbyists - ICIJ". 7 September 2006.
  27. ^ "The Jakarta Post - The Journal of Indonesia Today". 16 November 2004. Archived from the original on 16 November 2004. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  28. ^ "As Indonesia's New President Takes Office, Cabinet Includes Officials Tied to Atrocities of Old". Democracy Now!. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  29. ^ "BKPM teams up with spy agency to help investors - the Jakarta Post".
  30. ^ https://news.mongabay.com/2015/06/ngos-activists-fret-new-role-for-indonesias-spy-agency/amp/
  31. ^ Deri, Ansel (30 April 2020). "Peran BIN Dalam Penanganan Covid 19". Tribunnews.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 August 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  32. ^ Sucipto (28 September 2020). "Keterlibatan BIN Dalam Penanganan Covid-19 Sesuai UU Intelijen Negara". SINDOnews.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 August 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  33. ^ Wuragil, Zacharias (7 October 2020). "Ada BIN di Riset Obat dan Alat Tes Covid-19, Ini Kata Menristek". Tempo (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 August 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  34. ^ Khadijah, Nurul (4 March 2021). "BIN Ikut Aktif Meneliti Virus Corona, Klaim Temukan 2 Kasus Varian B117 dari 426 Spesimen di Indonesia - Pikiran-Rakyat.com". www.pikiran-rakyat.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 August 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  35. ^ Lubabah, Raynaldo Ghifari (28 July 2021). "Jalankan Perintah Jokowi, BIN Gelar Vaksinasi Door to Door di Serang". merdeka.com. Retrieved 3 August 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  36. ^ 20Detik. "Riset Vaksin COVID-19 UNAIR Dibiayai BIN". 20DETIK (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 August 2021.