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Marie Anne
Grande Duchesse Maria Anna de Luxembourg.jpg
Marie Anne by the mid 1890's
Grand Duchess consort of Luxembourg
Tenure17 November 1905 – 25 February 1912
Regent of Luxembourg
Tenure19 November 1908 – 18 June 1912
Born(1861-07-13)13 July 1861
Bronnbach Castle, Wertheim am Main, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Confederation
Died31 July 1942(1942-07-31) (aged 81)
New York City, U.S.
Burial
Spouse
(m. 1893; died 1912)
Issue
HouseBraganza
FatherMiguel I of Portugal
MotherPrincess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Infanta Marie Anne of Portugal (Portuguese: Maria Ana; 13 July 1861 – 31 July 1942) was Grand Duchess of Luxembourg as the wife of Grand Duke Guillaume IV. She was the regent of Luxembourg between 1908 and 1912; first during the illness of her spouse, and then in the name of their daughter, Grand Duchess Marie-Adélaïde.

Family

Born at Schloss Bronnbach in Bronnbach, Wertheim am Main, Kingdom of Württemberg, Infanta Marie Anne (or Maria Ana) was the fifth child and second-youngest daughter of the deposed King Miguel of Portugal and his wife Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg. She was a member of the House of Braganza. At the time of her birth, her father had been exiled, and the family lived as guests in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

In spite of their circumstances, the daughters of Princess Adélaïde and Miguel made royal marriages, some to reigning monarchs and deposed heads of Roman Catholic European dynasties.

Marriage and children

Before her marriage with William IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, she was considered by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria as a suitable bride to his only son and heir, Crown Prince Rudolf, but Rudolf did not like her, and she would remain single for the next years.

Maria Ana was married on 21 June 1893 at Schloss Fischhorn, Zell am See, to the Protestant Wilhelm, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, the son and heir apparent of Adolf, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, head of the House of Nassau. It was agreed that the children would be raised in their mother's Catholic faith, the religion of the overwhelming majority of Luxembourg's population.

Marie Anne with her daughters, August 1920.
Marie Anne with her daughters, August 1920.

The couple had six daughters.

Grand Duchess and regent

Wilhelm IV became grand duke on the death of his father on 17 November 1905, and Marie Anne became grand duchess. Because Wilhelm was the last agnate of the House of Nassau, he had Marie-Adélaïde confirmed and proclaimed heir presumptive on 10 July 1907.

Marie Anne was regent for her husband during his terminal illness from 19 November 1908 to 15 February 1912. She then continued as regent for her daughter, Grand Duchess Marie-Adélaïde, during her minority from 25 February 1912 to 18 June 1912. Marie-Adélaïde eventually abdicated in favor of her younger sister, Marie Anne's second daughter Charlotte in 1919.

During World War II the grand ducal family left Luxembourg shortly before the arrival of Nazi troops, settling in France until their capitulation, in June 1940.

Subsequently, the family and Grand Duchess Charlotte’s ministers received transit visas to Portugal from the Portuguese consul Aristides de Sousa Mendes, in June 1940. After travelling through Coimbra and Lisbon, the family first stayed in Cascais, in Casa de Santa Maria, owned by Manuel Espírito Santo, who was then the honorary consul for Luxembourg in Portugal. By July they had moved to Monte Estoril, staying at the Chalet Posser de Andrade. Marie Anne stayed in Monte Estoril with her daughter, the Grand Duchess Charlotte, until 3 October 1940. On the same day, they boarded the Pan Am Yankee Clipper headed for New York City, from where they then left for Canada. With them travelled Prince Félix’s aide de camp Guillaume Konsbruck, his wife Nelly and their sons, Guy and Carlo.[1][2]

Marie Anne died in exile in New York on 31 July 1942.

See also

Ancestry

References

  1. ^ A fuga da família grã-ducal”, by Margarida de Magalhães Ramalho (2019).
  2. ^ Exiles Memorial Center.
Infanta Marie Anne of Portugal House of BraganzaCadet branch of the House of AvizBorn: 13 July 1861 Died: 31 July 1942 Luxembourgish royalty Preceded byPrincess Adelheid-Marie of Anhalt-Dessau Grand Duchess consort of Luxembourg 1905–1912 VacantTitle next held byPrince Felix of Bourbon-Parmaas prince consort