International Cricket Council
AbbreviationICC
PredecessorImperial Cricket Conference (1909–1965)
International Cricket Conference (1965–1989)
Formation15 June 1909; 115 years ago (1909-06-15)
TypeFederation of national associations
Headquarters
  • London, England (1909–2005)
  • Dubai, United Arab Emirates (2005–present)
Membership
108 members
Official languages
English
Greg Barclay
Deputy Chairman
Imran Khwaja
CEO
Geoff Allardice[1]
General Manager
Wasim Khan
Revenue (2023)
US$596.014 million[2]
Expenses (2023)US$208.375 million[2]
Award(s)ICC Awards
Websiteicc-cricket.com

The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the global governing body of cricket. It was founded as the Imperial Cricket Conference in 1909 by representatives from Australia, England, and South Africa. It was renamed as the International Cricket Conference in 1965 and adopted its current name in 1987. The ICC has its headquarters in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

The ICC currently has 108 member nations: 12 Full Members that play Test matches, and 96 Associate Members.[3] The ICC is responsible for the organisation and governance of cricket's major international tournaments, most notably the Cricket World Cup, T20 World Cup, and ICC World Test Championship. It also appoints the umpires and referees that officiate at all sanctioned Test matches, One Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. It promulgates the ICC Code of Conduct, which sets professional standards of discipline for international cricket,[4] and also co-ordinates action against corruption and match-fixing through its Anti-Corruption and Security Unit (ACSU).

The ICC does not control bilateral fixtures between member countries (which include all Test matches outside of the World Test Championship Final), and neither does it govern domestic cricket within member countries. It does not make or alter the laws of the game, which have remained under the governance of the Marylebone Cricket Club since 1788.[5]

The Chairman heads the board of directors and on June 26, 2014, Narayanaswami Srinivasan, the former president of BCCI, was announced as the first chairman of the council.[6] The role of ICC president became a largely honorary position after the establishment of the chairman role and other changes made to the ICC constitution in 2014. It has been claimed that the 2014 changes have handed control to the 'Big Three' nations of England, India and Australia.[7] The last ICC president was Zaheer Abbas,[8] who was appointed in June 2015 following the resignation of Mustafa Kamal in April 2015. When the post of ICC president was abolished in April 2016, Shashank Manohar, who replaced Srinivasan in October 2015, became the first independent elected chairman of the ICC.[9]

History

This section is in list format but may read better as prose. You can help by converting this section, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (December 2023)

1909–1963 – Imperial Cricket Conference

On 30 November 1907, Abe Bailey, the President of the South African Cricket Association, wrote a letter to the Marylebone Cricket Club's (MCC, England) secretary, Francis Lacey. Bailey suggested the formation of an 'Imperial Cricket Board'. In the letter, he suggested that the board would be responsible for the formulation of rules and regulations that would govern the bilateral international matches of the three members, Australia, England and South Africa. Bailey wanted to host a Triangular Test series among the participant countries in South Africa. However, Australia rejected the offer. Still, Bailey did not lose hope. He saw an opportunity of getting the three members together during Australia's tour of England in 1909. After continued lobbying and efforts, Bailey was successful.[10]

On 15 June 1909, representatives from England, Australia and South Africa met at Lord's and founded the Imperial Cricket Conference. A month later, a second meeting between the three members was held. The rules were agreed upon amongst the nations, and the first-ever Tri-Test series was decided to be held in England in 1912.[10]

In 1926, West Indies, New Zealand and India were elected as Full Members, doubling the number of Test-playing nations to six. After the formation of Pakistan in 1947, it was given Test status five years later in 1952, becoming the seventh Test-playing nation. In May 1961, South Africa left the Commonwealth and therefore lost membership.[10]

1964–1988 – International Cricket Conference

In 1964, the ICC agreed to include non-Test playing countries. The following year, the ICC changed its name to the International Cricket Conference. The US, Ceylon and Fiji were admitted as Associates, a new class of members.[11]

In 1968, Denmark, Bermuda, Netherlands, and East Africa were admitted as Associates, while South Africa had still not applied to rejoin the ICC.

In 1969, the basic rules of ICC were amended.

At the 1971 meeting, the idea of organizing a World Cup was introduced. At the 1973 meeting, it was decided that a World Cup would be played in 1975 in England. The six Test playing nations and East Africa and Sri Lanka were invited to take part.[11]

New members were added frequently during this period:

In 1974, Israel and Singapore were admitted as Associates.

In 1976, West Africa was admitted as an Associate.

In 1977, Bangladesh was admitted as an Associate.

In 1978, Papua-New Guinea was admitted as an Associate. South Africa applied to rejoin, but their application was rejected.

In 1981, Sri Lanka was promoted to a Full Member, and they played their first Test in 1982.

In 1984, a third class of membership (Affiliate) was introduced. Italy was the first such member, followed by Switzerland in 1985. In 1987, Bahamas and France were admitted, followed by Nepal in 1988.

1989–present – International Cricket Council

At the July 1989 meeting, the ICC renamed itself as the International Cricket Council, and the tradition of the MCC President automatically becoming the Chairman of ICC was abolished.[12]

In 1990, UAE joined as an Associate.

In 1991, for the first time in ICC history, the meeting was held away from England, in Melbourne, Australia. South Africa was re-elected as a Full Member of the ICC in July, following the end of apartheid.

In 1992, Zimbabwe was admitted as the ninth Full Member. Namibia joined as an Associate member. Austria, Belgium, Brunei and Spain all joined as Affiliates.

In 1993, the position of Chief Executive of ICC was created; David Richards of the Australian Cricket Board was the first person appointed to the position. In July, Sir Clyde Walcott, from Barbados, was elected as the first non-British Chairman. The emergence of new technology saw the introduction of a third umpire who was equipped with video playback facilities.

By 1995, TV replays were made available for run-outs and stumpings in Test matches, with the third umpire required to signal out or not out with red and green lights respectively. The following year, the cameras were used to determine if the ball had crossed the boundary.

In 1997 decisions on the cleanness of catches could be referred to the third umpire. This year also saw the introduction of the Duckworth-Lewis method, a way of adjusting targets in rain-affected ODI matches.

In 2000, Bangladesh was admitted as the tenth Full Member of the International Cricket Council.

In 2005, ICC moved to its new headquarters to Dubai.

In 2017, Afghanistan and Ireland were admitted as the eleventh and twelfth Full Members of the International Cricket Council after a unanimous vote at the ICC Full Council meeting at The Oval. Affiliate Membership was also abolished, with all existing Affiliate Members becoming Associate Members.

In 2018, all Women's T20 matches were elevated to Women's Twenty20 International status.

In 2019, all Men's T20 matches were elevated to Twenty20 International status.

In July 2022, Cambodia, Cote D'Ivoire, and Uzbekistan were granted associate member status by the ICC.[13][14]

Members

Main article: List of International Cricket Council members

Current ICC Members by Membership status:
  Full Members
  Associate Members with ODI status
  Associate Members
  Former or suspended Members
  Non-Members

Full Members – The 12 governing bodies of teams that have full voting rights within the International Cricket Council and play official Test matches.

Country Teams Governing body Full member since Test status since Region
 England MenWomenU19MU19W England and Wales Cricket Board 15 June 1909 15 March 1877 Europe
 Australia MenWomenU19MU19W Cricket Australia 15 June 1909 15 March 1877 East Asia-Pacific
 South Africa MenWomenU19MU19W Cricket South Africa 15 June 1909 12 March 1889 Africa
 West Indies MenWomenU19MU19W Cricket West Indies 31 May 1926 23 June 1928 Americas
 New Zealand MenWomenU19MU19W New Zealand Cricket 31 May 1926 10 January 1930 East Asia-Pacific
 India MenWomenU19MU19W Board of Control for Cricket in India 31 May 1926 25 June 1932 Asia
 Pakistan MenWomenU19MU19W Pakistan Cricket Board 28 July 1952 16 October 1952 Asia
 Sri Lanka MenWomenU19MU19W Sri Lanka Cricket 21 July 1981 21 July 1981 Asia
 Zimbabwe MenWomenU19MU19W Zimbabwe Cricket 6 July 1992 18 October 1992 Africa
 Bangladesh MenWomenU19MU19W Bangladesh Cricket Board 26 June 2000 10 November 2000 Asia
 Ireland MenWomenU19MU19W Cricket Ireland 22 June 2017 11 May 2018 Europe
 Afghanistan MenWomenU19M Afghanistan Cricket Board 22 June 2017 14 June 2018 Asia

Associate Members – The 96 governing bodies in countries where cricket is firmly established and organized, but have not been granted Full Membership yet.

Currently, 8 associate teams have temporary ODI status until 2027. These teams are one tier above the rest of the associate teams.

Country Governing body Associate
member
since
ODI
status
since
Region
 Netherlands Royal Dutch Cricket Association 1966 2018 Europe
 Canada Cricket Canada 1968 2023 Americas
 United Arab Emirates Emirates Cricket Board 1990 2014 Asia
 Namibia Cricket Namibia 1992 2019 Africa
 Scotland Cricket Scotland 1994 2005 Europe
   Nepal Cricket Association of Nepal 1996 2018 Asia
 Oman Oman Cricket 2014 2019 Asia
 United States of America USA Cricket 2019 2019 Americas

The details of all 96 associate teams are presented in the table below:

Country Teams Government Affiliate membership Associate membership Region
 Argentina MenWomenU19 Argentine Cricket Association N/A 1974 Americas
 Austria MenWomenU19 Austrian Cricket Association 1992 2017 Europe
 Bahamas MenWomenU19 Bahamas Cricket Association 1987 2017 Americas
 Bahrain MenWomenU19 Bahrain Cricket Association 2001 2017 Asia
 Belgium MenWomenU19 Belgian Cricket Federation 1991 2005 Europe
 Belize MenWomenU19 Belize National Cricket Association 1997 2017 Americas
 Bermuda MenWomenU19 Bermuda Cricket Board N/A 1966 Americas
 Bhutan MenWomenU19 Bhutan Cricket Council Board 2001 2017 Asia
 Botswana MenWomenU19 Botswana Cricket Association 2001 2005 Africa
 Brazil MenWomenU19 Brazilian Cricket Confederation 2002 2017 Americas
 Bulgaria MenWomenU19 Bulgarian Cricket Federation 2008 2017 Europe
 Cambodia MenWomenU19 Cricket Association of Cambodia N/A 2022 Asia
 Cameroon MenWomenU19 Cameroon Cricket Federation 2007 2017 Africa
 Canada MenWomenU19 Cricket Canada N/A 1968 Americas
 Cayman Islands MenWomenU19 Cayman Islands Cricket Association 1997 2002 Americas
 Chile MenWomenU19 Chilean Cricket Association 2002 2017 Americas
 China MenWomenU19 Chinese Cricket Association 2004 2017 Asia
 Cook Islands MenWomenU19 Cook Islands Cricket Association 2000 2017 East Asia-Pacific
 Costa Rica MenWomenU19 Costa Rica Cricket Federation 2002 2017 Americas
 Croatia MenWomenU19 Croatian Cricket Federation 2001 2017 Europe
 Cyprus MenWomenU19 Cyprus Cricket Association 1999 2017 Europe
 Czech Republic MenWomenU19 Czech Cricket Union 2000 2017 Europe
 Denmark MenWomenU19 Danish Cricket Federation N/A 1966 Europe
 Estonia MenWomenU19 Estonian Cricket Association 2008 2017 Europe
 Eswatini MenWomenU19 Eswatini Cricket Association 2007 2017 Africa
 Falkland Islands MenWomenU19 Falkland Cricket Association 2007 2017 Americas
 Fiji MenWomenU19 Cricket Fiji N/A 1965 East Asia-Pacific
 Finland MenWomenU19 Cricket Finland 2000 2017 Europe
 France MenWomenU19 France Cricket Association 1987 1998 Europe
 Gambia MenWomenU19 Gambia Cricket Association 2002 2017 Africa
 Germany MenWomenU19 German Cricket Federation 1991 1999 Europe
 Ghana MenWomenU19 Ghana Cricket Association 2002 2017 Africa
 Gibraltar MenWomenU19 Gibraltar Cricket Association N/A 1969 Europe
 Greece MenWomenU19 Hellenic Cricket Federation 1995 2017 Europe
 Guernsey MenWomenU19 Guernsey Cricket Board 2005 2008 Europe
 Hong Kong MenWomenU19 Cricket Hong Kong N/A 1969 Asia
 Hungary MenWomenU19 Hungarian Cricket Association 2012 2017 Europe
 Indonesia MenWomenU19 Cricket Indonesia 2001 2017 Asia/East Asia-Pacific
 Iran MenWomenU19 Islamic Republic of Iran Cricket Association 2003 2017 Asia
 Isle of Man MenWomenU19 Isle of Man Cricket Association 2004 2017 Europe
 Israel MenWomenU19 Israel Cricket Association N/A 1974 Europe
 Italy MenWomenU19 Italian Cricket Federation 1984 1995 Europe
 Côte d’Ivoire MenWomenU19 Côte d’Ivoire Cricket Federation N/A 2022 Africa
 Japan MenWomenU19 Japan Cricket Association 1989 2005 Asia/East Asia-Pacific
 Jersey MenWomenU19 Jersey Cricket Board 2005 2007 Europe
 Kenya MenWomenU19 Cricket Kenya N/A 1981 Africa
 Kuwait MenWomenU19 Cricket Kuwait 1998 2005 Asia
 Lesotho MenWomenU19 Lesotho Cricket Association 2001 2017 Africa
 Luxembourg MenWomenU19 Luxembourg Cricket Federation 1998 2017 Europe
 Malawi MenWomenU19 Cricket Malawi 1998 2017 Africa
 Malaysia MenWomenU19 Malaysian Cricket Association N/A 1967 Asia
 Maldives MenWomenU19 Cricket Board of Maldives 1998 2017 Asia
 Mali MenWomenU19 Malian Cricket Federation 2005 2017 Africa
 Malta MenWomenU19 Malta Cricket Association 1998 2017 Europe
 Mexico MenWomenU19 Mexico Cricket Association 2004 2017 Americas
 Mongolia MenWomenU19 Mongolia Cricket Association N/A 2021 Asia
 Mozambique MenWomenU19 Mozambican Cricket Association 2003 2017 Africa
 Myanmar MenWomenU19 Myanmar Cricket Federation 2006 2017 Asia
 Namibia MenWomenU19 Cricket Namibia N/A 1992 Africa
   Nepal MenWomenU19 Cricket Association of Nepal 1988 1996 Asia
 Netherlands MenWomenU19 Royal Dutch Cricket Association N/A 1966 Europe
 Nigeria MenWomenU19 Nigeria Cricket Federation N/A 2002 Africa
 Norway MenWomenU19 Norwegian Cricket Board 2000 2017 Europe
 Oman MenWomenU19 Oman Cricket 2000 2014 Asia
 Panama MenWomenU19 Panama Cricket Association 2002 2017 Americas
 Papua New Guinea MenWomenU19 Cricket PNG N/A 1973 East Asia-Pacific
 Peru MenWomenU19 Peru Cricket Association 2007 2017 Americas
 Philippines MenWomenU19 Philippine Cricket Association 2000 2017 East Asia-Pacific
 Portugal MenWomenU19 Portuguese Cricket Federation 1996 2017 Europe
 Qatar MenWomenU19 Qatar Cricket Association 1999 2017 Asia
 Romania MenWomenU19 Cricket Romania 2013 2017 Europe
 Rwanda MenWomenU19 Rwanda Cricket Association 2003 2017 Africa
 Saint Helena MenWomenU19 St Helena Cricket Association 2001 2017 Africa
 Samoa MenWomenU19 Samoa International Cricket Association 2000 2017 East Asia-Pacific
 Saudi Arabia MenWomenU19 Saudi Arabian Cricket Federation 2003 2016 Asia
 Scotland MenWomenU19 Cricket Scotland N/A 1994 Europe
 Serbia MenWomenU19 Serbian Cricket Federation 2015 2017 Europe
 Seychelles MenWomenU19 Seychelles Cricket Association 2010 2017 Africa
 Sierra Leone MenWomenU19 Sierra Leone Cricket Association 2002 2017 Africa
 Singapore MenWomenU19 Singapore Cricket Association N/A 1974 Asia
 Slovenia MenWomenU19 Slovenian Cricket Association 2005 2017 Europe
 South Korea MenWomenU19 Korea Cricket Association 2001 2017 East Asia-Pacific
 Spain MenWomenU19 Cricket Spain 1992 2017 Europe
 Suriname MenWomenU19 Suriname Cricket Board 2002 2011 Americas
 Sweden MenWomenU19 Swedish Cricket Federation 1997 2017 Europe
  Switzerland MenWomenU19 Cricket Switzerland 1985[a] 2021 Europe
 Tajikistan MenWomenU19 Tajikistan Cricket Federation N/A 2021 Asia
 Tanzania MenWomenU19 Tanzania Cricket Association N/A 2001 Africa
 Thailand MenWomenU19 Cricket Association of Thailand 1995 2005 Asia
 Turkey MenWomenU19 Cricket Turkey 2008 2017 Europe
 Turks and Caicos Islands MenWomenU19 Turks and Caicos Cricket Association 2002 2017 Americas
 Uganda MenWomenU19 Uganda Cricket Association N/A 1998 Africa
 United Arab Emirates MenWomenU19 Emirates Cricket Board 1989 1990 Asia
 United States of America MenWomenU19 USA Cricket N/A 1965[b]

2019

Americas
 Uzbekistan MenWomenU19 Cricket Federation of Uzbekistan N/A 2022 Asia
 Vanuatu MenWomenU19 Vanuatu Cricket Association 1995 2009 East Asia-Pacific


Location

The ICC's offices in Dubai

Since its creation, the ICC had the Lord's Cricket Ground as its home, and in 1993 moved its offices to the "Clock Tower" building at the nursery end of the ground. The independently run ICC was funded initially by commercial exploitation of the rights to the World Cup of One Day International cricket. As not all Member countries had double-tax agreements with the United Kingdom, it was necessary to protect cricket's revenues by creating a company, ICC Development (International) Pvt. Ltd, known as IDI outside the UK. This was established in January 1994 and was based in Monaco [This paragraph needs citation(s)].

For the remainder of the nineties, the administration of IDI was a modest affair. But with the negotiation of a bundle of rights to all ICC events from 2001 to 2008, revenues available to International cricket and the ICC member countries rose substantially. This led to a growth in the number of commercial staff employed by IDI in Monaco. It also had the disadvantage that the council's cricket administrators, who remained at Lord's, were separated from their commercial colleagues in Monaco. The Council decided to seek ways of bringing all of their staff together in one office while protecting their commercial income from tax.[This paragraph needs citation(s)]

The option of staying at Lord's was investigated and a request was made, through Sport England, to the British Government to allow the ICC to have all its personnel (including those working on commercial matters) in London – but be given special exemption from paying UK corporation tax on its commercial income. The British Government was unwilling to create a precedent and would not agree to this request. As a consequence, the ICC examined other locations and eventually settled on the city of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. The ICC is also registered in British Virgin Islands. In August 2005, the ICC moved its offices to Dubai, and subsequently closed its offices at Lord's and Monaco. The move to Dubai was made after an 11–1 vote by the ICC's executive board in favour.[18]

While the principal driver of the ICC's move to Dubai was the wish to bring its main employees together in one tax-efficient location, a secondary reason was the wish to move offices closer to the increasingly important new centres of cricketing power in South Asia. Lord's had been a logical venue when the ICC had been administered by the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) (a situation that lasted until 1993). But the growing power of India and Pakistan in world cricket had made the continued control of international cricket by a British private members club (the MCC) anachronistic and unsustainable. A direct consequence of the changes and reforms instituted in 1993 was eventually to be the move away from Lord's to a more neutral venue.[19]

Income generation

Variant ICC Logo with old motto

The ICC generates income from the tournaments it organises, primarily the Cricket World Cup, and it distributes the majority of that income to its members. Sponsorship and television rights of the World Cup brought in over US$1.6 billion between 2007 and 2015, by far the ICC's main source of income.[20][21] In the nine-month accounting period to 31 December 2007 the ICC had operating income of $12.66 million, mainly from member subscriptions and sponsorship. In contrast, event income was US$285.87 million, including $239 million from the 2007 World Cup. There was also investment income of $6.695 million in the period. In 2022 ICC generated US$208,375,000 as an net income.[22]

The ICC has no income streams from the bilateral international cricket matches (Test matches, One Day International and Twenty20 Internationals), that account for the great majority of the international playing schedule, as they are owned and run by its members. It has sought to create other new events to augment its World Cup revenues. These include the ICC Champions Trophy and the ICC Super Series played in Australia in 2005. However, these events have not been as successful as the ICC hoped. The Super Series was widely seen as a failure and is not expected to be repeated, and India called for the Champions Trophy to be scrapped in 2006.[23] The Champions Trophy 2004 event was referred to in Wisden 2005 by the editor as a "turkey of a tournament" and a "fiasco"; although the 2006 event was seen as a greater success due to a new format.[24][25]

The ICC World Twenty20, first played in 2007, was a success. The ICC's current plan is to have an international tournament every year, with a Twenty20 World Cup played in even number years, the World Cup continuing to be held the year before the Olympic Games, and the ICC Champions Trophy in the remaining year of the cycle. This cycle began in 2010, one year after the 2009 tournament.

International tournaments

Main article: International cricket

ICC Trophies

The ICC organizes various international Test, One-Day and Twenty20 cricket competitions for Men, Women and Under-19 national teams. The details are presented in the table below:

Tournament Latest edition Format Champions Next edition
Men
ICC World Test Championship 2021-23 England Test  Australia 2023-25 England
ICC Cricket World Cup 2023 India ODI  Australia 2027 South Africa Zimbabwe Namibia
ICC Champions Trophy 2017 England Wales  Pakistan 2025 Pakistan
ICC T20 World Cup 2024 Cricket West Indies United States T20I  India 2026 India Sri Lanka
Women
ICC Women's Cricket World Cup 2022 New Zealand WODI  Australia 2025 India
ICC Women's T20 World Cup 2023 South Africa WT20I  Australia 2024 Bangladesh
ICC Women's Champions Trophy 2027 Sri Lanka TBD 2031
Under-19
ICC Men's Under-19 World Cup 2024 South Africa 50 overs  Australia 2026 Zimbabwe Namibia
ICC Women's Under-19 T20 World Cup 2023 South Africa T20  India 2025 Malaysia Thailand

Additionally, The ICC in association with Commonwealth Games Federation and International Olympic Committee also conducts Twenty20 Cricket Tournament for Women in Commonwealth Games and Cricket at the Summer Olympics (for both) respectively.

Qualifiers

The ICC organizes qualifying tournaments for various international main events.

Format ODI T20I
Men ICC Men's Cricket World Cup Qualifier ICC Men's T20 World Cup Qualifier, Regional Qualifiers
ICC Cricket World Cup Super League (now defunct)
Women ICC Women's Cricket World Cup Qualifier ICC Women's T20 World Cup Qualifier
ICC Women's Championship

Starting with the 2024 ICC Men's T20 World Cup, the Global Qualifiers will no longer take place and teams will qualify directly based on their performance in the previous T20 World Cup and from regional qualifiers.

Leagues

ICC conducts world cup qualifying leagues for associate teams. A two-tier league system with promotion & relegation where best performing teams qualify for ICC Cricket World Cup Qualifier.

Tier League Teams Current edition
1 ICC Cricket World Cup League 2 8 2024-2026
2 ICC Cricket World Cup Challenge League 12 2024-2026

In addition, there are two playoff events which are part of World cup qualification process and essentially connected to the leagues above mentioned.

Rules and regulation

The International Cricket Council oversees playing conditions, bowling reviews, and other ICC regulations. The ICC does not have copyright to the Laws of Cricket: only the MCC may change the Laws, though this is usually done in consultation with the game's global governing body.[citation needed] The ICC maintains a set of playing conditions for international cricket which make slight amendments to the Laws. They also have a "Code of Conduct" to which teams and players in international matches are required to adhere. Where breaches of this code occur the ICC can apply sanctions, usually fines. In 2008, the ICC imposed 19 penalties on players. ICC announces changes to Playing Conditions.[26]

Umpires and referees

The ICC appoints international umpires and match referees who officiate at all sanctioned Test matches, One-Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. The ICC operates three panels of umpires: the Elite Panel, the International Panel, and the Associates and Affiliates Panel.

As of March 2012, the Elite Panel included twelve umpires. In theory, two umpires from the Elite Panel officiate at every Test match, while one Elite Panel umpire stands in ODI matches together with an umpire from the International Panel. In practice, members of the International Panel stand in occasional Test matches, as this is viewed an excellent good opportunity to see whether they can cope at the Test level and whether they should be elevated to the Elite Panel. Members of the Elite Panel are full-time employees of the ICC, although they do still, very occasionally, umpire first-class cricket in their country of residence. The average annual officiating schedule for Elite Umpires is 8–10 Test matches and 10–15 ODIs, a potential on-field workload of 75 days per year, plus travel and preparation time.[27]

The International Panel is made up of officials nominated from each of the ten Test-playing cricket boards. The Panel Members officiate in ODI matches in their home country, and assist the Elite Panel at peak times in the cricket calendar when they can be appointed to overseas ODI and Test matches. International Panel members also undertake overseas umpiring assignments such as the ICC Under 19 Cricket World Cup to improve their knowledge and understanding of overseas condition, and help them prepare for possible promotion to the Elite Panel. Some of these umpires also officiate in the Cricket World Cup. Each of the Test cricket boards nominates a "third umpire" who can be called upon to review certain on-field decisions through instant television replays. All third umpires are first-class umpires in their own country, and the role is seen as a step onto the International Panel, and then the Elite Panel.[28]

The inaugural ICC Associate and Affiliate International Umpires Panel was formed in June 2006. It superseded the ICC Associate and Affiliate International Umpires Panel, created in 2005, and serves as the pinnacle for umpires from non-Test playing Members, with selection achieved through each of the five ICC Development Program Regional Umpires Panels.

Members of the Associate and Affiliate International Umpires Panel are eligible for appointments to ODIs involving ICC Associate Members, ICC Intercontinental Cup matches and other Associate and Affiliate tournaments. High-performing umpires may also be considered for other ICC events, including the ICC U/19 Cricket World Cup, and could also be invited to be involved in the ICC Champions Trophy and ICC Cricket World Cup.[29]

There is also an Elite Panel of ICC Referees who act as the independent representative of the ICC at all Test and ODI matches. As of January 2009, it had 6 members, all highly experienced former international cricketers. The Referees do not have the power to report players or officials (which has to be done by the umpires), but they are responsible for conducting hearings under the ICC Code of Conduct and imposing penalties as required at matches, ranging from an official reprimand to a lifetime ban from cricket. Decisions can be appealed, but the original decision is upheld in most cases.

The Council failed to achieve consensus among the cricket-playing nations – as of June 2012 – on the universal application of an Umpire's Decision Review System, due to opposition by BCCI. It will continue to be applied subject to mutual agreement of the playing countries.[30] In July 2012, ICC decided to send a delegation to show the ball tracking research done by Ed Rosten, an expert on computer vision and technology, to BCCI to remove the skepticism about the use of DRS technology.[31][32]

Regional bodies

These regional bodies aim to organise, promote and develop the game of cricket:

The ICC regional bodies which looks after regions not covered by regional bodies of Asia and Africa:

The regional body for Europe was disestablished following which ICC took over operations:

Two further regional bodies were disestablished following the creation of the African Cricket Association:

Rankings and awards

Main article: International cricket

Rankings

The ICC publishes team rankings for all three formats of the game and updates the same periodically.

Men's

Women's

The ICC Player Rankings are a widely followed system of rankings for international cricketers based on their recent performances.

Men's

Women's

Awards

Main article: ICC Awards

The ICC has instituted the ICC Awards to recognize and honor the best international cricket players of the previous 12 months. The inaugural ICC Awards ceremony was held on 7 September 2004, in London.[33] In 2020, ICC announced a special one-off event, the ICC Awards of the Decade to honour the best performers and performances in the previous 10 years.[34]

The ICC Development Awards were established in 2002 to celebrate the world-leading initiatives and innovative programmes delivered by ICC Members to grow the game around the globe.[35]

Anti-corruption and security

The ICC has also had to deal with drugs and bribery scandals involving top cricketers. Following the corruption scandals by cricketers connected with the legal and illegal bookmaking markets, the ICC set up an Anti-Corruption and Security Unit (ACSU) in 2000 under the retired Commissioner of London's Metropolitan Police, Lord Condon. Among the corruption on which they have reported was that of former South African captain Hansie Cronje who had accepted substantial sums of money from an Indian bookmaker for under-performing or ensuring that certain matches had a pre-determined result. Similarly, the former Indian captain Mohammad Azharuddin and Ajay Jadeja were investigated, found guilty of match-fixing, and banned from playing cricket (for life and for five years, respectively). The ACSU continues to monitor and investigate any reports of corruption in cricket and protocols have been introduced, which for example prohibit the use of mobile telephones in dressing rooms.

Prior to the 2007 Cricket World Cup, ICC chief executive Malcolm Speed warned against any corruption and stated that the ICC would be vigilant and intolerant against it.[36]

Following a scandal that occurred during the 2010 Pakistan tour of England, 3 Pakistani players, Mohammad Amir, Mohammad Asif and Salman Butt were found to be guilty of spot-fixing, and were banned for 5 years, 7 years and 10 years respectively. On 3 November 2011, jail terms were handed down of 30 months for Butt, one year for Asif, six months for Amir and two years and eight months for Majeed, the sports agent that facilitated the bribes.[37][38][39][40]

In 2019, an investigation by Al Jazeera revealed match-fixing in Sri-Lanka, India, England, Australia and other cricket playing nations.[41] The ICC launched an investigation corcerning the report.

Global Cricket Academy

Main article: ICC Global Cricket Academy

The ICC Global Cricket Academy (GCA) is located at Dubai Sports City in the United Arab Emirates. The GCA's facilities include two ovals, each with 10 turf pitches, outdoor turf and synthetic practice facilities, indoor practice facilities including hawk eye technology and a cricket-specific gymnasium. Rod Marsh has been appointed as the academy's Director of Coaching. The opening, originally planned for 2008, took place in 2010.

ICC Cricket World Program

Main article: ICC Cricket World Program

The International Cricket Council telecasts a weekly program on television called ICC Cricket World. It is produced by Sportsbrand.

It is a weekly 30-minute program providing the latest cricket news, recent cricket action including all Test and One-Day International matches, as well as off-field features and interviews.

Criticism

In 2015, Sam Collins and Jarrod Kimber made the documentary Death of a Gentleman on the internal organisation of the ICC, saying that the richer member countries (specifically India, England and Australia) were "bullying" the ICC and running the organisation to the detriment of the other members.[42]

See also

References

  1. ^ Switzerland were admitted in 1985, but were expelled in 2012,[15][16] before being readmitted in July 2021.[17]
  2. ^ The USA were admitted as an associate member in 1965 under the governance of the United States of America Cricket Association, which was expelled in September 2017. USA Cricket was admitted in January 2019.
  1. ^ "ICC appoints Geoff Allardice as CEO on permanent basis". Cricbuzz. Retrieved 21 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b ICC Consolidated Financial Statements – 31 December 2023 (PDF). International Cricket Council. p. 7. Retrieved 30 May 2024.
  3. ^ "ICC Members". ICC. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  4. ^ "International Cricket Council – ICC Events, ICC Cricket Rankings, Live Cricket Scores" (PDF). Icc-cricket.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  5. ^ "Laws". www.lords.org. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  6. ^ "Srinivasan elected as the new Chairman of ICC from July 2014 onwards". Jagran Prakashan. 10 February 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
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  8. ^ "Zaheer Abbas Appointed ICC President". Gulf News. 25 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
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  11. ^ a b "International Cricket Council". www.icc-cricket.com. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  12. ^ "International Cricket Council". www.icc-cricket.com. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  13. ^ "Three new countries receive ICC Membership status". www.icc-cricket.com. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  14. ^ Kumar, Manoj (27 July 2022). "Cambodia, Uzbekistan and Cote D'Ivoire receive membership status from ICC". CricTracker. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  15. ^ "ICC expel Switzerland". Cricket Switzerland. 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2020.
  16. ^ "When Switzerland became the first country to have its ICC affiliate status revoked". Cricket Country. 26 June 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2020.
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