• International Society for Krishna Consciousness
AbbreviationISKCON
Formation13 July 1966 (58 years ago) (1966-07-13) New York City, United States
FounderA. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
TypeReligious organization
Legal statusFoundation
HeadquartersMayapur, Nabadwip, Nadia, West Bengal, India
Location
  • 800+ temples and centres[1]
Coordinates23°25′29″N 88°23′20″E / 23.4248°N 88.3889°E / 23.4248; 88.3889
Area served
Worldwide
Main organ
Governing Body Commission
AffiliationsGaudiya Vaishnavism (Hinduism)
Websitewww.iskcon.org

The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu religious organization. It was founded on 13 July 1966 in New York City by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.[2] Its main headquarters is located in Mayapur, West Bengal, India.

Its unique form of monotheistic core beliefs are based on Hindu scriptures, particularly Prabhupada's commentaries and translations of the Bhagavad Gita and the Bhagavata Purana. ISKCON is "the largest and, arguably, most important branch" of Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition,[3] which has had adherents in India since the early 16th century and its American and European devotees since the mid and late 20th century.[4] It has around 10 million followers worldwide.[5]

The religious organization practices vegetarianism and was initially formed to spread the practice of Bhakti yoga. Its followers, called bhaktas, dedicate both their thoughts and actions towards pleasing Krishna, whom they consider the Supreme Personality of Godhead.[6] Its most rapid expansion in registered membership has been within India and (after the collapse of the Soviet Union) in Russia and other formerly Soviet-aligned states of Eastern Europe.[7]

History and belief

[edit]
Pancha-Tattva deities: Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Nityananda, Advaita Acharya, Gadadhara and Srivasa, installed in a Gaudiya Vaishnava temple
ISKCON's Bhajan during Navratri Golu at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

ISKCON devotees follow a disciplic line of Gaudiya Vaishnavas and are the largest branch of Gaudiya Vaishnavism.[3] Vaishnavism means 'worship of Vishnu', and Gauḍa refers to the area where this particular branch of Vaishnavism originated, in the Gauda region of West Bengal and Bangladesh. Gaudiya Vaishnavism has had a following in India, especially West Bengal and Odisha, for the past five hundred years. Gaudiya Vaishnavism was founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, who rapidly spread his form of ecstatic bhakti (devotion) throughout Bengal. He established Sankirtan, the practice of publicly expressing devotion to Krishna, the Supreme God, through dance and song. This form of communal worship responded to rigid caste structures by engaging all people in worship regardless of caste and creed. Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu emphasized chanting the Hare Krishna Mahamantra (the 'great mantra'). He is considered by Gaudiya Vaishnavas to be an incarnation of Krishna himself.[8][9]

Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, believed to have direct lineage with Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, brought Chaitanya's Gaudiya Vaishnavism to the West in 1965.[10] At 70 years old, he landed in New York without any money (40 rupees of Indian currency). Instead of preaching to New York's elite, he tapped into the 1960s countercultural spirit by preaching and chanting in public parks and attracting hippies and the youth. His movement, then known as the "Hare Krishna Movement", grew even larger when he relocated to San Francisco a year later.[9] When it spread to England, it gained publicity and financial backing from the Beatles' George Harrison. He recorded several tracks with the Hare Krishnas and included the Mahamantra in his hit track "My Sweet Lord".[11] The first Hare Krishna commune, New Vrindavan (West Virginia), was established by Prabhupada in 1968.[8] Since then, ISKCON has established more than 800 centers all over the world and has millions of followers.[11]

Key to the spread of Gaudiya Vaishnava theology in the Western world were Prabhupada's writings and translations,[12] including the Bhagavad Gita As It Is, Srimad Bhagavatam (Bhagavata Purana), Chaitanya Charitamrita, and other scriptures. These works are now available in more than seventy languages and serve as the scriptures of ISKCON.[13]

Singular worship of Krishna

[edit]

ISKCON describes Krishna as the original source of all the avatars of the Almighty God.[14] Registered members worship Krishna as the highest form of God, svayam bhagavan, and often refer to him as the Supreme Personality of Godhead in their published writing, which was a phrase coined by Prabhupada in his books on the subject.

For its devotees, Radha represents Krishna's divine female counterpart, the original spiritual potency, and the embodiment of devotional love. The individual soul has an eternal spiritual identity which does not ultimately merge into the non-dual consciousness (Brahman) as believed by the monistic (Advaita) schools of Hinduism. Prabhupada most frequently offers Sanatana-dharma and Varnashrama dharma as more accurate names for the religious system which accepts Vedic authority.[15]

Pious believers both teach and claim that Krishna is greater and far magnanimous than the traditionalist Hindu Trimurti of Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma and all its conceived emanations. It is a monotheistic tradition which has its roots in the theistic Vedanta traditions.[16]

Religious practices

[edit]
Statue of Prabhupada, the founder of ISKCON.
Hare Krishna Ratha-Yatra through the streets of Boston, Massachusetts.

The most famous and publicly recognizable ISKCON practice is kirtan, a congregational chanting or singing of the Hare Krishna mantra. Kirtan is both a way to express devotion to God and a way to attract newcomers to the movement. Devotees gather in public, in streets and parks, to sing the mantra accompanied by instruments like the mridanga, hand cymbals, and the harmonium. During the 1970s, ISKCON entered the public eye because of this practice. Devotees would sing, distribute books, and proselytize in airports and other public areas, often obtrusively. Sankirtan continues throughout the world today, but in a less confrontational manner.[17]

Japa is another important religious practice within ISKCON and Gaudiya Vaishnavism. It is the meditative practice of repeatedly chanting the names of Krishna on a set of prayer beads. Its believers chant a mantra:

Hare Krishna Hare Krishna
Krishna Krishna Hare Hare
Hare Rama Hare Rama
Rama Rama Hare Hare

on the chanting bead. This mantra is repeated 108 times on the bead. Devotees usually chant 16 rounds of this everyday.[18] It is considered the only way of salvation for people in the current age of Kali. Prabhupada established a standard for initiated devotees to chant sixteen rounds of the Hare Krishna Mahamantra on a Japamala containing 108 beads, daily.[19] Each round consists of 1728 repetitions of the names of Krishna.[20]

Arati is also an important tenet (also called puja) of ISKCON. During arati, devotees offer water, incense, a fire lamp, and flowers to a murti, a sacred statue or image of Krishna. This is accompanied by prayers and devotional songs called bhajans. Practitioners may perform arati at their own home or congregate at a temple to join in the ceremony. Along with this worship, devotees will bathe the murti, dress it, offer it food, and even put it to sleep. By doing arati and serving the murti, devotees aim to deepen their relationship with Krishna.[17]

ISKCON devotees meet regularly (typically on Sunday at a program known as the Sunday Feast)[21] to worship deities, listen to discourses by senior devotees, participate in kirtan and eat sanctified offered food prasadam. Devotees place great emphasis on listening to spiritual discourses, believing them to be a key role in spiritual advancement.[22]

Four Regulative Principles

[edit]

During initiation (diksha) ISKCON devotees vow to follow four basic rules and regulations.[17]

Celebrated festivals

[edit]
Hare Krishna street show on Arbat Street in Moscow, Russia, 2009

Besides weekly gatherings, devotees within the ISKCON movement celebrate a diverse array of Hindu festivals, including Janmashtami, Radhastami, Diwali, Gaura Purnima, Ekadasi, Holi, Rama Navami, and Gita Jayanti.[23]

The Ratha Yatra Festival of Chariots is an annual parade whereby devotees chant and dance on the street, pulling a chariot with the deities of Jagannatha, Balabhadra, and Subhadra behind them. This public procession is typically followed by performances and free vegetarian food.[24]

Public preaching

[edit]

ISKCON advocates preaching.[25] Members try to spread Krishna consciousness primarily by singing the Hare Krishna mantra in public places and by selling Indian spiritual books transcribed from their original languages and published in English by the movement's founder, Prabhupada.[26]

A study conducted by the American researcher E. Burke Rochford Jr. at the University of California found that there are four types of contact between those in ISKCON and prospective members: individually motivated contact, contact made with members in public areas, contact made through personal connections, and contact with sympathizers of the movement who strongly encourage people to join.[27]

Organizational management

[edit]
Photo of GBC commissioners during a conference in Prabhupadadesh, Italy, 2003.

Prabhupada spent much of the last decade of his life setting up the institution of ISKCON.[28][29]

The Governing Body Commission (or GBC) is the managerial authority of ISKCON. Created by Bhaktivedanta in 1970, it meets annually.[30] In a document Direction of Management written on 28 July 1970 Prabhupada appointed twelve members to the commission, all of them non-sannyasi, including Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, Hansadutta Swami, and Tamala Krishna Goswami.[28] The letter outlined the purposes of the commission: improving the standard of temple management, the spread of Krishna consciousness, the distribution of books and literature, the opening of new centers and the education of the devotees. GBC has since grown in size to include 48 senior members from the movement who make decisions based on consensus of opinion.[28][31]

Shortly after establishing the GBC, Prabhupada asked his newly appointed leaders to renounce the everyday world and become sannyasis (renunciate monks), indicating that those who set policy would not be involved with financial dealings. However, after Prabhupada's death some GBC members adopted lavish lifestyles. A number of schisms tested the notion of the supreme authority of the GBC. Some of these scandals involved GBC members Hans Kary (Hansadutta) and James Immel (Jayatirtha), as well as one of the leaders of the New Vrindaban community, Keith Ham (Kirtanananda), who surrounded himself with opulence and declared himself the only true successor to Prabhupada.[32]

In 1982, the GBC began the slow process of adding new gurus to the original eleven. In 1983 the GBC was announced to be the highest ecclesiastical authority of ISKCON.[33] In 1985 the decision was made to lower the standard of living for ISKCON leadership. After much heated discussion, the GBC decided to "relieve" a number of leaders and new leaders were selected. The young leaders of the GBC sought the advice of one of Prabhupada's Gaudiya godbrothers, and endeavored to become more integrated in the broader Hindu community.[33]

After years of discussion and reforms, a general consensus emerged to accept women as leaders in ISKCON, overriding the former GBC supposition that "unprotected, 'women leaders become subject to various forms of mistreatment and abuse'". In 1998, Malati Devi Dasi became the first woman appointed to the GBC.[34] The second woman leader, Dina Sharana, was selected in 2009.[35]

Succession of teachings

[edit]
Chanting beads, normally of tulsi wood given by an ISKCON guru at the initiation to an ISKCON devotee

Prabhupada claimed to belong to the traditional system of paramparā, or disciplic succession, in which teachings upheld by scriptures are handed down from master to disciple, generation after generation.[citation needed]

Women's roles

[edit]

Women's roles are a controversial issue within ISKCON, and its members have strongly divergent opinions regarding the interpretation of Prabhupada's teachings on gender roles.[36] While some of its leaders advocate that women should take public leadership roles,[37] other leaders disagree, and maintain that "traditional" roles for women are more appropriate. Concerns have been expressed regarding the perceived potential for adverse effects stemming from feminist ideals infiltrating the regulations of ISKCON.[38]

Since women is the most respected position in Vedic culture, women within the Hare Krishna community are all viewed with reverence, especially by celibate male monks, also known as brahmacharis. "Mataji" (lit. Mother) is a term of respect for women in ISKCON, and is often prefixed to the Sanskrit name they receive in initiation. Unmarried women are referred to in this term.[39]

Malati Devi Dasi is the first woman appointed to the ISKCON Governing Body Commission (GBC)

After years of discussion and reforms, a general consensus emerged to accept women as leaders and initiators in ISKCON. In 1998, Malati Devi Dasi became the first woman appointed to the GBC.[34] The second woman leader, Dina Sharana, was selected in 2009.[40]

A document released by the GBC in 2019 stating that it was permissible for women to become initiating gurus within the ISKCON movement.[41]

Office for Child Protection

[edit]

In 1998, ISKCON published an exposé of widespread physical, emotional and sexual abuse of children in the group's boarding schools in the United States and India in the 1970s and 1980s. The report stated that the monks and young devotees caring for the children had no training in the task and often resented having to perform it. At a meeting in 1996, former young members testified that they had been regularly beaten at school, denied medical care, and sexually molested and raped.[42]

In 2002, a suit for $900 million was filed in Texas State Court by alleged victims of abuse in ISKCON boarding schools.[43][42] ISKCON later filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.[44] The eventual 2008 settlement in what became known as the Turley Case was $15 million.[45]

The ISKCON Central Office of Child Protection department office was established by the GBC in 1997. It released its first official Child Protection Policy and Procedure Guidelines. The CPO has provided Child Protection Information Training to over 500 child care providers within the organization internationally and continues to file and review reports on local Child Protection Teams in 2005. The Child Protection Policy and Procedure Guidelines were revised and ratified by the GBC in June 2018.[46]

Kirtan and musical influence

[edit]
Hare Krishna devotees were singing at the Esplanadi Park in Helsinki, Finland in August 2014

The practice of mantra chanting and devotional singing, also known as kirtan, is prominent in the ISKCON movement. Dedicated kirtan festivals are held annually around the world, such as the Sadhu Sanga Retreat in Boone, North Carolina,[47] Kirtan 50[48] in Dallas, Texas, and Radhadesh Mellows, in Durbuy, Belgium. Notable kirtaneers include Jahnavi Harrison, Gaura Vani, and the Mayapuris,[49] who have all released kirtan albums. Kirtan sessions are also held outside of temple settings, including at a local university "Bhakti Clubs", mantra lounges, and at a yoga and wellness festivals.[50]

Full theatrical performances have been produced based on the Vedic theologies. Prominent performance companies include Viva Kultura[51] and Vande Arts.[52]

The Head, ISKCON, Shri Gopal Krishna Goswami Maharaja calls on India's Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, in New Delhi on March 18, 2016.

The Hare Krishna mantra appears in some famous songs, such as former Beatle George Harrison's 1970 hit "My Sweet Lord".[53][54] John Lennon included the phrase "Hare Krishna" in his lyrics to "Give Peace a Chance" and the Beatles' 1967 track "I Am the Walrus". The backing vocalists also sing the phrase in Ringo Starr's 1971 hit "It Don't Come Easy", written with the help of Harrison, although the words were mixed low on the released version.[55]

Of the four Beatles, only Harrison fully embraced Krishna Consciousness. He also provided financial support for ISKCON's UK branch and in 1973 purchased Bhaktivedanta Manor for their temple compound.[56] Harrison enjoyed a warm friendship with Prabhupada,[57][58] who provided the inspiration for Harrison songs such as "Living in the Material World".[59]

In the 1980s, underground New York City hardcore punk band the Cro-Mags included Hare Krishna members and made references to Krishna Consciousness. By the early 1990s, an entire underground Krishnacore subgenre was established with other New York hardcore bands like Shelter and 108.[60]

In 2020, Willow Smith and Jahnavi Harrison collaborated on the song "Surrender (Krishna Keshava"), and the album "RISE",[61][62] featuring ancient sacred songs from India with Sanskrit lyrics.[63]

Vegetarianism

[edit]

Vegetarianism is one of the four tenets of ISKCON.[20] Due to Prabhupada's focus on food distribution, many ISKCON devotees have opened vegan and vegetarian eateries.[64] Not all restaurants opened by ISKCON members are officially affiliated with ISKCON, although many Govindas' restaurants or catering businesses operate out of the main temple center.[65]

The ISKCON followers refer to their diet as 'Krishnatarian'. According to them "A Krishnatarian meal is one which is cooked using fresh, vegetarian ingredients (excluding onion, garlic, red lentils and mushrooms) and milk products which is cooked by an Iskcon follower and offered to their main deities before it is distributed and consumed."[66]

Demographics

[edit]
Hare Krishna musicians in Mexico City
Hare Krishna street show in Donetsk, Ukraine, 2011

ISKCON claims to have around one million congregational members worldwide (majority in India), with 15,000 in Great Britain.[67]

In the West it "has a relatively small number of followers", estimated at "a few thousand full-time practitioners", but those showing interest in its activities might number into the "tens of thousands."[68]

After considerable success in the West due to the counterculture of the 1960s, ISKCON lost its momentum from the early 1980s onward, "facing a sharp decline in membership and in financial resources" in North America and in Western Europe, while in the late 1990s the situation began to deteriorate in Eastern Europe as well. In 2000, it was estimated that only 750–900 members were residing in ISKCON centers in the United States. Since then, ISKCON has depended on the Indian diaspora to "revitalize" the movement; in most North American congregations Indian members making up 80% of the numbers.[69]

Criticism and controversies

[edit]

ISKCON has experienced a number of significant internal problems, the majority of which occurred from the late 1970s onwards, and especially within the decade following Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada's death.[70] ISKCON has also been scrutinised by some anti-cult movements.[71][72]

Accordingly, the organization has also been widely criticized for alleged re-translation of various traditionalist Hindu scriptures by their own publishing company, which alleges that other Hindu gods are either ignored, censored or demoted to the lesser status or secondary tier as "Demi-gods", while only promoting Krishna as singular and highest form of "Supreme Godhead".

Persecution

[edit]

Centers worldwide

[edit]

India

[edit]

India has the highest density of ISKCON centers in the world, with over 800 temples, 12 state-recognized educational institutions, 25 affiliated and non-affiliated restaurants, and a number of tourist and pilgrimage hotels.[101] ISKCON India disciples are more conservative than the ISKCON disciples in the west.[102]

Mayapur Chandrodaya Mandir of the Vedic Planetarium, Mayapur

[edit]
The ISKCON Temple of the Vedic Planetarium at Mayapur, under construction.

Set to be completed in 2024, the Temple of the Vedic Planetarium, Mayapur in West Bengal is built in the birthplace of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the founder of the Gaudiya-Vaishnava lineage of Hinduism. The temple itself currently sits at 425,000 square feet (39,500 m2) and is 340 feet (100 m) tall, and is surrounded by accompanying lodges, shops, residences, educational centers, and gardens. The project cost an estimated $75 million, with its major investor being Alfred B. Ford, the great-grandson of Henry Ford. The complex has a planetarium based on Vedic cosmology and exhibitions about the Vedic arts, sciences, and culture as described in the Srimad Bhagavatam.[103]

Sri Krishna-Balaram Mandir, Vrindavan

[edit]
Sri Krishna-Balaram Mandir, Vrindavan.

Located in the Raman Reti area of Vrindavan, Uttar Pradesh, the Sri Krishna Balaram Mandir temple was built in the original village where the spiritual figures Krishna and Balarama are said to have resided in the Vedic period of Indian history. It is built in close proximity to other holy sites such as the village of Gokul, Govardhana Hill, the Mathura palace, and various holy lakes. As a result, ISKCON Vrindavan is a common pilgrimage site for followers of the Krishna Conscious movement. The complex is home to a guesthouse, a museum, gift shops, a restaurant, a bakery, a broadcast studio as well as a marble temple hall.[104] The temple is also affiliated with the Vrindavan Institute of Higher Education.[105]

Vrindavan Chandrodaya Mandir

[edit]

In March 2014, the Vrindavan Chandrodaya Mandir temple project was inaugurated,[106] and on 16 November 2014, the foundation stone of the temple was laid. Overseen by ISKCON Bangalore, the Vrindavan Chandrodaya Mandir temple building is currently under construction.[107][needs update]

Radha Parthasarathi Mandir, New Delhi

[edit]
Sculpture of Krishna at ISKCON East of Kailash, New Delhi
The ISKCON Temple in New Delhi.

The Sri Sri Radha Parthasarathi Mandir temple complex houses the Glory of India Vedic Cultural center, which is a set of interactive educational exhibits, as well as the world's largest printed religious book, known as the "Astounding Bhagavad Gita".[108] It is located in East of Kailash in South Delhi.

Radha Krishna Mandir, Chennai

[edit]
The ISKCON Temple Chennai, established 2012.

The Chennai temple is located on the East Coast Road in southern part of the city. Built on 1.5 acres (0.61 ha) of land and consecrated in 2012, the temple is the largest Radha Krishna temple in Tamil Nadu.[109]

Sri Gaura Radha Gukulananda Temple, Salem

[edit]

The ISKCON Salem temple, also known as the Sri Gaura Radha Gukulananda Temple of Vedic Knowledge and Culture, is located on Hare Krishna Land, Karuppur, Salem. Built on 4.5 acres (1.8 ha) of land, the temple is one of the Radha Krishna temple in Tamil Nadu. It was formally inaugurated in October 2019.[110]

Radha Madhav Sundar Mandir, Siliguri

[edit]
One of the ISKCON temples in West Bengal—Sri Sri Radha Madhav Sundar Mandir, Siliguri.

Sri Sri Radha Madhav Sundar Mandir is located at Siliguri, West Bengal[111] and known as Gupta Nabadweep Dham.

Nepal

[edit]

ISKCON Temple Nepal or ISKCON Nepal is located in Kathmandu. The geographic coordinates of ISKCON Nepal are 27.784062° or (27°47'2.62") of North and 85.356938° or (85°21'24.98") of East. It is on the lap of Shivapuri Mountain where the Holy Bishnumati River flows.

In this temple, the Deities of Sri Sri Radha Govinda Hari (Radha and Krishna), Jagannath, Baladeva, Subhadra, Gaur Nitai, Narasimha are worshiped. ISKCON Nepal celebrates Jagannath Rath Yatra every year.[112][113][114][115][116][117][118][119] As per a 2018 estimate, over 5000 devotees participate in the ratha yatra from across the globe.[120][121]

Europe

[edit]

There are over 135 ISKCON-affiliated temples and cultural centers in Europe. The ISKCON movement in Europe is home to a number of rural and farming communities, including Nueva Vrajamandala in Spain,[122] La Nouvelle Mayapura in France, and Villa Vrindavan[123] in Italy.

There are also 31 additional centers in Russia, as Vaishnava Hinduism represents one of the largest denominations of faith in the country.[124]

Radhadesh, Belgium

[edit]

The Radhadesh temple in Durbuy, Belgium, is home to Bhaktivedanta College, which opened in 2002 to provide ministerial and spiritual education for students, offering degrees and certificates online and on-campus in Vaishnava theology externally validated by the University of Chester.[125]

Bhaktivedanta College in Belgium

The Radhadesh temple is also home to Radhadesh Mellows, an annual kirtan retreat.[126]

Bhaktivedanta Manor, Watford

[edit]

A landscaped property featuring gardens, lakes, a school, farm, numerous temple and housing buildings, accommodations, and a bakery. The property for Bhaktivedanta Manor was donated by George Harrison of the Beatles and is on the National Heritage List for England. The houses on the property, including the temple, are built in the mock-Tudor mansion style of the 1800s.[127]

Bhaktivedanta Manor is also home to the London College of Vedic Studies,[128] and is the birthplace of the Avanti Schools Trust, a sponsor of state-funded primary and secondary schools that provides both non-denominational and Hindu-faith education throughout the UK.[129]

Demographically, the majority of devotees in Europe are ethnic Europeans. An exception can be made with the demographics of devotees in the United Kingdom, which caters to the Indian immigrant population, mirroring the demographics of most North American centers.[130]

North and South America

[edit]
Sri Sri Radha Krishna Temple in Spanish Fork, view of the southeast side.

There are 56 formally affiliated ISKCON centers in the United States.[131] Notable centers include Sri Sri Radha Krishna Temple (Spanish Fork), Utah, New Raman Reti in Alachua, FL,[132] and The Radha Kalachandji Temple in Dallas, TX.[133] Hare Krishna-affiliated full-time communities include New Vrindaban in West Virginia,[134] and Gita Nagari Eco Farm and Sanctuary in Pennsylvania.[135] There are various other centers in the United States that promote Krishna Conscious culture without being formally affiliated with ISKCON, including The Bhakti Center in New York City.[136] The ISKCON Dallas temple is affiliated with the nearby TKG Academy,[137] which provides private school academic education with additional Vedic-based courses.

There are 12 ISKCON centers in Canada, including the self-sustaining Saranagati Eco Village in BC.[138] There are 5 formally affiliated ISKCON centers in Mexico.

The temple of ISKCON eco-village "Nova Gokula", Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo, Brazil.

There are 60 affiliated ISKCON temples in South America, with most congregations located in Argentina and Brazil. There are also a number of devotee-run farming communities throughout Latin America.[139][140] Most notable is the eco-village "Nova Gokula" at Pindamonhangaba in the Brazil state of São Paulo, founded in 1978, with two temples planning as traditional Hindu architecture.[141]

Asia, Africa, and Australasia

[edit]
The ISKCON Temple in Mombasa, Kenya.

Asia is home to over 80 ISKCON affiliated centers, with most being located in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines.[142]

There are 69 affiliated ISKCON centers in Africa, four of which are rural farming communities and three of which are educational centers.[143] ISKCON Durban hosts the world's largest Ratha Yatra Chariot Festival outside of India.[144]

There are six ISKCON centers, including one farming village in Australia and four temple centers in New Zealand.[145] The Hare Krishna Temple in Christchurch, New Zealand, distributed free meals to mourners and the local Muslim community after a mosque shooting in March 2019.[146][better source needed]

Subsidiaries

[edit]

Bhaktivedanta Book Trust

[edit]

Bhaktivedanta Book Trust (BBT) is a nonprofit organization, of ISKCON, and supplies books both to ISKCON and to the book trade in general.[147] BBT is the publisher of books on the Gaudiya Vaishnava.[148] BBT was established in 1972 by A. C. Bhaktivedanta as the publisher for his books and for books by other authors. It also publishes the magazine Back to Godhead in multiple languages.[149] Apart from the BBT's work in publishing, it helps finance the construction and renovation of Krishna temples in the Gaudiya Vaishnava holy places like Vrindavan and Mayapur.

Cow protection and ISCOWP

[edit]

ISCOWP (International Society for Cow Protection) claims to "present alternatives to agricultural and dietary practices that support and depend upon the meat and dairy industries' slaughter of the cow".[150]

ISKCON Tribal Care Trust

[edit]

ISKCON Tribal Care Trust (ITCT) is an affiliate targeting the tribal people. The trust has set up schools and potable water sources for the tribal people.[151]

Member of Food for Life Russia giving food.

Pandava Sena

[edit]

Based out of Bhaktivedanta Manor of Watford UK, Pandava Sena is a youth organization started in 1994. It is composed of professionals and university students that host annual international mentorship and reunion retreats and weekly social gatherings.[152]

Pandava Sena has also established "KCSocs" or "Krishna Conscious Societies" across 30 universities in the UK. Many universities have similar student groups featuring youth from local ISKCON temples.[153]

Notable people

[edit]

See also

[edit]

References

[edit]
  1. ^ "What is ISKCON » Home - ISKCON - the Hare Krishna Movement".
  2. ^ Gibson 2002, p. 6
  3. ^ a b Bryant & Ekstrand 2004, p. 34
  4. ^ Bharati, Baba Premanand Archived 1 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Hinduism.enacademic.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-26.
  5. ^ Spiritual Leader Gauranga Das Of ISKCON Hails Historic Ram Mandir Moment | Newshour Agenda, retrieved 21 January 2024
  6. ^ Beck 2005, p. 39, "According to Orthodox Gaudiya. Krishna's svarupa, or true form manifests in three ways. His svayam-rupa or transcendent form is self-existent, not dependent on anything. His tadekatma rupa is identical in essence to his true form, though it differs in appearance (and would include such forms of Krishna as Narayana and Vasudeva). His avesa form has Krishna appearing though in varying degrees of possession"
  7. ^ Cole & Dwyer 2007, p. 38
  8. ^ a b "Hare Krishna". ReligionFacts. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  9. ^ a b "Influences". www.patheos.com. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  10. ^ Goswami, Tamal (2012). A Living Theology of Krishna Bhakti: Essential Teachings of A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Oxford University Press. pp. 21–37. ISBN 9780199950423.
  11. ^ a b Desai, Ronak D. "ISKCON Celebrates 50 Years Since Its Founding". Forbes. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
  12. ^ A Hinduism, Page 8, Lynne Gibson, 2002
  13. ^ "Online Vedabase - The topmost source of spiritual knowledge". vedabase.io.
  14. ^ Gibson 2002, p. 18
  15. ^ Brzezinski, J. "Vol 6, No 2 December 1998 ICJ". www.iskcon.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013.
  16. ^ Laderman, Gary (2003). "ISKCON". Religion and American Cultures: An Encyclopedia of Traditions, Diversity, and Popular Expressions. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-238-X.
  17. ^ a b c "Rites and Ceremonies". www.patheos.com. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
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