Intersex people are born with sex characteristics (such as genitals, gonads, and chromosome patterns) that "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".[1][2] They are substantially more likely to identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) than endosex people. According to a study done in Australia of Australian citizens with intersex conditions; participants labeled ‘heterosexual’ as the most popular single label (selected at 48%) with the rest being scattered among various other labels. According to another study, an estimated 8.5% to 20% experiencing gender dysphoria. Although many intersex people are heterosexual and cisgender,[3][4] this overlap and "shared experiences of harm arising from dominant societal sex and gender norms" has led to intersex people often being included under the LGBT umbrella, with the acronym sometimes expanded to LGBTI.[5][a] Some intersex activists and organisations have criticised this inclusion as distracting from intersex-specific issues such as involuntary medical interventions.

Intersex and homosexuality


Intersex can be contrasted with homosexuality or same-sex attraction. Numerous studies have shown higher rates of same sex attraction in intersex people,[6][7] with a recent Australian study of people born with atypical sex characteristics finding that, while 48% labeled themselves as straight, 52% of respondents labeled themselves as various other categories besides heterosexual.[8][3]

Clinical research on intersex subjects has been used to investigate means of preventing homosexuality.[6][7] In 1990, Heino Meyer-Bahlburg wrote on a "prenatal hormone theory of sexual orientation." The author discussed research finding higher rates of same sex attraction among women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and consistent sexual attraction to men among women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome - a population described by the author as "genetic males." Meyer-Bahlburg also discussed sexual attraction by individuals with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, 5α-Reductase deficiency and 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III deficiency, stating that sexual attraction towards females in individuals with these conditions was facilitated by "prenatal exposure to and utilization of androgens."[6] He concluded:

It is too early to conclude that there is a pre- or perinatal hormonal contribution to the development of homosexuality, except perhaps in persons with clearcut physical signs of intersexuality. The scientific basis is insufficient to justify the assessment of chromosomes and sex hormones in the fetus, or the prenatal treatment with sex hormones, for the purpose of preventing the development of homosexuality, quite apart from the ethical issues involved.[6]

In 2010, Saroj Nimkarn and Maria New wrote that, "Gender-related behaviors, namely childhood play, peer association, career and leisure time preferences in adolescence and adulthood, maternalism, aggression, and sexual orientation become" masculinized in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.[9] Medical intervention to prevent such traits has been likened by Dreger, Feder and Tamar-Mattis to a means of preventing homosexuality and "uppity women."[10]

A poll sampled from primarily LGBTQ intersex youth in the US by The Trevor Project found that 55% identified as bisexual/pansexual, 28% gay/lesbian, 12% queer, 2% straight and 3% questioning.[11]

Queer bodies


Intersex activists and scholars such as Morgan Holmes, Katrina Karkazis and Morgan Carpenter have identified heteronormativity in medical rationales for medical interventions on infants and children with intersex characteristics.[12][13][14] Holmes and Carpenter have sometimes talked of intersex bodies as "queer bodies",[12][15] while Carpenter also stresses inadequacies and "dangerous" consequences from framing intersex as a sexual orientation or gender identity issue.[13]

In What Can Queer Theory Do for Intersex? Iain Morland contrasts queer "hedonic activism" with an experience of insensate post-surgical intersex bodies to claim that "queerness is characterized by the sensory interrelation of pleasure and shame."[16]

Intersex and transgender

Intersex banner at trans march reading: "Trans and intersex, migrants in social danger: expulsions, impoverishment, contamination, and violence." Existrans 2017, Paris.

Intersex can also be contrasted with transgender,[17] which describes the condition in which one's gender identity does not match one's assigned sex.[17][18][19] Some people are both intersex and transgender.[20] A 2012 clinical review paper reported that between 8.5% and 20% of people with intersex variations experienced gender dysphoria.[4] A report by The Trevor Project on polling intersex youth in the US found that 42% identified as cisgender, 32% non-binary, 17% transgender, and 9% questioning, the poll sampled primarily LGBTQ youth.[11] The rate of being transgender/non-binary in the overall US youth population is 5%.[21]

Non-binary gender


Recognition of third sex or gender classifications occurs in several countries.[22][23][24][25] Sociological research in Australia, a country with a third 'X' sex classification, shows that 19% of people born with atypical sex characteristics selected an "X" or "other" option, while 52% are women, 23% men, and 6% unsure.[8][3]

A German law requiring that infants which can be assigned to neither sex have their status left blank on their birth certificate was criticised by intersex rights groups on the basis that it could encourage parents who see a neutral option as undesirable to have their child undergo genital surgery.[26][27][28][29] In 2013, the third International Intersex Forum made statements for the first time on sex and gender registration in the Malta declaration,[30][31] advocating for "register[ing] intersex children as females or males, with the awareness that, like all people, they may grow up to identify with a different sex or gender" and "ensur[ing] that sex or gender classifications are amendable through a simple administrative procedure at the request of the individuals concerned." It also advocates for non-binary options and self-identification for all while calling for an end to registering sex on birth certificates.

Alex MacFarlane is believed to be the first person in Australia to obtain a birth certificate recording sex as indeterminate, and the first Australian passport with an 'X' sex marker in 2003.[32][23][33] On September 26, 2016, California resident Sara Kelly Keenan became the second person in the United States (after Elisa Rae Shupe) to legally change their gender to 'non-binary'. Keenan cited Shupe's case as inspiration for their petition, "It never occurred to me that this was an option, because I thought the gender change laws were strictly for transgender people. I decided to try and use the same framework to have a third gender."[34] Keenan later obtained a birth certificate with an intersex sex marker. In press reporting of this decision, it became apparent that Ohio had issued a 'hermaphrodite' sex marker in 2012.[35]

Intersex scholar Morgan Holmes argues that thinking of societies that incorporate a 'third sex' as superior is overly simplistic, and that "to understand whether a system is more or less oppressive than another we have to understand how it treats its various members, not only its 'thirds'."[36]

The Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions states that the legal recognition of intersex people is firstly about access to the same rights as other men and women, when assigned male or female; secondly it is about access to administrative corrections to legal documents when an original sex assignment is not appropriate; and thirdly it is not about the creation of a third sex or gender classification for intersex people as a population but it is, instead, about self-determination.[37]



The relationship of intersex to lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans, and queer communities is complex,[38] but intersex people are often added to LGBT to create an LGBTI community.[39][40] A 2019 background note by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights has stated that intersex persons are a distinct population with concerns about "representation, misrepresentation and resourcing", but who share "common concerns" with LGBT people "due to shared experiences of harm arising from dominant societal sex and gender norms." The paper identifies both how intersex people can suffer human rights violations "before they are able to develop or freely express and identity" and how "stereotypes, fear and stigmatization of LGBT people provide rationales for forced and coercive medical interventions on children with intersex variations."[41]

Julius Kaggwa of SIPD Uganda has written that, while the gay community "offers us a place of relative safety, it is also oblivious to our specific needs."[42] Mauro Cabral has written that transgender people and organizations "need to stop approaching intersex issues as if they were trans issues" including use of intersex as a means of explaining being transgender; "we can collaborate a lot with the intersex movement by making it clear how wrong that approach is."[43]

Pidgeon Pagonis states that adding an I to LGBTQA may or may not help increase representation, and may increase funding opportunities for intersex organizations, but may also be harmful to intersex children due to stigma associated with being LGBTQA.[44] Organisation Intersex International Australia states that some intersex individuals are same sex attracted, and some are heterosexual, but "LGBTI activism has fought for the rights of people who fall outside of expected binary sex and gender norms."[45][46]

On July 1, 2020, Russian intersex organizations (, ARSI, NFP+, Intersex Russia) issued a statement on the use of LGBTI abbreviation urging not to use it in and about countries with widespread prejudice and violence in attitudes of individuals based on their sexual orientation and gender identity.[47]

Protecting intersex people in law

  Explicit protection on grounds of sex characteristics
  Explicit protection on grounds of intersex status
  Explicit protection on grounds of intersex within attribute of sex

Emi Koyama describes how inclusion of intersex in LGBTI can fail to address intersex-specific human rights issues, including creating false impressions "that intersex people's rights are protected" by laws protecting LGBT people, and failing to acknowledge that many intersex people are not LGBT.[48]

South Africa protects intersex people from discrimination as part of a prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sex. Organisation Intersex International Australia successfully lobbied for inclusion of a legal attribute of "intersex status" in anti-discrimination law, stating that protection on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity was insufficient.[49][50][51] Following 2015 legislation in Malta,[52] an attribute of sex characteristics is now more widespread.[37]


  Legal prohibition of non-consensual medical interventions
  Regulatory suspension of non-consensual medical interventions

Multiple organizations have highlighted appeals to LGBT rights recognition that fail to address the issue of unnecessary "normalising" intersex medical interventions on intersex children, including by using the portmanteau pinkwashing. In a 2001 paper for the (now defunct) Intersex Society of North America, Emi Koyama and Lisa Weasel stating that teaching of intersex issues is "stuck" at talking about intersex as a mean instead of an end:

This indeed seems to be a common problem within women's, gender and queer studies: discussions about intersex existence are "stuck" at where it is used to deconstruct sexes, gender roles, compulsory heterosexuality, and even Western science, rather than addressing medical ethics or other issues that directly impact the lives of intersex people. But perhaps this is an inaccurate way to describe the situation: the truth is not that these discussions are "stuck" prematurely, but that they are starting from a wrong place with a wrong set of priorities".[53]

In June 2016, Organisation Intersex International Australia pointed to contradictory statements by Australian governments, suggesting that the dignity and rights of LGBT and intersex people are recognized while, at the same time, harmful practices on intersex children continue.[54]

In August 2016, Zwischengeschlecht described actions to promote equality or civil status legislation without action on banning "intersex genital mutilations" as a form of pinkwashing.[55] The organization has previously highlighted evasive government statements to UN Treaty Bodies that conflate intersex, transgender and LGBT issues, instead of addressing harmful practices on infants.[56]



LGBT+ is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender, and others. The initialism has become mainstream as a self-designation; it has been adopted by the majority of sexuality and gender identity-based community centers and media in the United States, as well as many other countries.[57][58]

Another variant is LGBTQIA, which is used, for example, by the "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, Asexual Resource Center" at the University of California, Davis.[59]

The United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) have framed LGBT, others "whose sexual orientation and/or gender identity varies, those who may not self-identify as LGBT" and also intersex populations (as persons with disorders of sex development) as "sexual and gender minority" (SGM) populations. This has led to the development of an NIH SGM Health Research Strategic Plan.[60]

The concept of queer can also be included to form the initialisms LGBTIQ[61] and LGTBIQ (in Spanish).[62]

Other intersectionalities


Intersex and children's rights


Kimberly Zieselman of interACT has described how the LGBT community has helped open doors, but how intersex rights are broader: "at its core this is a children's rights issue. It is also about health and reproductive rights, because these operations can lead to infertility."[63]

Intersex and disability


Multiple authors and civil society organizations highlight intersectionalities between intersex people and disability, due to issues of medicalization, and the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis.[64] In an analysis of the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis to eliminate intersex traits, Behrmann and Ravitsky state: "Parental choice against intersex may ... conceal biases against same-sex attractedness and gender nonconformity."[65]

A 2006 clinical reframing of intersex conditions as disorders of sex development[66][67] made associations between intersex and disability explicit,[68][69] but the rhetorical shift remains deeply contentious.[70][71] Sociological research in Australia, published in 2016, found that 3% of respondents used the term "disorders of sex development" or "DSD" to define their sex characteristics, while 21% use the term when accessing medical services. In contrast, 60% used the term "intersex" in some form to self-describe their sex characteristics.[3]

In the United States, intersex persons are protected by the Americans with Disabilities Act.[72] In 2013, the Australian Senate published a report on the Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of intersex people in Australia as part of a broader inquiry into the involuntary or coercive sterilization of people with disabilities.[73] In Europe, OII Europe has identified multiple articles of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, including on equality and non-discrimination, and freedom from torture, and protecting the integrity of the person. Nevertheless, the organization has expressed concern that framings of intersex as disability can reinforce medicalization and lack of human rights, and do not match self-identification.[74]

See also



  1. ^ Other terms are also used, see below.


  1. ^ UN Committee against Torture; UN Committee on the Rights of the Child; UN Committee on the Rights of People with Disabilities; UN Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; Juan Méndez, Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment; Dainius Pῡras, Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health; Dubravka Šimonoviæ, Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences; Marta Santos Pais, Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Violence against Children; African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights; Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights; Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (October 24, 2016), "Intersex Awareness Day – Wednesday 26 October. End violence and harmful medical practices on intersex children and adults, UN and regional experts urge", Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, archived from the original on November 21, 2016((citation)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ United Nations; Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (2015). Free & Equal Campaign Fact Sheet: Intersex (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04.
  3. ^ a b c d Jones, Tiffany; Hart, Bonnie; Carpenter, Morgan; Ansara, Gavi; Leonard, William; Lucke, Jayne (2016). Intersex: Stories and Statistics from Australia (PDF). Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers. ISBN 978-1-78374-208-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  4. ^ a b Furtado P. S.; et al. (2012). "Gender dysphoria associated with disorders of sex development". Nat. Rev. Urol. 9 (11): 620–627. doi:10.1038/nrurol.2012.182. PMID 23045263. S2CID 22294512.
  5. ^ United Nations; UNDP; OHCHR; UNAIDS; ILO; UNESCO; UNFPA; UNICEF; UNHCR; UN Women; UNODC; WFP; WHO (September 2015), Ending violence and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people
  6. ^ a b c d Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F.L. (January 1990). "Will Prenatal Hormone Treatment Prevent Homosexuality?". Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 1 (4): 279–283. doi:10.1089/cap.1990.1.279. ISSN 1044-5463.
  7. ^ a b Dreger, Alice; Feder, Ellen K; Tamar-Mattis, Anne (29 June 2010), Preventing Homosexuality (and Uppity Women) in the Womb?, The Hastings Center Bioethics Forum, archived from the original on 2 April 2016, retrieved 18 May 2016
  8. ^ a b "New publication "Intersex: Stories and Statistics from Australia"". Organisation Intersex International Australia. February 3, 2016. Archived from the original on August 29, 2016. Retrieved 2016-08-18.
  9. ^ Nimkarn, Saroj; New, Maria I. (April 2010). "Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1192 (1): 5–11. Bibcode:2010NYASA1192....5N. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05225.x. ISSN 1749-6632. PMID 20392211. S2CID 38359933.
  10. ^ Dreger, Alice; Feder, Ellen K; Tamar-Mattis, Anne (June 29, 2010), "Preventing Homosexuality (and Uppity Women) in the Womb?", The Hastings Center Bioethics Forum, archived from the original on April 2, 2016, retrieved February 1, 2017
  11. ^ a b "The Mental Health and Well-being of LGBTQ Youth who are Intersex" (PDF). The Trevor Project. 2021.
  12. ^ a b Holmes, Morgan (May 1994). "Re-membering a Queer Body". UnderCurrents. 6. Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Ontario: 11–130. doi:10.25071/2292-4736/37695. S2CID 142878263. Archived from the original on 2021-03-08. Retrieved 2021-03-19.
  13. ^ a b Carpenter, Morgan (2020). "Intersex human rights, sexual orientation, gender identity, sex characteristics and the Yogyakarta principles plus 10". Culture, Health & Sexuality. 23 (4): 516–532. doi:10.1080/13691058.2020.1781262. ISSN 1369-1058. PMID 32679003. S2CID 220631036.
  14. ^ Karkazis, Katrina (November 2009). Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0822343189.
  15. ^ Carpenter, Morgan (18 June 2013). "Australia can lead the way for intersex people". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 2014-12-29.
  16. ^ Morland, Iain, ed. (2009). "Intersex and After". GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies. 15 (2). ISBN 978-0-8223-6705-5. Archived from the original on 2014-12-26. Retrieved 2014-12-26.
  17. ^ a b "Children's right to physical integrity, Report Doc. 13297". Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly. 6 September 2013. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013.
  18. ^ "Trans? Intersex? Explained!". Inter/Act. Archived from the original on 2014-10-18. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
  19. ^ "Basic differences between intersex and trans". Organisation Intersex International Australia. 2011-06-03. Archived from the original on 2014-09-04. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
  20. ^ Cabral Grinspan, Mauro (October 25, 2015), The marks on our bodies, Intersex Day, archived from the original on April 5, 2016
  21. ^ Brown, Anna (7 June 2022). "About 5% of young adults in the U.S. say their gender is different from their sex assigned at birth".
  22. ^ "Australian Government Guidelines on the Recognition of Sex and Gender, 30 May 2013". Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  23. ^ a b Holme, Ingrid (2008). "Hearing People's Own Stories". Science as Culture. 17 (3): 341–344. doi:10.1080/09505430802280784. S2CID 143528047.
  24. ^ "New Zealand Passports - Information about Changing Sex / Gender Identity". Archived from the original on 23 September 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  25. ^ "Third sex option on birth certificates". Deutsche Welle. 1 November 2013. Archived from the original on 10 October 2014.
  26. ^ "Germany allows indeterminate gender on birth register". Reuters. 21 August 2013. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  27. ^ Carpenter, Morgan (20 August 2013). "German proposals for a "third gender" on birth certificates miss the mark". Intersex Human Rights Australia. Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  28. ^ "Sham package for Intersex: Leaving sex entry open is not an option". OII Europe. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 29 August 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  29. ^ "Intersex: Third Gender in Germany" (Spiegel, Huff Post, Guardian, ...): Silly Season Fantasies vs. Reality of Genital Mutilations". Zwischengeschlecht. 1 November 2013. Archived from the original on 24 June 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  30. ^ Global intersex community affirms shared goals Archived 2013-12-06 at the Wayback Machine, Star Observer, December 4, 2013
  31. ^ "Malta Declaration". OII Europe. Archived from the original on 2020-08-18. Retrieved 2020-07-23.
  32. ^ "X marks the spot for intersex Alex" (PDF). West Australian, via 11 January 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  33. ^ "Neither man nor woman" Archived 2016-04-24 at the Wayback Machine, Sydney Morning Herald. 27 June 2010
  34. ^ O'Hara, Mary Emily (September 26, 2016). "Californian Becomes Second US Citizen Granted 'Non-Binary' Gender Status". NBC News. Archived from the original on September 26, 2016. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
  35. ^ O'Hara, Mary Emily (December 29, 2016). "Nation's First Known Intersex Birth Certificate Issued in NYC". NBC News. Archived from the original on December 30, 2016. Retrieved 2016-12-30.
  36. ^ Holmes, Morgan (July 2004). "Locating Third Sexes". Transformations Journal (8). ISSN 1444-3775. Archived from the original on 2017-01-10. Retrieved 2014-12-28.
  37. ^ a b Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions (June 2016). Promoting and Protecting Human Rights in relation to Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Sex Characteristics. ISBN 978-0-9942513-7-4. Archived from the original on 2017-01-15.
  38. ^ Dreger, Alice (4 May 2015). "Reasons to Add and Reasons NOT to Add "I" (Intersex) to LGBT in Healthcare" (PDF). Association of American Medical Colleges. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 June 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  39. ^ William L. Maurice, Marjorie A. Bowman, Sexual medicine in primary care Archived 2015-09-06 at the Wayback Machine, Mosby Year Book, 1999, ISBN 978-0-8151-2797-0
  40. ^ Aragon, Angela Pattatuchi (2006). Challenging Lesbian Norms: Intersex, Transgender, Intersectional, and Queer Perspectives. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-645-0. Archived from the original on 2012-11-22. Retrieved 2008-07-05.
  41. ^ Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (October 2019), Background Note on Human Rights Violations against Intersex People, archived from the original on 2020-01-29, retrieved 2020-03-05
  42. ^ Kaggwa, Julius (September 19, 2016). "I'm an intersex Ugandan – life has never felt more dangerous". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on October 6, 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-03.
  43. ^ Cabral, Mauro (October 26, 2016). "IAD2016: A Message from Mauro Cabral". GATE - Global Action for Trans Equality. Archived from the original on November 3, 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-12.
  44. ^ Pagonis, Pidgeon (June 2016). "7 Ways Adding 'I' to the LGBTQA+ Acronym Can Miss the Point". Everyday Feminism. Archived from the original on 2017-01-09.
  45. ^ "Intersex for allies". 21 November 2012. Archived from the original on 7 June 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  46. ^ "OII releases new resource on intersex issues, Intersex for allies and Making services intersex inclusive by Organisation Intersex International Australia". Gay News Network. 2 June 2014. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014.
  47. ^ "Statement on the use of the abbreviation "LGBTI."". ARSI. 2020-06-20. Archived from the original on 2022-03-11. Retrieved 2021-06-12.
  48. ^ Koyama, Emi. "Adding the "I": Does Intersex Belong in the LGBT Movement?". Intersex Initiative. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  49. ^ Carpenter, Morgan; Organisation Intersex International Australia (2012-12-08). Submission on the proposed federal Human Rights and Anti-Discrimination Bill. Organisation Intersex International Australia. Sydney. Archived from the original on 2017-03-03.
  50. ^ "Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act 2013, No. 98, 2013, C2013A00098". ComLaw. 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2017-02-01.
  51. ^ "On the historic passing of the Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act 2013". Organisation Intersex International Australia. 25 June 2013. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  52. ^ Malta (April 2015), Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Act: Final version, archived from the original on 2015-07-05, retrieved 2017-02-01
  53. ^ Koyama, Emi; Weasel, Lisa (June 2001). "Teaching Intersex Issues" (PDF). Intersex Society of North America. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-05-17.
  54. ^ "Submission: list of issues for Australia's Convention Against Torture review". Organisation Intersex International Australia. June 28, 2016. Archived from the original on September 16, 2016. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  55. ^ ""Intersex legislation" that allows the daily mutilations to continue = Pinkwashing of IGM practices". Zwischengeschlecht. August 28, 2016. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016.
  56. ^ "Transcription > UK Questioned over Intersex Genital Mutilations by UN Committee on the Rights of the Child - Gov Non-Answer + Denial". Zwischengeschlecht. May 26, 2016. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016.
  57. ^ "NLGJA Stylebook on LGBT Terminology". 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-04-28.
  58. ^ "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, Asexual Resource Center". University of California, Davis. September 21, 2015. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
  59. ^ Alexander, Rashada; Parker, Karen; Schwetz, Tara (October 2015). "Sexual and Gender Minority Health Research at the National Institutes of Health". LGBT Health. 3 (1): 7–10. doi:10.1089/lgbt.2015.0107. ISSN 2325-8292. PMC 6913795. PMID 26789398.
  60. ^ "Learning about LGBTIQ". LGBTIQ. Monash University. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021. LGBTIQ stands for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer. You may have seen alternative versions of the abbreviation such as GLBT, LGBTQIA+, LGBTTIQQ2SA or LGBTIH, to name just a few. Sometimes, you'll see the word Queer used as an umbrella term for these various identities as well.
  61. ^ "LGTBIQ: el significado de las siglas con las que se identifica el colectivo". LaSexta (in European Spanish). 2019-06-28. Archived from the original on 2021-01-20. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  62. ^ Stewart, Philippa (2017-07-25). "Interview: Intersex Babies Don't Need 'Fixing'". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 2017-08-03. Retrieved 2017-07-25.
  63. ^ Holmes, M. Morgan (June 2008). "Mind the Gaps: Intersex and (Re-productive) Spaces in Disability Studies and Bioethics". Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. 5 (2–3): 169–181. CiteSeerX doi:10.1007/s11673-007-9073-2. ISSN 1176-7529. S2CID 26016185.
  64. ^ Behrmann, Jason; Ravitsky, Vardit (October 2013). "Queer Liberation, Not Elimination: Why Selecting Against Intersex is Not "Straight" Forward". The American Journal of Bioethics. 13 (10): 39–41. doi:10.1080/15265161.2013.828131. ISSN 1526-5161. PMID 24024805. S2CID 27065247.
  65. ^ Houk, C. P.; Hughes, I. A.; Ahmed, S. F.; Lee, P. A.; Writing Committee for the International Intersex Consensus Conference Participants (August 2006). "Summary of Consensus Statement on Intersex Disorders and Their Management". Pediatrics. 118 (2): 753–757. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-0737. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 16882833. S2CID 46508895.
  66. ^ Hughes, I A; Houk, C; Ahmed, S F; Lee, P A; LWPES1/ESPE2 Consensus Group (June 2005). "Consensus statement on management of intersex disorders". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 91 (7): 554–563. doi:10.1136/adc.2006.098319. ISSN 0003-9888. PMC 2082839. PMID 16624884.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  67. ^ Cornwall, Susannah (April 2015). "Intersex and the Rhetorics of Disability and Disorder: Multiple and Provisional Significance in Sexed, Gender, and Disabled Bodies". Journal of Disability & Religion. 19 (2): 106–118. doi:10.1080/23312521.2015.1010681. hdl:10871/28804. ISSN 2331-2521. S2CID 146427737.
  68. ^ Koyama, Emi (February 2006). "From "Intersex" to "DSD": Toward a Queer Disability Politics of Gender". University of Vermont. Archived from the original on 2015-09-28. Retrieved 2017-02-01.
  69. ^ Davis, Georgiann (11 September 2015). Contesting Intersex: The Dubious Diagnosis. New York University Press. pp. 87–89. ISBN 978-1479887040.
  70. ^ Holmes, Morgan (September 2011). "The Intersex Enchiridion: Naming and Knowledge". Somatechnics. 1 (2): 388–411. doi:10.3366/soma.2011.0026. ISSN 2044-0138.
  71. ^ Menon, Yamuna (May 2011). "The Intersex Community and the Americans with Disabilities Act". Connecticut Law Review. 43 (4): 1221–1251. Archived from the original on 2017-02-02.
  72. ^ Senate of Australia; Community Affairs References Committee (2013). Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of intersex people in Australia. Canberra. ISBN 978-1-74229-917-4. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  73. ^ OII Europe (April 2015). Statement of OII Europe on Intersex, Disability and the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-27.