Interstate 80 marker

Interstate 80

Dwight D. Eisenhower Highway
Purple Heart Trail
I-80 highlighted in red for Utah section
Route information
Maintained by UDOT
Length197.51 mi[1] (317.86 km)
HistoryCompleted August 22, 1986
NHSEntire route
Major junctions
West end I-80 at Nevada state line
Major intersections SR-201 near Magna
SR-154 in Salt Lake City
I-215 in Salt Lake City
I-15 in Salt Lake City
SR-201 in Salt Lake City
I-15 in South Salt Lake
US 89 in South Salt Lake
I-215 in Millcreek
US 40 / US 189 near Park City
I-84 in Echo
East end I-80 / US 189 at Wyoming state line
CountryUnited States
CountiesTooele, Salt Lake, Summit
Highway system
  • Utah State Highway System
SR-79 SR-81

Interstate 80 (I-80) is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs from San Francisco, California, to Teaneck, New Jersey. The portion of the highway in the US state of Utah is 197.51 miles (317.86 km) long through the northern part of the state. From west to east, I-80 crosses the state line from Nevada in Tooele County and traverses the Bonneville Salt Flats—which are a part of the larger Great Salt Lake Desert. It continues alongside the Wendover Cut-off—the corridor of the former Victory HighwayUS Route 40 (US-40) and the Western Pacific Railroad Feather River Route. After passing the Oquirrh Mountains, I-80 enters the Salt Lake Valley and Salt Lake County. A short portion of the freeway is concurrent with I-15 through Downtown Salt Lake City. At the Spaghetti Bowl, I-80 turns east again into the mouth of Parleys Canyon and Summit County, travels through the mountain range, and intersects the eastern end of I-84 near Echo Reservoir before turning northeast toward the Wyoming border near Evanston. I-80 was built along the corridor of the Lincoln Highway and the Mormon Trail through the Wasatch Range. The easternmost section also follows the historical routes of the first transcontinental railroad and US-30S.

Construction of the controlled-access highway began in the 1950s, and, by the late 1970s, most of the freeway across the state of Utah had been completed. The 4.5-mile-long (7.2 km) section of I-80 between State Route 68 (SR-68, Redwood Road) and Salt Lake City International Airport was the last piece of the nearly 2,900-mile-long (4,700 km) freeway to be completed. It was opened on August 22, 1986, and was about 50 miles (80 km) from the site of another cross-country milestone in Utah, the driving of the golden spike of the first transcontinental railroad at Promontory Summit. Average daily traffic volumes in 2012 ranged between 6,765 vehicles using the freeway at SR-58 and 121,205 vehicles using the freeway at the Spaghetti Bowl in Downtown Salt Lake City. Throughout the state, the highway is also known as the Purple Heart Trail.

Route description

Out of the 11 states which I-80 passes through, the 197.51-mile-long (317.86 km) segment in Utah is the fourth shortest. As part of the Interstate Highway System,[2] the entire route is listed on the National Highway System, a system of roads that are important to the nation's economy, defense, and mobility.[3]

Every year, the Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) conducts a series of surveys on its highways to measure traffic volumes. This measure is expressed in terms of annual average daily traffic (AADT), a measure of traffic volume for any average day of the year. In 2012, UDOT calculated that as few as 6,765 vehicles traveled I-80 at the interchange with SR-58 in Wendover, and as many as 121,205 vehicles used the highway at the Spaghetti Bowl in Downtown Salt Lake City.[4] Between 7 and 58 percent of the traffic recorded consisted of trucks.[5] These counts are for the portion of the freeway in Utah.

Tooele County

The freeway enters Utah from Nevada in the city of Wendover on the edge of the Bonneville Salt Flats. The cities of West Wendover, Nevada, and Wendover are accessible by I-80's only business loop in Utah,[6] whose interchange is just south of Danger Cave.[7][8] The highway closely follows the historical routes of the Wendover Cut-off, Victory Highway,[9] and formerly Western Pacific Railroad's Feather River Route (now part of the Union Pacific Railroad Central Corridor) across the salt flats and the larger Great Salt Lake Desert.[10] Bonneville Speedway, home to many land speed records, is accessible from I-80.[11] In the middle of the salt flats is a concrete sculpture, Metaphor: The Tree of Utah, which stands just off the westbound carriageway of I-80, 30 miles (48 km) east of Wendover.[12]

Bounded on each sides by military training grounds,[13] the I-80 corridor is overflown by commercial airliners traveling west from Salt Lake City International Airport.[14] The freeway veers north around the Cedar Mountains in a small gap between them and the Lakeside Mountains. Further east, the highway passes the Stansbury Mountains, which are located in the Wasatch–Cache National Forest.[15] After the mountain ranges, the freeway arrives at the southern shore of the Great Salt Lake and closely follows the shore toward the western suburbs of Salt Lake City.[16] However, the historical routes from which the route of I-80 was derived were routed further from the lake, passing through the towns of Grantsville and Tooele; these communities are now served by SR-138 and SR-36, respectively.[7] It is in this section that I-80 reaches its lowest elevation in Utah, 4,203 feet (1,281 m) above sea level.[17] After an interchange with SR-36 at Lake Point, the highway crosses a bottleneck between the Oquirrh Mountains and the Great Salt Lake.

Salt Lake County

View west along I-80 at the eastern junction with I-15 and SR-201 in Salt Lake County

While traversing the neck, views can be had from I-80 of the lake and Antelope Island. After passing the neck, the road forks, with I-80 proceeding toward the north end of Salt Lake City and SR-201 proceeding toward the south end.[18] Historically, this intersection was the separation of US-40 and US-50. After the intersection, the freeway corridor is again bottlenecked with the Great Salt Lake to the north and the Kennecott Utah Copper smelter and tailings pond to the south. The Kennecott Utah Copper's Bingham Canyon Mine, which was once considered to be the largest open-pit copper mine, can be seen in the distance.[19] The 1,215-foot-tall (370 m) Kennecott Garfield Smelter Stack is one of the tallest freestanding structures in the United States.[20] Along this portion, the freeway passes the historical site of Saltair.[7]

The Spaghetti Bowl in South Salt Lake

The freeway enters the Salt Lake Valley on the former alignment of North Temple Street until it passes Salt Lake City International Airport, where the freeway veers slightly south and leaves the North Temple Street corridor which leads to Temple Square in Downtown Salt Lake City. The Green Line of the Utah Transit Authority (UTA) TRAX system briefly parallels I-80 before traveling down the center of North Temple Street. I-80 becomes concurrent with I-15 after interchanges with SR-68 and 600 South and continues south for about three miles (4.8 km), passing along the western and southern edges of Downtown Salt Lake City. The southern interchange with I-15, which also includes SR-201 (21st South Freeway) and marks the end of the concurrency, is known as the Spaghetti Bowl.[21] In the southwestern corner of the Spaghetti Bowl is another portion of the UTA TRAX Green Line as it travels towards West Valley City. After separating from I-15, the freeway continues easterly through South Salt Lake, loosely following an alignment just south of 2100 South and the UTA S Line streetcar through the Sugar House neighborhood and past Sugar House Park—once the home of the Sugar House Prison[22]—toward the clockwise terminus of the I-215 270-degree beltway around Salt Lake City. It continues through Parleys Canyon,[7] where the freeway joins the historical route of the Lincoln Highway.[23] Between the mouth of the canyon and the Summit County line, the route reenters the Wasatch National Forest.[18]

Summit County

Parleys Canyon carries I-80 up the eastern slope of the Wasatch Front as a six-lane freeway,[7] cresting the mountains at an elevation of 7,016 feet (2,138 m) at Parleys Summit, the highest point on I-80 within the state of Utah.[24] Both the canyon and summit were named for Parley P. Pratt, an early settler to the Salt Lake Valley and an early Mormon leader who was asked to survey a new route across the mountains to replace the route through Emigration Canyon. Between 1848 and 1851, Pratt surveyed, completed, and operated the Golden Pass toll road through the canyon that today bears his name. Pratt had unsuccessfully solicited for $800 (equivalent to $22,801 in 2023[25]) to build the road and sold it for $1,500 (equivalent to $43,668 in 2023[25]).[26] On- and offramps for the Wyoming port-of-entry are located just within Utah.[7] In January 2014, UDOT introduced variable speed limits to I-80 in Parleys Canyon, allowing a speed limit between 35 mph (56 km/h) up to the normal 65 mph (105 km/h) depending on weather or traffic conditions.[27]

View along I-80 eastbound in Parleys Canyon

Beyond Parleys Summit lies Park City, a mining town today better known for its many ski resorts.[28][29] The Historic Union Pacific Rail Trail State Park travels in the median between carriageways of I-80 before paralleling the highway until the southern end of Echo Reservoir.[30] The freeway turns north upon reaching the Rockport Reservoir at Wanship[31] following the tributaries of the Weber River toward Echo Reservoir and Dam. Upon reaching Echo Canyon and the junction with the eastern terminus of the western section of I-84, the freeway follows the canyon east until it reaches the Wyoming state line near Evanston. I-80 forms the northeastern border between Rich and Summit counties.[32]

The portion through Echo Canyon follows the historical routes of the Mormon Trail, US-30S, and the first transcontinental railroad.[33] A rest area in the canyon just east of the junction with I-84 features signs pointing out features that were obstacles for both the Mormon pioneers and the railroad construction workers, including Pulpit Rock,[34] which was partially demolished when the I-80 was built through the canyon.[35]


I-80 eastbound across the Bonneville Salt Flats.

Earlier roads

See also: Victory Highway in Utah and Wendover Cut-off

I-80 follows the routes of two major auto trails through the state. In western Utah, I-80 follows the historical route of the Victory Highway from Wendover at the Nevada state line to the junction of US-40 near Park City. Throughout Utah, I-80 is signed as the modern route of the Lincoln Highway—except through Salt Lake City, where the Lincoln Highway is routed along SR-201 and Parley's Way. The route of the Lincoln Highway across Utah was generally derived from the route of the Pony Express and Central Overland Route. However, much of the original route of the Lincoln Highway west of Salt Lake City is inaccessible. The original route of the Lincoln Highway proceeded southwest from Tooele toward Ely, Nevada. This area is now used for military bases, such as the Dugway Proving Ground and Tooele Army Depot. The area was closed to the public when these bases were established. I-80 and US-93 are the modern signing of the Lincoln Highway between those two cities. East of Salt Lake City, I-80 closely parallels the original route of the Lincoln Highway.[36][37]

In 1926, much of the route covered by I-80, including Pratt's former toll road from the Nevada state line into Salt Lake City, was signed as US-40 then as US-30 to the Wyoming state line.[38][39] It was also part of the Victory Highway west of Salt Lake and the Lincoln Highway east of Salt Lake at this time. Most of the route had been improved but some stretches of graded road remained.[40] In 1937, parts of the route near Wanship were numbered US-530.[41] In 1950, the highway near Echo was designated US-30S and US-189.[42] By 1959, US-50 Alternate (US-50 Alt) was also routed along the western portion of I-80.[43]

Current road

The first Utah state route to have the number 80 is now known as SR-92, which was originally numbered SR-80 until the 1977 Utah state route renumbering. Previously, the freeway's legislative designation was SR-2.[44]

I-80 passing the Oquirrh Mountains westbound along the shores of the Great Salt Lake

Passage of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 formed the Interstate Highway System,[45] and the I-80 number was first designated to a then-unconstructed controlled-access highway across the state by 1957.[46] I-80 was constructed in segments, starting in the late 1950s. By the late 1970s, the Utah portion of I-80—except for a gap on the western edge of Salt Lake City—was largely complete. A 4.5-mile-long (7.2 km) section between Redwood Road and Salt Lake City International Airport is the final link of the transcontinental freeway to be completed.[47] As an Interstate Highway, design specifications require a controlled-access highway with no at-grade intersections. This section was dedicated on August 22, 1986, and was the last to be completed to Interstate Highway specifications along the almost 2,900-mile-long (4,700 km) route of I-80 between San Francisco, California, and Teaneck, New Jersey.[48] The section was completed close to the 30th anniversary of the Interstate Highway System, which was noted at the dedication and considered to be a milestone in the history of highway construction in the United States.[47] It was also noted at the dedication that this was only 50 miles (80 km) south of Promontory Summit, where the golden spike of the US's first transcontinental railroad was laid.[49]

View east along I-80 toward the eastern I-215 interchange (foreground) and Downtown Salt Lake City (background)

The original designation of I-84, which begins at an interchange with I-80 in Echo, was I-80N. This designation was changed to I-84 in 1977 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) despite objections from the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) and the Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) and with the support of UDOT and the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT). The legislative designation for this highway was SR-3 until the 1977 renumbering.[44]

Rebuilding of the first portions of I-80 began in October 1990 with a 1.4-mile-long (2.3 km) stretch near Redwood Road in Salt Lake City.[50] By 1991, UDOT estimated that the reconstruction of all federally funded highways in the state would cost up to $4.3 billion (equivalent to $8.58 billion in 2023[25]).[51] The Spaghetti Bowl interchange was first proposed in 1996 to accommodate traffic for the 2002 Winter Olympics being held in the city.[52] Most of the Spaghetti Bowl was open by November 2000; the remainder opened in early 2001.[53] In 2002, the Utah State Legislature named the highway the Purple Heart trail,[54] in honor of wounded war veterans.[55] Additional reconstruction work—which involved the replacement of most of the bridges along the route and the resurfacing and installation of sound barriers—was done on I-80 between the Spaghetti Bowl and Parleys Canyon in 2007 and 2008.[56]

Exit list

CountyLocationmi[note 1]kmExitDestinationsNotes
I-80 west – Reno
Continuation into Nevada
0.0430.0691WendoverWestbound exit and eastbound entrance
I-80 BL / SR-58 west – Wendover
No westbound entrance; I-80 Bus. not signed eastbound
34.8Port of Entry
3.9936.4264Bonneville SpeedwayRest and View Area off exit
9.81615.797Rest Area
41.27866.43141Knolls (Wendover Cut-off)Eastern terminus of the Wendover Cut-off
53.99686.898Grassy Mountain Rest Area
61.83799.51762Military Area, Lakeside
Rowley Junction76.402122.95777 SR-196 – Rowley, Dugway
83.358134.15284 SR-138 – Grantsville, Tooele
SR-179 south (Midvalley Highway)
New interchange opened on October 30, 2021[59]
Lake Point98.619158.71299 SR-36 – Stansbury, Tooele
Salt Lake101.544163.419102
SR-201 east (2100 South) – Magna, West Valley City
Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
104.273167.811104 SR-202 / Saltair DriveAccess to Great Salt Lake State Park[60]
Salt Lake City111.287179.0991117200 West
SR-172 south (5600 West)
114.336184.006114Wright Brothers DriveWestbound exit and eastbound entrance
115.374185.676115 SR-154 (Bangerter Highway)
Salt Lake City International Airport
Signed as exits 115A (SR-154) and 115B (airport)
116.488187.469115CNorth Temple – Downtown Salt Lake City, Temple SquareEastbound exit and westbound entrance; former SR-186
117.262188.715117 I-215 – Ogden, ProvoI-215 exit 22 northbound, 22A-B southbound
117.862189.681118 SR-68 (Redwood Road)
I-15 north (Veteran's Memorial Highway) – Ogden
Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; I-15 exit 308
121 SR-269 (600 South)Eastbound exit and westbound entrance

I-15 north (Veteran's Memorial Highway) – Ogden
West end of I-15 overlap; westbound left exit and eastbound left entrance; I-15 exit 308
306600 SouthWestbound exit and eastbound entrance; exit numbers follow I-15
305C1300 SouthEastbound exit and westbound entrance; C/D lanes provide access to 2100 South/SR-201
305B2100 SouthEastbound exit accessible from C/D lanes
Salt Lake CitySouth Salt Lake line305A
SR-201 west – West Valley
Part of the Spaghetti Bowl interchange; eastbound exit and westbound entrance; accessible from C/D lanes eastbound; westbound entrance includes direct entrance ramp from 900 West and direct entrance ramp to 1300 South/900 South

I-15 south (Veteran's Memorial Highway) – Las Vegas
East end of I-15 overlap; eastbound left exit and westbound left entrance; I-15 exit 304
1222100 South / 1300 South / 900 SouthWestbound exit and eastbound entrance; part of the "Spaghetti Bowl" interchange; exit numbers follow I-80
South Salt Lake122.028196.385123A-B

I-15 south (Veteran's Memorial Highway) / SR-201 west – Las Vegas, West Valley
Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; signed as exits 123A (SR-201) and 123B (I-15) westbound; part of the "Spaghetti Bowl" interchange; I-15 exit 304
123.231198.321124 US 89 (State Street)
Salt Lake City124.125199.760125 SR-71 (700 East)
125.072201.2841261300 East – Sugar HouseFormer SR-181
126.785204.0411272300 East – Holladay, MillcreekEastbound exit and westbound entrance; former SR-195
I-215 south (Belt Route)
Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
SR-186 west (Foothill Drive) / Parleys Way
Former US-40 Alternate
128.619206.992130 I-215Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; I-215 exit 2 northbound
129.888209.034131Quarry Service RoadNo eastbound exit; signed as "Quarry"
130.399209.857Rock Quarry RoadSigned as "Quarry"
131.869212.223132Mt. Aire Canyon RoadSigned as "Ranch Exit"
132.477213.201133Utility ExitEastbound exit and westbound entrance
SR-65 north – East Canyon
136.113219.053137Lambs Canyon
Parleys Summit139.413224.363140Parleys SummitSalt LakeSummit county line
SummitSummit Park141.815228.229141Jeremy Ranch
142.847229.890View Area (eastbound); exit 144
Kimball Junction144.198232.064145
SR-224 south – Park City
Silver Creek Junction146.876236.374146
US 40 east (US-189 south) – Heber City, Vernal
West end of US-189 overlap; western terminus of US 40
150.724242.567150Tollgate Promontory
SR-32 south – Wanship, Kamas
Coalville162.592261.666162 SR-280 – Coalville
165.005265.550View Area
I-84 west – Ogden
Eastern terminus of I-84; exits 120A-B on I-84
167.781270.017169EchoAccess to California / Mormon Pioneer / Pony Express National Historic Trails
169.505272.792Rest Area
178.703287.595178EmoryWestbound exit and eastbound entrance
180290Port of EntryWestbound exit and entrance
184.126296.322185Castle Rock
187.767302.182187FawcettFormerly signed as "Ranch Exit"
UtahWyoming line196.548–
197Port of EntryEastbound exit and entrance

I-80 east / US 189 north – Cheyenne
Continuation into Wyoming
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See also


  1. ^ I-80 has its own mileposts and exits except for the concurrency with I-15,[57] which uses the mileposts and exits from I-15.[58]


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  2. ^ Slater, Rodney E. (Spring 1996). "The National Highway System: A Commitment to America's Future". Public Roads. 59 (4). Retrieved January 24, 2011.
  3. ^ Federal Highway Administration (November 18, 2013). National Highway System: Utah (PDF) (Map). 1:772200. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
  4. ^ Staff (2012). Traffic on Utah Highways (Report). Utah Department of Transportation. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 2, 2015. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
  5. ^ Utah Department of Transportation (2012). Truck Traffic on Utah Highways (Report). Utah Department of Transportation. pp. 14–15. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 2, 2015. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
  6. ^ Utah Department of Transportation (2005). "Tooele County" (Map). General Highway Map. 1:29,040. Salt Lake City: Utah Department of Transportation. p. 5. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Google (December 25, 2013). "Interstate 80 in Utah" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
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  9. ^ California-Oregon-Washington Tourist Association (1927). Copyrighted Official Map (Map) (701 ed.). California-Oregon-Washington Tourist Association. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  10. ^ Benchmark Maps (2002). Utah Road and Recreation Atlas (Map) (2002 ed.). 1:250000. Benchmark Maps. p. 40. § G1-12. ISBN 0-929591-74-7.
  11. ^ Radbruch, Don (January 2004). Dirt Track Auto Racing: 1919-1941 - A Pictorial History (2nd ed.). Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. pp. 78–79. ISBN 9780786417254. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  12. ^ Griggs, Brandon (2007). Utah Curiosities: Quirky Characters, Roadside Oddities & Other Offbeat Stuff. Morris Book Publishing, LLC. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-7627-4386-5. Retrieved December 27, 2013.[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ Utah Department of Transportation (2005). "Tooele County" (Map). General Highway Map. 1:29,040. Salt Lake City: Utah Department of Transportation. p. 6. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  14. ^ Federal Aviation Administration; AeroNav Products (October 17, 2013). Salt Lake City — South (Map) (90 ed.). Sectional Raster Aeronautical Charts. Federal Aviation Administration.
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  16. ^ Utah Department of Transportation (2005). "Tooele County" (Map). General Highway Map. 1:29,040. Salt Lake City: Utah Department of Transportation. p. 8. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  17. ^ "Google Maps Elevation API calls". Retrieved June 6, 2020.
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  19. ^ Hamblin, W. Kenneth (1992). Roadside Geology of U.S. Interstate 80 Between Salt Lake City and San Francisco. American Geological Institute. p. 42. ISBN 9780913312438.
  20. ^ Arave, Lynn (November 16, 2009). "Holy smokes: Kennecott smelter, Utah's tallest man-made structure, to turn 35". Deseret News. Salt Lake City. OCLC 367900151. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
  21. ^ "Motorists Should Avoid Spaghetti Bowl this Weekend". KSL-TV. Salt Lake City, Utah. October 3, 2003. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  22. ^ Arave, Lynn (July 14, 2006). "Prison once stood where park now is". Deseret News. Salt Lake City. OCLC 367900151. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  23. ^ Lincoln Highway Association; Matthews-Northrup Works (1923). Map of Strategic Routes between Salt Lake City, Utah and California (Map). 1:2,500,000. Lincoln Highway Association. OCLC 36006905. Archived from the original on December 26, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  24. ^ Utah Department of Transportation (2011). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Salt Lake City: Utah Department of Transportation. Salt Lake City, Ogden, Provo & Vicinity (Wasatch Front) inset. § D5. Archived from the original on December 27, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  25. ^ a b c Johnston, Louis; Williamson, Samuel H. (2023). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved November 30, 2023. United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the MeasuringWorth series.
  26. ^ "Church History: Golden Pass Road". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Intellectual Reserve. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  27. ^ Davidson, Lee (January 7, 2014). "UDOT launches variable speed limit system on I-80 in Parleys Canyon". The Salt Lake Tribune. OCLC 8086936. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
  28. ^ Balaz, Christine (June 2, 2009). An Explorer's Guide: Utah (1st ed.). Woodstock, Vermont: Countryman Press. p. 87. ISBN 9780881507386. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
  29. ^ Wilson, Arnie (2007). Ski Atlas of the World. London: New Holland Publishers. pp. 216–221. ISBN 9781845374679. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  30. ^ Utah Department of Natural Resources. Historic Union Pacific Rail Trail (Map). Scale not given. Salt Lake City: Utah Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on December 27, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  31. ^ Utah Department of Transportation (2005). "Summit County" (Map). General Highway Map. 1:22,440. Salt Lake City: Utah Department of Transportation. p. 2. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  32. ^ Utah Department of Transportation (2005). "Summit County" (Map). General Highway Map. 1:22,440. Salt Lake City: Utah Department of Transportation. p. 3. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
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  35. ^ Crain, Jim (September 1, 1994). California in Depth: A Stereoscopic History. Chronicle Books. ISBN 9780811804233. Retrieved December 27, 2013.
  36. ^ Patrick, Kevin J. "15 - Lincoln Highway in Utah". Lincoln Highway Resource Guide. Indiana University of Pennsylvania. p. 191. Archived from the original on July 27, 2010. Retrieved January 15, 2010.
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