This article may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines. Please help by editing the article to make improvements to the overall structure. (March 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

Iranian rock (also known as Rocka red[1][2][3]) refers to rock music produced by Iranian artists. Rock music has been popular in Iran since 1960s, with the emergence of singers such as Kourosh Yaghmaei, Farhad Mehrad, Fereydoon Foroughi and Habib Mohebian, but was largely forgotten after the Iranian Revolution.[4] Like most rock styles, electric guitar and bass guitar and drums are the main instruments in this type of music. In some groups, keyboard and piano are very important.

Iranian rock music is influenced by English rock, American rock and European styles.[5] Because of the Iranian performers of this music, various types of Iranian rhythms and tones in this genre are separated from other rock genres.[6] Iranian rock was banned after the Islamic revolution of 1979, and apart from a small number of artists, this style of music still has many problems in Iran.

Early years

Farhad (1944–2002) was one of the pioneers of rock music in Iran.

Rock music was introduced in Iran by the 1960s, together with the arrival of other Western musical genres in the country's music industry.[7] Iranian rock music was developed by the emergence of artists such as Farhad Mehrad,[8] Kourosh Yaghmaei,[4] Black Cats,[9] The Dangers[10] and Scorpio[11][12](not to be confused with the German Scorpions). It soon grew as a popular musical genre among the young generation, especially at the nightclubs of Tehran and Abadan.[13]

Couchini Restaurant

Black Cats in 1969

The origin of many Iranian rock artists, including Farhad and the Black Cats, is Couchini Restaurant.[14] The restaurant was founded by Vida Ghahremani in the early 1960s. Farhad Mehrad played the piano at this restaurant and was the lead singer of the Black Cats group. He also sings the songs of Ray Charles. The Americans in that area had given Farhad the nickname "Ray Charles of Iran".[15] Ebi also performed his first performance at Couchini Restaurant.[16] After the Black Cats became famous, they no longer performed at the restaurant. That's why other groups like Scorpio replaced them.[12] In general, Couchini Restaurant was the most important place to cultivate Iranian rock music.

"Without Couchini Restaurant, rock music would never have grown in Iran, and we would never hear singers like Ebi and Farhad."

— Ebrahim Nabavi, book Basement music Chapter One Page 89.

Kourosh Yaghmaei

Kourosh Yaghmaei began releasing his albums in 1971. He brought a lot of innovation to Iranian rock.[17][4] Using the keyboard as the rhythm of the song instead of the guitar is part of this innovation.[18][19] Kourosh Yaghmaei released two albums before being banned, both of which are important works of Iranian rock.[18] His most important work is Gol-e_Yakh. Based on international standards, the flower of ice quickly penetrated beyond the borders of Iran, and thereafter various performances in other countries of the world continued to this day.[20][21][22] According to Ebrahim Nabavi (author of the book Basement music): "Kourosh Yaghmaei has had a profound impact on Psychedelic Rock in Iran."[23] Kourosh Yaghmaei is known as the father of Iranian rock because of his deep influence on Iranian rock music.[24][25][26][27] After the Islamic Revolution, Yaghmaei was banned from performing for seventeen years. During that time he worked for children and published books and cassettes. In 1987, he released his fourth solo instrumental album Diar which was recorded without bass, guitar and drums, as dictated by the Iranian government. In addition, Yaghmaei arranged folkloric pieces to be played by the Great National Orchestra.Between 2003 and 2006, Yaghmaei worked with his last studio album titled Malek Jamshid.[17][18] After 12 years of trying to obtain the required permit from the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, the authority denied to release this album in Iran. Latter in 2016, since two years of restriction not to use types of equipment such as acoustic system, sound engineering, professional microphones, amplifiers, Roland keyboard, electric guitar, 8 track recorder and other necessary equipment[17][9] the album was released by Now-Again in United States and the album was banned by the Iranian government.[8][17]

He released debut compilation Back from the Brink: Pre-Revolution Psychedelic Rock from Iran: 1973–1979 in 2011.[19][20] A two-disc celebration of Yaghmaei's most well-known numbers, recorded between 1973 and 1979, before the Islamic Revolution.[21] In 2018 Nas sampled an Old Persian Song called " Gole Yakh " by @kourosh.yaghmaei for Adam and Eve [28]

Habib Mohebian and Fereydoon Foroughi, pioneers of blues rock

Habib in 1977

Fereydoon Foroughi began his work a year after Farhad Mehrad. His debut album Zendoone Del was one of the first albums of Iranian blues rock.[29] Fereidun Foroughi's scratchy voice greatly contributed to his reputation.[30] His most famous song is "yar dabestani man" sweetheart.[31][32] Fereydoun Foroughi's work ended with this album. The bad sales of this album made it impossible to release another album. With the Iranian Revolution happening, the voice of Fereydoun Foroughi was never heard again.[23][33][34][35][36] Although Fereydoon Foroughi's work was not long, his influence on rock music is significant. In 1977, Habib Mohebian began preparing his first album. Four months ago Habib's mother released the album. Habib sang a song called "Mother" because of her mother's death that was used in the album.[37] Habib Mohebian has two other self-titled songs, "Lonely Night Man" and "My Shahla", both of which are on his first album. Until the Iranian Revolution, Habib only

had the opportunity to release another album called Hello Neighbor. After the revolution, Habib stayed in Iran until 1983 and then moved to Los Angeles.[38] His most notable work during this period was "Swamp Crabs", an important work in blues rock.[39][40] Habib returned to Iran in 2009.[41] Habib did little work until the end of his life and died in 2016.[42][43][44]

Tehran Sound

The number of rock bands gradually increased, each performing in cafes and restaurants. Some of these bands, such as The Raptures, The Robles, The Dangers, and Golden Ring, have released albums. Most of the works published by these groups did not succeed.[23] In time, these rock bands were renamed Tehran Sound. All bands in Tehran Sound released their songs with the Apollo label.[23] But most of them did not succeed. Kamran Yaghmaei, brother of Kourosh Yaghmaei, formed a band that played the songs of Kourosh. Andy started playing music with the band, he played in the Bass Guitar.[45] Tehran Sound had almost disappeared by the dissolution of key groups such as the Golden Ring by 1977. One of the last artists to call themselves a member of Tehran Sound was Faramarz Aslani, who blended flamenco with rock.[46][47] Tehran Sound ended with the start of the Iranian Revolution.

Regional scenes


In 1969 and 1970 Golden Ring first introduced rock garage into Iranian rock music.[23] As a result, large groups of enthusiasts of this genre were formed throughout Iran.[48] The most important Astara rock band was Cheshm Azar Group, founded by Nasser Cheshm Azar.[49] The song "God of the heavens" is the band's most popular song, which many have covered.[50][51] Other highlights of Astara are the miracles.


The Sinners and Pepe Flovy were active rock bands in Mashhad.[52] In 1966, The Sinners performed "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction" at the hall of Mohammad Reza Shah.[53][54] Andranik Asaturian formed the Super Five band in 1969. This band was one of the first examples of jazz fusion in Iran.[55][56][57][58] the Super Five lasted only a year.


The Herbs group was formed in Abadan. Some members of this group later joined the Scorpio group.[54] Son Soul Brothers was a group that Martik Kanian and Mehdi Khashe founded.[59] Martik and Mehdi Khashe were both from Abadan, playing guitar for Mehdi Rahmati's orchestra.[60] In 1971, Martik and Mehdi Khasheh were separated from the Mehdi Rahmati Orchestra. Martik and Mehdi Khashe, along with Firouz Sarkarde, Behrouz Lari, Mohammad Moradi and Hossein Hosseini formed the Son Soul Brothers band. The group was originally covering foreign works such as Pastime Paradise.[61] The band have been making their own songs since 1972, with the most successful being "Cheshmaye To" in 1975. "Cheshmaye To" was listed in the number 90 list of my network and you as "Top 100 Persian Songs".[62][63][64] Son Soul Brothers was the first Iranian band to perform a disco song.[64] The group was dissolved in 1977.

Viguen, known as Sultan of Jazz,[65] was a role model for many Armenian singers.[66]

The role of Armenians

See also: Armenian rock

The Armenians were very capable musicians. Viguen was a pioneer in the integration of pop music with Persian poetry.[67] Artoush and his band The Wonders also pioneered the creation of symphony rock in Iran.[68] But Artosh's work was not well known, and Artosh remained anonymous until his death in 2018. Varoujan, a great Armenian musician, had arranged many popular Iranian songs.[69][70] He died of cardiac arrest very early in his forties.[71] Like many other Armenian singers, Georges Hvansian tried to imitate Viguen.[23] He became famous for reading Greek works. The Poppy band was one of the first Armenian rock bands. Some of the songs in this band are outstanding.[68] Armenian works are very important and influential in Iranian rock music. And still these works have maintained their fame.[72]

After the 1979 Revolution

Rock music started after the revolution and before the presence of internet activities in the era of President Rafsanjani with the performance of Kaveh Yaghmaei and Babak Amini in Tehran. Kaveh Yaghmai performed rock music and sold tickets for the first time in Tehran, which met with a great reception from the people became.

Kaveh Yaghmaei 2019 Tehran

Kaveh Yaghmaei

Kaveh is one of the most prominent Iranian musicians and composers since the Islamic Republic Revolution of 1979.

He is also the son of an Iranian famous musician, Kourosh Yaghmaei, the godfather of psychedelic rock music. Kaveh Yaghmaei's father "Kourosh Yaghmaei" is one of the superstars before the 1979 revolution, who is the founder of the combination of western and local Iranian music, especially the rock music of 1960 in Iran.

Korosh Yaghmaei is an artist whose works have been remixed by artists such as Kanye West and Nas and many other international artists after half a century, and many of his works have been translated into other languages such as French, German, Armenian, Turkish, Arabic and especially English is sung and performed.

Kaveh is the first musician after the 1979 revolution who effectively resurrected Iranian rock music. Kaveh received his Bachelor of Art in Classical Guitar from Azad University of Tehran. He started playing guitar when he was 8 years old and begins attending Tehran Conservatory of Music, Iran’s most prestigious music school before 1979 revolution, at a very young age. The first instrument he learned was piano and later flute. After the 1979 revolution, the music schools were temporarily closed in Iran and Kaveh pursued his music education with his father who was also one of Iran’s most prominent musicians of all time. At this stage, Kaveh began to learn progressive rock, a style of music that was not taught anywhere in the country at the time. Some of the many influences of his musical development include Baroque and classical music, as well as such classic rock bands such as Deep Purple, Rush, Supermax, Jethro Tull, Jeff Beck, AC/DC, Camel, The Ventures, Dire Straits, Elton John, Pink Floyd, Alan Parson and Eric Clapton.

Alternative rock

Main article: Iranian Alternative rock

Abdi behravanfar had a profound impact on Iranian alternative music[73] and later folk rock.[74]

Alternative rock in Iran has a tumultuous history.[75] Following, Abdi Behravanfar, the O-Hum[76] and Comment Band[77] groups began to make alternative works. Alternative bands, like other rock genres, operate underground in Iran.[78] Alternative rock bands with roots and blues, psychedelic, and garage rock influences created a thick and powerful sound making use of highly amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, high beats, and overall loudness.[79] The lyrical themes of these groups are mostly related to the consequences of the mechanization of life,[80] life and death,[81] and protest against capitalist governments.[82] The heavy rhythms and defiant lyrics made this style popular in Iran.[83] B-band is one of the most influential bands of this genre and is considered a pioneer of Iranian alternative rock.[84] The music of bands like B-band incorporates traditional Iranian melodies as well as elements of jazz music. Their lyrics tend to speak of their own cultural and personal experiences, and reflect on the loneliness, hope and despair of the world at large.[85]

Heavy Metal and Hard rock

Farshid Arabi, Iranian Heavy Metal singer.

The inspiration for many of Iran's hard rock songs of the 1970s was bands like Metallica, Cream,[86] The Who[87] and above all The Jimi Hendrix Experience.[88] With the victory of the Iranian Revolution, heavy metal and hard rock in Iran disappeared for a while. After the 1979 Revolution, Iran engaged in an eight-year war with Iraq. It was at this time that some Iranian youths, led by Farshid Arabi, were playing unauthorized heavy metal.[89] Over time, Farshid Arabi formed a group called Silent Death and continued to operate underground.[90] The most important source of inspiration for Farshid Arabi and his band was Black Sabbath, which later became the source of inspiration for many Iranian metal bands.[91] By the beginning of the 1990s, heavy metal has grown in Iran and gained many fans and supporters. During this period, the works of the Grunge bands were sold underground in Iran, the works of Nirvana group being the most popular and best-selling.[92][93] Many bands formed during this period in Iran such as Baramant,[94] Kahtmayan, Angband, Mordab,[95] Arsames[96] and Master of Persia.[97] Heavy metal and hard rock music are illegal like many other rock styles in Iran.[98][99] but in recent years some bands like Gereh received permission to play concerts in Tehran.[100]

Baramant Live at Austrian Culture Forum house, 2017.[101]
Angband, Power Metal band from Tehran

In 2008, power metal band Angband signed with German record label Pure Steel Records[102] as the first Iranian metal band to release internationally through a European label.[103] In 2017 Tim Aymar (Control Denied, Pharaoh) joined the band as the new singer.[104]

Hypernova and the globalization of Iranian rock music

Hypernova From left to right: Jam, Kami, Kodi Najm, King Raam

Hypernova was formed in 2006 by King Raam.[105] This band can be called the flagship of Iranian rock, not only because it is Iranian but also accepted by some of the most famous rock bands in America.[106][107] Hypernova was the first Iranian rock band to make an album with an American music company.[108] King Raam and Kodi Najm are both successful singers who began their work with the band.[109][110][111] King Raam's father, Kavous Seyed-Emami, died in 2018 suspiciously, and King Raam left Iran permanently.[112]

Kiosk Band Running

Kiosk and political currents

Kiosk has become the largest Iranian rock band during the following years.[113] The band strives to present critical and social songs in a different music format, with blues and jazz music being played.[114][115] Arash Sobhani is among thirty Iranians who have welcomed US President Donald Trump's tough stance against the Iranian government. The publication of the letter sparked a wave of criticism against the writers of the letter, and some condemned it as "traitor" or "homeland salesman." After the release of Ardalan Payvar broke his way from Arash Sobhani.[116][117] The name of the band, Kiosk, stems from the original formation of the group in Tehran, when its members gathered together in any possible makeshift space or “Kiosk” to play their music without fear of arrest.[118][119]

Mohsen Namjoo and his influences on rock music

Mohsen Namjoo Running
Namjoo in concert in Illinois.

Mohsen Namjoo has introduced a lot of innovations in this style since 1993 when he entered Iranian rock music.[120] Although she speaks boldly, she is very popular.[121] An Iranian correspondent for The New York Times in Iran wrote that "some call him a sort of Bob Dylan of Iran".[122] In fall 2014, Namjoo taught “Revolution and Poets: Content and Form in Iranian Poetry.” Organized by Middle East Studies, Brown, he took part in a panel discussion on Protest Music/ Music Performance and Social Change on Thursday, November 13, as well as taking the lead on assembling a couple of Iranian bands, banned from playing in their own country, who came together for the first time in an Iranian Music Festival titled “Iran Underground” on November 15 at RISD Auditorium. The event was part of Brown's 250th Anniversary events.[123][124] Mohsen Namjoo's particular style has not been able to be critically criticized because of his lack of familiarity with the basics of music. On one or two occasions, Mohsen Namjoo's supporters were criticized inside Iran, and the hearings were forced to be canceled, and Mohsen Namjoo himself was silent.[125] By reading verses from the Qur'an (suras al-Shams), Namjoo made allergies to himself. Some websites reported Namjoo's conviction by the Tehran General Court to five years in prison for insulting the sacred, mockery of the Qur'anic verses (Shams' song) and defaming the Muslim Bible. In an interview with the BBC, he did not rule out a reporter's possibility of linking the conviction to his recent work, including a desert clip (which he presented to protesters during the 2009 presidential election).[126][127][128]

Kaveh Afagh and Iranian pop rock

Kaveh Afagh was part of The Ways band but left in 2011.[129][130][131][132] Afagh is the first rock singer in post-Islamic Revolution Iran to obtain an activity license, which he obtained after being banned for ten years from performing.[133][134] He remains one of the country's most prominent rock singers.[135] Aside from his music, Afagh has also exhibited his artwork in several art galleries.[136] He has performed many concerts abroad and in Iran.[137][138] Kaveh Afagh song collection "Tehran-57" has been released as the first Persian rock song collection in 2017.[139] Kaveh performed a selection of his songs for the first time on the Milad Tower Stage for the first time at the Resistance 92 Festival and eventually received the festival's first prize in live performance.[140]

See also


  1. ^ "موسیقی راک ایرانی و تغییر و تحولات آن در دهه های گذشته | آکادمی لامینور". Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  2. ^ "راک ایرانی". April 2006. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  3. ^ "لس آنجلس تایمز: "آن هایی که پیش از انقلاب ایران را تکان دادند"". صدای آمریکا (in Persian). 22 August 2011. Retrieved 2019-08-30.
  4. ^ a b c "Kourosh yaghmaei Biography". Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  5. ^ "انسان شناسی و فرهنگ | انسان‌شناسی، علمی‌ترین رشته علوم انسانی و انسانی‌ترین رشته در علوم است". Archived from the original on 2019-08-15. Retrieved 2019-08-15.
  6. ^ "موسیقی راک در ایران کجای راه است؟". روزیاتو. 9 August 2016. Retrieved 2019-08-15.
  7. ^ "IRAN xi. MUSIC". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. XIII. March 30, 2012. pp. 474–480.
  8. ^ "Farhad Mehrad's Official Website". Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  9. ^ "Starting with Shabpareh – Iranican". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  10. ^ "طوفان خواننده ایرانی در گذشت". مجله تاپ‌ناز‌ (in Persian). 2012-06-05. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  11. ^ "Rock Music in Iran by Scorpio". Retrieved 2019-08-07.[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ a b اورسی, مجله فرهنگی. "گروه اسکورپیو و موسیقی راک ایرانی". مجله فرهنگی اورسی (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  13. ^ "'اسکورپیو' در آپارات" ['Scorpio' on Aparat]. BBC Persian.
  14. ^ "روزنامه شرق- رستوران پرآوازه كوچيني- دوشنبه,18 مهر 1390". Archived from the original on 2015-05-23. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  15. ^ "نگاه تازه، برنامه ويژه راديوفردا براي جوانان: تاثير ري چارلز بر موسيقي ايران و جهان، چند برابر شدن ظرفيت Mailbox ياهو". رادیو فردا (in Persian). 7 December 2006. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  16. ^ "رادیو زمانه | آهنگ زمانه | خوانندگان ایرانی | آنچه از خواندن یاد گرفته‌ام، مدیون فرهاد است". Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  17. ^ "بیوگرافی کوروش یغمایی، پدر راک ایران". Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  18. ^ a b "کوروش یغمایی | کوروش یغمایی ، پدر موسیقی راک چطور زندگی کرده است؟". مهارت های زندگی (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  19. ^ "کوروش یغمایی را چه کسی و چگونه کشت؟ +عکس". پایگاه خبری تحلیلی بويرنيوز | Boyer News. 2013-03-30. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  20. ^ "The Official KOUROSH YAGHMAEI Website". Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  21. ^ "دردنامه كوروش يغمايي؛ 25 سال ممنوع‌الکار بوده‌ام « سایت خبری تحلیلی کلمه". Archived from the original on 2019-08-14. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  22. ^ "Nas Releases New Kanye-Produced Album Nasir: Listen". Pitchfork. 16 June 2018. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  23. ^ a b c d e f Nabavi, Ebrahim (2013). Basement music. Nogaam. p. 207. ISBN 9781909641020.
  24. ^ زندگی, مجله اینترنتی برترین ها | پورتال خبری و سبک. "کوروش یغمایی؛ پدر موسیقی راک ایران". fa (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  25. ^ تلکسیران, پایگاه خبری. "کوروش یغمایی؛ پدر موسیقی راک ایران - اخبار چهره ها". پایگاه خبری تلکسیران (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-14.[permanent dead link]
  26. ^ "کوروش یغمایی ، سلطان موسیقی راک و سایکدلیک راک ایران 69 ساله شد! - تکراتو". تکراتو - اخبار روز تکنولوژی. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  27. ^ "کوروش یغمایی؛ پدر موسیقی راک ایران". وبلاگ ایران 90 (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  28. ^ "Nas (Ft. The-Dream) – Adam and Eve".
  29. ^ "تصاویر | فریدون فروغی؛ خواننده‌ای که ۱۷ سال پیش دِق کرد و مُرد!". خبرآنلاین (in Persian). 2018-10-05. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  30. ^ "Fereydoon Foroughi and his influence on our music". Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  31. ^ ""یار دبستانی من" را من خوانده‌ام". ایسنا (in Persian). 2018-02-05. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  32. ^ ""یار دبستانی من" چطور به نمادی سیاسی بدل شد؟". خبرگزاری ایلنا (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  33. ^ "به بهانه انتشار مجدد مستند "قريه من"، مستندی درباره فریدون فروغی". پارس توریسم (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-09.[permanent dead link]
  34. ^ "'قریه من' در آپارات". BBC News فارسی (in Persian). 15 October 2014. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  35. ^ "انتشار دوباره "قریه من"". (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  36. ^ "Fereydoon Foroughi A man from my village". Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  37. ^ "". Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  38. ^ "Habib Mohebian Biography". Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  39. ^ "درخواست خواننده لوس آنجلسی از رشیدپور". Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  40. ^ "Swamp crabs, Habib's new work". Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  41. ^ "گزارشی از خانه "حبیب" در رامسر". ایسنا (in Persian). 2014-08-26. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  42. ^ ""حبيب" از دنیا رفت". ایسنا (in Persian). 2016-06-10. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  43. ^ "حبیب محبیان خواننده و آهنگساز ایرانی درگذشت". خبرگزاری مهر | اخبار ایران و جهان | Mehr News Agency (in Persian). 2016-06-10. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  44. ^ "حبیب محبیان خواننده قدیمی درگذشت". Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  45. ^ "گفت و گو با اندی، خواننده ایرانی". توریست مالزی (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  46. ^ "BBC Persian". Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  47. ^ "به عبارت دیگر: گفتگو با فرامرز اصلانی". BBC News فارسی (in Persian). 17 January 2012. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  48. ^ "Magiran | روزنامه شرق (1394/05/03): گفت وگو با سعید دبیری موزیسین و ترانه سرا: تنها گروه فارسی خوان بودیم". Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  49. ^ "بیوگرافی ناصر چشم آذر". زومجی (in Persian). 2018-05-05. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  50. ^ "پرسش‌های شما از اندی، مهمان نوروزی نوبت شما". BBC News فارسی (in Persian). 19 March 2015. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  51. ^ "لس آنجلس درانتظار یک حادثه هنری - Javanan Magazine". Archived from the original on 2016-10-05. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  52. ^ "تقلید پیچیده یا اصالت ساده؛ سرچشمه‌ راک ایرانی که ستون پاپ طلایی دهه 1350 شد". مجله کادانس (in Persian). 2017-02-12. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  53. ^ Nabavi, Ebrahim (1999). Tehrangeles. p. 137. ISBN 978-964-6176-59-1.
  54. ^ a b Mohseni, Mohsen (2017). The Millennium; The Music of Iran. p. 134. ISBN 978-600-03-0645-8.
  55. ^ "بیوگرافی آندرانیک آساطوریان و داستان زندگی شخصی همراه با عکس ها و تصاویر اینستاگرام". مجله اینترنتی استاربینو (in Persian). 2018-12-24. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  56. ^ ضرغامی, محمد (26 February 2015). "عارف: آندرانیک آدم سیاسی نبود". رادیو فردا (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  57. ^ موسیقی, پژمان اکبرزاده پیانیست و پژوهشگر (23 February 2015). "آندرانیک، هنرمندی که مهر ورزید و بی مهری دید". BBC News فارسی (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  58. ^ "آندرانیک آساطوریان پیشکسوت موسیقی پاپ ایران درگذشت". صدای آمریکا (in Persian). 23 February 2015. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  59. ^ "بیوگرافی مارتیک قره‌خانیان و داستان زندگی شخصی همراه با عکس ها و تصاویر اینستاگرام". مجله اینترنتی استاربینو (in Persian). 2018-10-02. Retrieved 2019-08-08.
  60. ^ "زندگینامه مارتیک | مشاهیر تاریخ ما" (in Persian). 4 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-08-08.
  61. ^ Son Soul Brothers- Pastime Paradise, archived from the original on 2021-02-27, retrieved 2019-08-08
  62. ^ "دانلود 100 ترانه ماندگار ایران به انتخاب شبکه من و تو 1". Retrieved 2019-08-08.
  63. ^ "دانلود 100 آهنگ ماندگار تاریخ ایران به انتخاب شبکه منو تو". Retrieved 2019-08-08.
  64. ^ a b تو, Manoto من و. "بهترین‌های مارتیک". Manoto TV (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-08.
  65. ^ "". Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  66. ^ "Iranian pop legend dies at 74". 2003-10-27. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  67. ^ Saba, Sadeq (2003-11-26). "Obituary: Vigen Derderian". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  68. ^ a b "بیوگرافی آرتوش و داستان زندگی شخصی همراه با عکس ها و تصاویر اینستاگرام". مجله اینترنتی استاربینو (in Persian). 2018-10-17. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  69. ^ "بیوگرافی واروژان و داستان زندگی شخصی همراه با عکس ها و تصاویر اینستاگرام". مجله اینترنتی استاربینو (in Persian). 2019-06-22. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  70. ^ "مرور شاهکارهای "واروژان"، نوستالژی موسیقی پاپ". جستجوگر خبر فارسی (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  71. ^ زندگی, مجله اینترنتی برترین ها | پورتال خبری و سبک. "مرور شاهکارهای "واروژان"، نوستالژی موسیقی پاپ". fa (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  72. ^ Lazarus, Janet D. (2003). Encyclopedia of Armenian Iranians. Hirmand Book Store. p. 367. ISBN 9789646974500.
  73. ^ بی‌بی‌سی, علیرضا میراسدالله (30 October 2013). "عبدی بهروانفر: موسیقی زیرزمینی در ایران، بازی دزد و پلیس است". BBC News فارسی (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  74. ^ حسینی, کیوان (18 September 2011). ""فریاد فشرده" عبدی بهروانفر در روستای "شلمرود"". رادیو فردا (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  75. ^ "موسیقی راک در ایران کجای راه است؟". روزیاتو. 9 August 2016. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  76. ^ """شهرام شعرباف" درخواست لغو مجوز فعالیت رسمی خود را به دفتر موسیقی ارشاد ارائه کرد"". Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  77. ^ "جام جم نوا - گروه کامنت". Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  78. ^ "بیوگرافی هادی پاکزاد و داستان زندگی شخصی همراه با عکس ها و تصاویر اینستاگرام". مجله اینترنتی استاربینو (in Persian). 2018-08-21. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  79. ^ "ملوداین؛ آلترنیتیو راک در اوج | پادکست موسیقی دیجی‌کالا مگ". دیجی‌کالا مگ (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  80. ^ "نگاهی به تاریخچه موسیقی پاپ در ایران و جهان". [شهروند درجه هفت روی خط داغ] (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  81. ^ "رضا یزدانی: در ایران موسیقی راک نداریم". Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  82. ^ "شماره ۱۶۰". مجله هنر موسیقی (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  83. ^ "نگاهی به تاریخچه موسیقی "راک" در ایران (فیلم)". Archived from the original on 2019-08-17. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  84. ^ "B-band|بی‌بند - B-band|گروه". Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  85. ^ زاده, سیامک قلی. "گروه بی بند دنباله دار شد". مجله فرهنگی اورسی (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  86. ^ رفاهیت, آنیتا (2009-05-16). "بیوگرافی اریک کلاپتون ( Eric Clapton )". بلاگ اسکای - سرویس رایگان وبلاگ فارسی.
  87. ^ "اجرای برنامه توسط گروه اسطوره ای "هو" در مسابقات نهایی فوتبال آمریکایی موسوم به "سوپر باول"". صدای آمریکا (in Persian). 8 February 2010. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
  88. ^ "جیمی هندریکس؛ نابغه‌ای که با چنگ و دندان گیتار می‌نواخت | DW | 27.11.2012". DW.COM (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-09-01.
  89. ^ "توهین نکنید!! (با اولین خواننده هوی متال ایران)". سیمرغ (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-09-01.
  90. ^ "فرشید اعرابی: دیگر نمی‌توانم موسیقی‌های سبک خودمان را گوش کنم". (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-09-01.
  91. ^ "ترانه هاي بلك سبث (آلبوم 13)". مجله آنلاین موسیقی راک ایران و جهان (in Persian). 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
  92. ^ "آلبوم 'بی خیال' گروه نیروانا ۲۵ ساله شد". 2016-09-29. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
  93. ^ زندگی, مجله اینترنتی برترین ها | پورتال خبری و سبک. "کرت کوبین و گروه نیروانا؛ صدای نسل جوان دهه 90". fa (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-09-01.
  94. ^ "Baramant". House No.4. Retrieved 2024-06-13.
  95. ^ آشنایی با گروه هوی متال مرداب, archived from the original on 2021-12-19, retrieved 2019-09-01
  96. ^ "ARSAMES". Extreminal Web Magazine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
  97. ^ "آلبوم جدید گروه هوی متال ایرانی "تارانتیست" با عنوان "رهبرنامه" منتشر شد". صدای آمریکا (in Persian). 15 August 2019. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
  98. ^ "اتهام "توهین به مقدسات" علیه گروه هوی متال ایرانی | DW | 21.02.2016". DW.COM (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-09-01.
  99. ^ "نیکان خسروی، عضو گروه موسیقی کانفس: از کشور خارج شدیم تا سال‌های جوانی را در زندان نگذرانیم". کمپین حقوق بشر در ایران. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
  100. ^ "کنسرت گروه گره". آرت تاکس (in Persian). 2017-04-25. Retrieved 2019-09-22.
  101. ^ "Live at ÖKFT 2017 – Baramant". Retrieved 2024-06-14.
  102. ^ "Iranian Metal Band ANGBAND Signs With Germany's Pure Steel Records". Blabbermouth. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2008.
  103. ^ Nima. "Angband - Rising from Apadana Review". Lords of Metal Online Magazine.
  104. ^ "Former Control Denied Singer Joins Angband". Bravewords. Retrieved October 8, 2017.
  105. ^ Kaufman, Gil. "Meet Iran's Hypernova: A Rock Band From A Country That Arrests Rock Bands". MTV News. Archived from the original on October 7, 2014. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  106. ^ Bidoun. "Don't Believe the Hypernova: The making of an Iranian band". Bidoun. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  107. ^ "گربه های ایرانی در تورنتو". شهروند (in Persian). 2013-05-02. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  108. ^ samars. "خواننده گروه راک هایپرنوا: موسیقی مرزها را در هم می‌شکند - مجله ملودی". مجله ملودی (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  109. ^ Lee-Young, Joanne (2018-03-09). "Sons of Iranian-Canadian Prof. Seyed-Emami arrive in Vancouver". Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  110. ^ "نمايش نامه خواني * گلريــزان صحــنه خالــي * ( به حمايت از هنرمندان سرطاني تئاتر )". ایران کنسرت. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  111. ^ "Hypernova: Illegal Indie-Rock from Iran". Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  112. ^ "ممانعت از خروج همسر کاووس سیدامامی از ایران؛ کانادا ابراز انزجار کرد". 2018-03-08. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  113. ^ "". Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  114. ^ "تجربه‌های تازه کیوسک با "زنگ بزن آژانس" • گفت‌وگو", Deutsche Welle (in Persian), 2014-06-08, retrieved 2019-08-14
  115. ^ رضی, پیام (22 August 2016). ""کیوسک" با نهمین آلبوم؛ "استریو تال" از راه می‌رسد". رادیو فردا (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  116. ^ "#نامه_به_ترامپ؛ 'جاده آزادیخواهی از کجا می‌گذرد؟'". 2016-12-25. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  117. ^ "حضور موفق گروه کیوسک در بن". Deutsche Welle (in Persian). 2008-09-24. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  118. ^ "Web Page Under Construction". Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  119. ^ Ladjevardi, Sohrab Saadat. "Concert Review: Kiosk Leads Iranian Invasion of Drom (NY)". DooBeeDooBeeDoo NY. Archived from the original on 2019-04-14. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  120. ^ "". Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  121. ^ فارسی, مریم افشنگ بی بی سی (26 September 2009). ""آخ" اولین آلبوم محسن نامجو در خارج از ایران". BBC News فارسی (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  122. ^ Fathi, Nazila (2007-09-01). "Iran's Dylan on the Lute, With Songs of Sly Protest". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  123. ^ "BBC ‮فارسی‬ - ‮ايران‬ - ‮محسن نامجو: ديگر معذرت‌خواهى نمى‌كنم‬". (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  124. ^ "BBC ‮فارسی‬ - ‮صدای شما‬ - ‮کنسرت محسن نامجو و گلشیفته فراهانی در ونیز‬". (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  125. ^ "گزارش همشهری‌آنلاین از سیزدهمین نشست نقد نغمه". 2012-01-17. Archived from the original on 2012-01-17. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  126. ^ "Nederlandse Blazers Ensemble, Mohsen Namjoo en Sahand Saheb-Divani (Foto & Video) | Persian Dutch Network | شبکه ایرانیان هلند". 6 October 2016. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  127. ^ "Bio". Mohsen Namjoo. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  128. ^ "". Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  129. ^ hatef (2013-07-06). "کاوه آفاق : ایران می مانم، مجوز هم می گیرم، کنسرت هم می گذارم". سايت خبری تحليلی موسيقی پارس :: اخبار موسيقی :: گزارش کنسرت (in Persian). Archived from the original on 2018-02-13. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  130. ^ "پنجمین جشنواره موسیقی مقاومت برگزیدگان خود را شناخت- اخبار فرهنگی - اخبار تسنیم - Tasnim". خبرگزاری تسنیم - Tasnim (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  131. ^ "از کاوه آفاق تا 412 مستند پرتره متقاضی حقیقت". ایسنا (in Persian). 2016-10-23. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  132. ^ "کاوه آفاق تیتراژ سریال "شبکه" را می خواند". اخبار سینمای ایران و جهان - سینماپرس (in Persian). 2018-01-29. Archived from the original on 2018-02-12. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  133. ^ "مراسم رونمایی از کتاب ترانه های کاوه آفاق برگزار شد / " تهران ۵۷ " در آذر ۹۶ رونمایی شد". .:: موسیقی ایده آل ::. (in Persian). Archived from the original on 2019-04-13. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  134. ^ "کاوه آفاق موسیقی تئاتر می‌سازد". ایسنا (in Persian). 2017-06-24. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  135. ^ ""راک" یعنی آفاق نه آن که بلیتش 300 هزار تومان است / ببین تفاوت ره از کجاست تا به کجا- اخبار فرهنگی - اخبار تسنیم - Tasnim". خبرگزاری تسنیم - Tasnim (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  136. ^ "Painting exhibit by Kaveh Afagh at Sales Gallery". Honaronline. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  137. ^ "استقبال از کاوه آفاق در ˝درخت بلوط˝". خبرگزاری هنر ایران (in Persian). Archived from the original on 2018-06-22. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  138. ^ "آلبوم "با قرص‌ها می‌رقصد" با صدای "کاوه آفاق" منتشر شد". (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  139. ^ ""کاوه آفاق" در "خاکستری" بازی می کند". (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  140. ^ "بیوگرافی کاوه آفاق خواننده + زندگی شخصی و همسرش". 2018-08-01. Retrieved 2019-08-14.