There exist a number of perspectives on the relationship of Islam and democracy among Islamic political theorists, the general Muslim public, and Western authors.

Many Muslim scholars have argued that traditional Islamic notions such as shura (consultation), maslaha (public interest), and ʿadl (justice) justify representative government institutions which are similar to Western democracy, but reflect Islamic rather than Western liberal values. Still others have advanced liberal democratic models of Islamic politics based on pluralism and freedom of thought.[1] Some Muslim thinkers have advocated secularist views of Islam.[2]

A number of different attitudes regarding democracy are also represented among the general Muslim public, with polls indicating that majorities in the Muslim world desire a political model where democratic institutions and values can coexist with the values and principles of Islam, seeing no contradiction between the two.[3][4][5]

Traditional political concepts

Main articles: Political aspects of Islam and Shura

Quran

Muslim democrats, including Ahmad Moussalli (professor of political science at the American University of Beirut), argue that concepts in the Quran point towards some form of democracy, or at least away from despotism. These concepts include shura (consultation), ijma (consensus), al-hurriyya (freedom), al-huqquq al-shar'iyya (legitimate rights). For example, shura (Al Imran – Quran 3:159, Ash-Shura – Quran 42:38) may include electing leaders to represent and govern on the community's behalf. Government by the people is not therefore necessarily incompatible with the rule of Islam, whilst it has also been argued that rule by a religious authority is not the same as rule by a representative of God. This viewpoint, however, is disputed by more traditional Muslims. Moussalli argues that despotic Islamic governments have abused the Quranic concepts for their own ends: "For instance, shura, a doctrine that demands the participation of society in running the affairs of its government, became in reality a doctrine that was manipulated by political and religious elites to secure their economic, social and political interests at the expense of other segments of society," (In Progressive Muslims 2003).

Sunni Islam

Deliberations of the Caliphates, most notably the Rashidun Caliphate, were not democratic in the modern sense rather, decision-making power lay with a council of notable and trusted companions of Muhammad and representatives of different tribes (most of them selected or elected within their tribes).

In the early Islamic Caliphate, the head of state, the Caliph, had a position based on the notion of a successor to Muhammad's political authority, who, according to Sunnis, was ideally elected by the people or their representatives,[6] as was the case for the election of Abu Bakr, Umar ibn Al Khattab, Uthman, and Ali as Caliph. After the Rashidun Caliphs, later Caliphates during the Islamic Golden Age had a much lesser degree of collective participation, but since "no one was superior to anyone else except on the basis of piety and virtue" in Islam, and following the example of Muhammad, later Islamic rulers often held public consultations with the people in their affairs.[7]

The legislative power of the Caliph (or later, the Sultan) was always restricted by the scholarly class, the ulama, a group regarded as the guardians of Islamic law. Since the law came from the legal scholars, this prevented the Caliph from dictating legal results. Sharia rulings were established as authoritative based on the ijma (consensus) of legal scholars, who theoretically acted as representatives of the Ummah (Muslim community).[8] After law colleges (madrasas) became widespread beginning with the 11th and 12th century CE, a student often had to obtain an ijaza-t al-tadris wa-l-ifta ("license to teach and issue legal opinions") in order to issue legal rulings.[9] In many ways, classical Islamic law functioned like a constitutional law.[8]

Bangladeshi Islamic scholar Khandaker Abdullah Jahangir said in a scholarly interview about Islam and democracy that,

Sovereignty means ownership. This is simple that sovereign means owner. For example, I am the owner of this land which is true. I can erect building here, I can demolish it, I can make partition, and I can sell it. I have this ownership. Again, this land belongs to Allah. This is also true. And the fact is, according to Islam, with this land I can do many things, but I cannot make a brothel here. People's ownership is limited; Allah's ownership is the supreme over all other sovereigns. My ownership is worldly, and if I put it over Allah's ownership, I will be offender to Allah. In the same vein, people are the owner of the country, it is a simple word. Those who say it is anti-Islamic to say people are sovereign and they are the source of all powers, I do not agree with them. Here by power, it does not mean power regarding storm-rain, or disease, it means the power of ministers, prime minister and above all state power. This power actually belongs to people. In Islam, power will be attained by the consent of the people. If in a society the chiefs of tribes consent and the mass people agree to it, it is ok, this is democracy. People's participation and share is mandatory in Islam which is democracy. Therefore, people are the owner of the state, and people are the source of power is not contradictory to Islam. However, if anyone thinks this ownership means that anyone can do anything; can make a haram (prohibited) a halal (legitimate), and a halal a haram, then obviously it is anti-Islamic.[10]

Salafi view

See also: History of Saudi Arabia

See also: Madkhalism

Salafism as an ideology and movement has close ties to Saudi Arabia. The Saudi monarchy from its beginning in the 18th century has partnered with Wahhabism as military tool and ideological support to their monarchical rule.[11] The ruling monarchy uses their scholars (termed salafis, wahhabis, and Najdis) to defend their authoritarian rule and subjugate the masses. Because the Saudi monarchs perceive democracy and the Muslim Brotherhood as a threat to their rule, they have occasionally used extremist Salafi scholars (e.g. madkhalis) to oppose democracy at home and in other Arab states, and claim that democracy is haram and even shirk.[12][13][14] For example, after the election of Mohamed Morsi, the Saudi authorities used their Salafi proxies in Egypt to counter the Muslim brotherhood, proclaim that democracy is shirk, and promoted terrorist attacks in the Sinai against the Egyptian military.[15] The violence and destabilization caused by radical Salafi jihadist groups in the Sinai led to the ousting of Morsi and overthrow of democracy in Egypt.[16] Thus, there are different opinions among Salafi scholars regarding democracy depending on the political climate in Saudi Arabia and freedom of expression. Over the decades, different Salafi groups around the world have changed and evolved, from initial quietism to fully embracing political engagement to promote their ideology.[17]

Some Salafi scholars opine that democracy is haram and shirk in Islam and allege that it overrules the Shari'a (e.g. by potentially permitting alcohol and riba if the people vote for it),[12] but they legitimize the opportunity to use democracy to come to power and to vote to establish Islamic rule[18][19] and encourage voting to choose the better between evils, among these scholars are Shaykh Abd al-Aziz bin Baz, Shaykh Muhammad ibn Uthaymeen, Abdullah al-Ghudayyan, Abdullah Quyud, Abdur Razzaq Afifi, Senior Scholars of Saudi Arabia: Grand Mufti Shaykh Abdul Aziz Ash-Shaikh, Shaykh Abdul Muhsin Al-Abbad, Shaykh Wasiullah Abbas and Saudi Arabia's most senior fatwa panel of scholars, "Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta", all echoed similar calls to encourage Muslims to vote.[20]

Khandaker Abdullah Jahangir in his book ("Hadiser Namey Jaliyati") (Forgery in the Name of Hadith) says about the interpretation of Hadith of democratic Islamist parties about Islamic politics,

A variation of lying in the name of hadith is to add or omit something from the translation without doing a literal translation or making the interpretation of what [Muhammad] said a part of the hadith. Almost all of us in our society are involved in this crime. For self-purification, Pir-Muridi, Dawat-Tabligh, politics, etc., we provide evidence from Quran and Hadith to people of every group and opinion. Providing such evidence is a very natural act and demand of faith. But usually we run this explanation in the name of [Muhammad]. For example, [Muhammad] governed the state, but did not do 'party politics' in the traditional sense, i.e. did not do anything like change of power through voting. Currently many scholars are doing democratic 'politics'. It is accepted as a new method of enjoining justice, forbidding injustice or Iqamat Deen. But if we say that, 'Rasulullah (ﷺ) did politics', then the listener or reader will understand the conventional meaning of 'politics', i.e. the seizure of power through voting. And he did not do this politics. As a result, lies will be told in his name. That is why we should tell separately what he did and said and what we are interpreting[21][22][23]

Conclusively, Salafi opinions on democracy can be categorized in the following ways, depending on the scholar and the context:

  1. That democracy is haram and perhaps even shirk if it is used to overrule fundamental tenants of the Shari'a, like making forbidden things permissible (i.e. making the haram legal), or if it is a threat to the rule of the Saudi monarchy.
  2. That participating in democracy outside of Saudi Arabia and the Arab world (e.g. in the West and India) is good (with a variety of opinions on the details) if the participant is voting for the lesser of two evils or for an Islam-promoting candidate.[20]

Shia Islam

According to the Shia understanding, Muhammad named as his successor (as leader, with Muhammad being the final prophet), his son-in-law, and cousin Ali. Therefore, the first three of the four elected "Rightly Guided" Caliphs recognized by Sunnis (Ali being the fourth), are considered usurpers, notwithstanding their having been "elected" through some sort of conciliar deliberation (which the Shia do not accept as a representative of the Muslim society of that time). The largest Shia grouping—the Twelvers branch—recognizes a series of Twelve Imams, the last of which (Muhammad al-Mahdi, the Hidden Imam) is still alive and the Shia are waiting for his "reappearance".

Theoretical perspectives on democracy

Al-Farabi

The early Islamic philosopher, Al-Farabi (c. 872–950), in one of his most notable works Al-Madina al-Fadila, theorized an ideal Islamic state which he compared to Plato's The Republic.[24] Al-Farabi departed from the Platonic view in that he regarded the ideal state to be ruled by the prophet, instead of the philosopher king envisaged by Plato. Al-Farabi argued that the ideal state was the city-state of Medina when it was governed by Muhammad, as its head of state, as he was in direct communion with God whose law was revealed to him. In the absence of the prophet, Al-Farabi considered democracy as the closest to the ideal state, regarding the republican order of the Rashidun Caliphate as an example within early Muslim history. However, he also maintained that it was from democracy that imperfect states emerged, noting how the republican order of the early Islamic Caliphate of the Rashidun caliphs was later replaced by a form of government resembling a monarchy under the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties.[25]

Varieties of modern Islamic theories

Muslih and Browers identify three major perspectives on democracy among prominent Muslims thinkers who have sought to develop modern, distinctly Islamic theories of socio-political organization conforming to Islamic values and law:[1]

Secularist views

Main article: Islam and secularism

In the modern history of the Muslim world, the notion of secularism has acquired strong negative connotations due to its association with foreign colonial domination and the removal of religious values from the public sphere. Traditional Islamic theory distinguishes between matters of religion (din) and state (dawla), but insists that political authority and public life must be guided by religious values.[26] Some Islamic reformists like Ali Abdel Raziq and Mahmoud Mohammed Taha have advocated a secular state in the sense of political order that does not impose any single interpretation of sharia on the nation, though they did not advocate secularism in the sense of a morally neutral exercise of state power. The Islamic scholar Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im has argued for a secular state built on constitutionalism, human rights and full citizenship, seeking to demonstrate that his vision is more consistent with Islamic history than visions of an Islamic state.[2] Proponents of Islamism (political Islam) reject secularist views that would limit Islam to a matter of personal belief and insist on implementation of Islamic principles in the legal and political spheres.[26] Moreover, the concept of 'Separation of Powers' was propounded by Ruhollah Khomeini.

Muhammad Iqbal

The modern Islamic philosopher, Muhammad Iqbal, viewed the early Islamic Caliphate as being compatible with democracy. He "welcomed the formation of popularly elected legislative assemblies" in the Muslim world as a "return to the original purity of Islam." He argued that Islam had the "gems of an economic and democratic organization of society", but that this growth was stunted by the monarchist rule of Umayyad Caliphate, which established the Caliphate as a great Islamic empire but led to political Islamic ideals being "repaganized" and the early Muslims losing sight of the "most important potentialities of their faith."[27]

Muhammad Asad

Another Muslim scholar and thinker, Muhammad Asad, viewed democracy as perfectly compatible with Islam. In his book The Principles of State and Government in Islam, he notes:

Viewed from this historical perspective, 'democracy' as conceived in the modern West is infinitely nearer to the Islamic than to the ancient Greek concept of liberty; for Islam maintains that all human beings are socially equal and must, therefore, be given the same opportunities for development and self-expression. On the other hand, Islam makes it incumbent upon Muslims to subordinate their decisions to the guidance of the Divine Law revealed in the Qur'ãn and exemplified by the Prophet: an obligation which imposes definite limits on the community's right to legislate and denies to the 'will of the people' that attribute of sovereignty which forms so integral a part of the Western concept of democracy.[28]

Abul A'la Maududi

Islamist writer and politician Abul A'la Maududi, conceived of an "Islamic state" that would eventually "rule the earth".[29] The antithesis of secular Western democracy, it would follow an all-embracing Sharia law. Maududi called the system he outlined a "theo-democracy", which he argued would be different from a theocracy as the term is understood in the Christian West, because it would be run by the entire Muslim community (pious Muslims who followed sharia), rather than ruled by a clerical class in the name of God.[1][30]

Maududi's vision has been criticized (by Youssef M. Choueiri) as an

ideological state in which legislators do not legislate, citizens only vote to reaffirm the permanent applicability of God's laws, women rarely venture outside their homes lest social discipline be disrupted, and non-Muslims are tolerated as foreign elements required to express their loyalty by means of paying a financial levy.[31][32]

L. Ali Khan

Legal scholar L. Ali Khan argues that Islam is fully compatible with democracy. In his book, A Theory of Universal Democracy, Khan provides a critique of liberal democracy and secularism. He presents the concept of "fusion state" in which religion and state are fused. There are no contradictions in God's universe, says Khan. Contradictions represent the limited knowledge that human beings have. According to the Quran and the Sunnah, Muslims are fully capable of preserving spirituality and self-rule.[33]

Javed Ahmed Ghamdi

Religious scholar, Javed Ahmed Ghamdi interprets the Quranic verses as ''The collective affairs of Muslims are run on the basis of mutual consultations'' (42:37).[34] He is of the view that all the matters of a Muslim state must be sought out through consultations.The parliamentary bodies would provide that platform to practice and implement those consultations.

Views of the general Muslim public

Esposito and DeLong-Bas distinguish four attitudes toward Islam and democracy prominent among Muslims today:[35]

Polls conducted by Gallup and PEW in Muslim-majority countries indicate that most Muslims see no contradiction between democratic values and religious principles, desiring neither a theocracy, nor a secular democracy, but rather a political model where democratic institutions and values can coexist with the values and principles of Islam.[3][4][5]

Islam and democracy in practice

Obstacles

See also: Democracy in the Middle East

There are several ideas on the relationship between Islam in the Middle East and democracy. Waltz writes that transformations to democracy seemed on the whole to pass by the Islamic Middle East at a time when such transformations were a central theme in other parts of the world, although she does note that, of late, the increasing number of elections being held in the region indicates some form of adoption of democratic traditions.[36]

Following the Arab Spring, professor Olivier Roy of the European University Institute in an article in Foreign Policy has described political Islam as "increasingly interdependent" with democracy, such that "neither can now survive without the other".[37]

Orientalist scholars offer another viewpoint on the relationship between Islam and democratisation in the Middle East. They argue that the compatibility is simply not there between secular democracy and Arab-Islamic culture in the Middle East which has a strong history of undemocratic beliefs and authoritarian power structures.[38] Kedourie, a well known Orientalist scholar, said for example: "to hold simultaneously ideas which are not easily reconcilable argues, then, a deep confusion in the Arab public mind, at least about the meaning of democracy. The confusion is, however, understandable since the idea of democracy is quite alien to the mind-set of Islam."[39] A view similar to this that understands Islam and democracy to be incompatible because of seemingly irreconcilable differences between Sharia and democratic ideals is also held by some Islamists.

However, within Islam there are ideas held by some that believe Islam and democracy in some form are indeed compatible due to the existence of the concept of shura (meaning consultation) in the Quran. Views such as this have been expressed by various thinkers and political activists in the Middle East.[40] They continue to be the subject of controversy, e.g. at the second Dubai Debates, which debated the question "Can Arab and Islamic values be reconciled with democracy?"[41]

Brian Whitaker's 'four major obstacles'

Writing on The Guardian website,[42] Brian Whitaker, the paper's Middle East editor, argued that there were four major obstacles to democracy in the region: 'the imperial legacy', 'oil wealth', 'the Arab–Israeli conflict' and '"militant" Islam'.

The imperial legacy includes the borders of the modern states themselves and the existence of significant minorities within the states. Acknowledgment of these differences is frequently suppressed usually in the cause of "national unity" and sometimes to obscure the fact that minority elite is controlling the country. Brian Whitaker argues that this leads to the formation of political parties on ethnic, religious or regional divisions, rather than over policy differences. Voting therefore becomes an assertion of one's identity rather than a real choice.

The problem with oil and the wealth it generates is that the states' rulers have the wealth to remain in power, as they can pay off or repress most potential opponents. Brian Whitaker argues that as there is no need for taxation there is less pressure for representation. Furthermore, Western governments require a stable source of oil and are therefore more prone to maintain the status quo, rather than push for reforms which may lead to periods of instability. This can be linked into political economy explanations for the occurrence of authoritarian regimes and lack of democracy in the Middle East, particularly the prevalence of rentier states in the Middle East.[43] A consequence of the lack of taxation that Whitaker talks of in such rentier economies is an inactive civil society. As civil society is seen to be an integral part of democracy it raises doubts over the feasibility of democracy developing in the Middle East in such situations.[38]

Whitaker's third point is that the ArabIsraeli conflict serves as a unifying factor for the countries of the Arab League, and also serves as an excuse for repression by Middle Eastern governments. For example, in March 2004 Sheikh Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah, Lebanon's leading Shia cleric, is reported as saying "We have emergency laws, we have control by the security agencies, we have stagnation of opposition parties, we have the appropriation of political rights – all this in the name of the Arab-Israeli conflict". The West, especially the US, is also seen as a supporter of Israel, and so it and its institutions, including democracy, are seen by many Muslims as suspect. Khaled Abou El Fadl, a lecturer in Islamic law at the University of California comments "modernity, despite its much scientific advancement, reached Muslims packaged in the ugliness of disempowerment and alienation."

This repression by secularistic Arab rulers has led to the growth of radical Islamic movement groups, as they believe that the institution of an Islamic theocracy will lead to a more just society. These groups tend to be very intolerant of alternative views however, including the ideas of democracy. Many Muslims who argue that Islam and democracy are compatible live in the West, and are therefore seen as "contaminated" by non-Islamic ideas.[42]

Practice

See also: List of Islamic political parties

Pakistan

Early in the history of the state of Pakistan (March 12, 1949), a parliamentary resolution (the Objectives Resolution) was adopted, stating the objectives on which the future constitution of the country was to be based. It contained the basic principles of both Islam and Western Democracy, in accordance with the vision of the founders of the Pakistan Movement (Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Liaquat Ali Khan).[80] It proclaimed:

Sovereignty belongs to Allah alone but He has delegated it to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him as a sacred trust.

This resolution was included in the 1956 constitution as preamble and in 1985[81] it was inserted in the constitution itself as Article 2 and Schedule item 53[82] (but with the word "freely" in Provision shall be made for the religious minorities to freely profess and practice their religions and develop their cultures, removed.[83]). The resolution was inserted again in the constitution in 2010,[84] with the word "freely" reinstated.[83]

However, Islamisation has proceeded slowly in Pakistan, and Islamists and Islamic parties and activists have expressed frustration that sharia law has not yet been fully implemented.

Indonesia

Officially, Indonesia does not have a state religion, and is in many respects a secular democracy. The constitution of Indonesia gives its people the freedom of worship, according to their religion or belief. This is based on the state ideology of "Pancasila" whose first tenet, Ketuhanan yang Maha Esa, translates as "The One and Almighty God", implying that there is a supreme God that unites the nation. It does not specify any religion, though this is also sometimes mistranslated as an endorsement for monotheism. As a result, Indonesians have a religion column in their identity card; however, it is not mandatory (an empty column will indicate not having a religion) and is only used for censuses (which are a Dutch colonial legacy). The 5th point of practice of the Butir-butir pengamalan Pancasila states "Religion and belief in God Almighty are private matters that concern the human relationship with God Almighty."[85] Sukarno's conception of Pancasila's ideology is not 'secular' in the Western sense, although he agreed with Mahmud Esad Bay and Mustafa Kemal Ataturks' view that Islam should be free of government control. In his speech titled "Islam Sontoloyo" or "Foolish Islam", he was critical of Islamic leaders' misuse of authority to justify wrong actions. According to Yudi Latief, Indonesia's founding leaders, while thoroughly educated and motivated as secularists of the time, were unable to comprehend an Indonesian society without religion.[86] Indonesian nationalist leaders characterized the country as a "religiously neutral state", in which Islam would be separated from the state and that Islamic affairs should be managed by Muslims without the help of the state. A preliminary meeting based on Hatta's initiative agreed that Islamic laws could be used for family laws that are passed by the People's Representative Council, but only if they relate to Muslims, while the 'secular' national criminal code could not to be changed because it applies to all regardless of religion.[87] Sukarno also banned the most popular Islamic party, Masjumi, for alleged involvement in the PRRI rebellion. On 27 January 1953, Sukarno delivered a speech in Amuntai, South Kalimantan, a region with a strong Islamic community. There was a banner reading "Indonesia a Nation State or an Islamic State?" Commenting on the banner, Sukarno said:

The state we want is a nation state consisting of all Indonesia. If we establish a state based on Islam, many areas whose population is not Islamic, such as the Moluccas, Bali, Flores, Timor, the Kai Islands, and Sulawesi, will secede. And West Irian, which has not yet become part of the territory of Indonesia, will not want to be part of the Republic.[88]

Sukarno also disagreed with Aceh adopting Islamic criminal laws as its form of sharia bylaws, stating that "Indonesia is a nation state with the ideology of Pancasila, not a theocratic country with a certain religious orientation" and "Muslim's habit of reading the Quran" is also a form of obedience towards sharia.[89] According to Sukarno, religion is a private matter between individuals and god, that could only be regulated through personal or family matters. During the Suharto era, Islamic parties were even more tightly controlled by the government, through the state formation of the United Development Party. Islamic veils were also banned. Nurcholis Majid, one of the prominent young Islamic thinkers at the time, in his speech "The Need for Reform in Islamic Thinking and the Problem of Ummah Integration", considered Indonesian Muslims to be stuck in ideological dogmatism, and as a result had lost dynamism. He therefore coined the famous slogan: "Islam Yes, Islamic Party No".[90] Most of his colleagues considered this to be an endorsement of secularism. However, Abdurrahman Wahid, the fourth president of Indonesia, explained Indonesia's case as "mild secularism".[91] Neither man considered themselves to be secularist and preferred to use 'secularisation', acknowledging the concern that secularism as an ideology could become a new closed world view functioning like a new religion.

However, in 1970, another political movement centered in students small groups of university students called "liqo" started. It was directly inspired by Hassan al-Banna's Muslim Brotherhood, the proponent of which is Hilmi Aminuddin, which advocates for a gradual change to become more ideal Muslim. This coalesced in the formation of the Indonesian Muslim Students Action Union (KAMMI) in 1998, which alongside Abdurrahman Wahid's Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) and Amien Rais' Muhammadiyah as student leaders formed the groups of student protests against Suharto's government. After the fall of Suharto, KAMMI became the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS), while NU and Muhammadiyah chose not to be involved in practical politics of winning elections and instead formed independent political parties aligned to, but independent of, their Islamic organizations, in the form of the National Awakening Party (PKB) and National Mandate Party (PAN). The democratic reforms led to calls for the adoption of Islamic sharia law in the form of the Jakarta Charter in national legislative body (MPR) in 2002. However, it was rejected, with even the PKB and PAN voting against it.

This was because the two largest Muslim organizations of Indonesia, NU and Muhammadiyah, very much accepted the Pancasila 'secularism' basis of the country. NU and the party closest to it, PKB (Abdurrahman's party), is member of Centrist Democrat International, which also contains the German CDU as well as the Hungarian Fidesz party.[92] Indonesia has a party associated with the Muslim Brotherhood, the PKS, but even it has to commit to the state ideology, which means it is pluralist.[93] Islamic groups that stray from and tried to change Pancasila such as HTI (Indonesian branch of Hizb ut-Tahrir) are banned even though they 'participated' in a democracy.[94]

In a practical sense, in central government levels, Indonesia has six recognized religions, as these are the recognized majority religions of most Indonesians and received state support.

In the Ministry of Religion Affairs, there are separate religious leader administrators for each of the six major religions. Sometimes the president or government members in a formal speech will greet audiences using in all six religious greetings. An example of this was in President Joko Widodo's speech on March 26, 2021.[95] In which he used all religious greetings including:

Some Indonesian Muslims have long had problems with the implementation of sharia law, seeing it as not necessary and infringing on the non-Muslim population, while others see the implementation of some sharia-based laws as a solution to a failed and corrupt democratic process. In the 1960s, the "Darul Islam" rebellion tried to forcefully form an "Islamic State of Indonesia" although they were eventually defeated. Its regional offshoot based in Aceh advocated for independence, and continued an insurgency for a separate Islamic Aceh country. As a result of the Boxing Day tsunami in 2004 and negotiations facilitated by the Swedish government (Hasan di Tiro had a Swedish passport and lived there in exile) as well as the Finnish government, the Helsinki MoU was signed ending the conflict. Indonesia would allow Aceh to adopt its own version of law called Qanun, and Aceh would stop fighting for independence and adopt the special autonomy law.[96]

Iran

Theory

Since the revolution in Iran, the largest Shia country, Twelver Shia political thought has been dominated by that of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the founder and leader of the revolution. Khomeini argued that in the absence of the Hidden Imam and other divinely-appointed figures (in whom ultimate political authority rests), Muslims have not only the right, but also the obligation to establish an "Islamic state".[97] To that end they must turn to scholars of Islamic law (fiqh) who are qualified to interpret the Quran and the writings of the imams.

Once in power and recognizing the need for more flexibility, Khomeini modified some earlier positions, insisted the ruling jurist need not be one of the most learned, that Sharia rule was subordinate to interests of Islam (Maslaha—"expedient interests" or "public welfare"[98]), and the "divine government" as interpreted by the ruling jurists, who could overrule Sharia if necessary to serve those interests. The Islamic "government, which is a branch of the absolute governance of the Prophet of God, is among the primary ordinances of Islam, and has precedence over all 'secondary' ordinances."

The last point was made in December 1987, when Khomieni issued a fatwa in support of the Islamic government's attempt to pass a labor protection bill not in accordance with sharia.[99][100] He ruled that in the Islamic state, governmental ordinances were primary ordinances,[101] and that the Islamic state has absolute right (Persian: ولايت مطلقه) to enact state commandments, taking precedence over "all secondary ordinances such as prayer, fasting, and pilgrimage".

Were the powers of government to lie only within the framework of secondary divine decrees, the designation of the divine government and absolute deputed guardianship (wilayat-i mutlaqa-yi mufawwada) to the Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him and his progeny) would have been in practice entirely without meaning and content. ... I must point out, the government which is a branch of the absolute governance of the Prophet of God is among the primary ordinances of Islam, and has precedence over all secondary ordinances such as prayer (salat), fasting (sawm), and pilgrimage (hajj).

The idea and concept of Islamic democracy has been accepted by many Iranian clerics, scholars and intellectuals.[102][103][104][105][106] The most notable of those who have accepted the theory of Islamic democracy is probably Iran's Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, who mentions Islamic democracy as "Mardomsalarie Dini" in his speeches. Nevertheless, Khamenei openly expresses his opposition to liberal democracy, having said, "Islam naturally stands against liberal democracy."[107]

There are also other Iranian scholars who oppose or at least criticise the concept of Islamic democracy. Among the most popular of them are Ayatollah Naser Makarem Shirazi[108] who have written: "If not referring to the people votes would result in accusations of tyranny then it is allowed to accept people vote as a secondary commandment."[109] Also Mohammad-Taqi Mesbah-Yazdi has more or less the same viewpoint.

Practice

Some Iranians, including Mohammad Khatami, categorize the Islamic Republic of Iran as a kind of religious democracy.[110] They maintain that Ruhollah Khomeini held the same view as well and that's why he strongly chose "Jomhoorie Eslami" (Islamic Republic) over "Hokoomate Eslami" (Islamic State).

Others maintain that not only is the Islamic Republic of Iran undemocratic (see Politics of Iran) but that Khomeini himself opposed the principle of democracy in his book Hokumat-e Islami: Wilayat al-Faqih, where he denied the need for any legislative body saying, "no one has the right to legislate ... except ... the Divine Legislator", and during the Islamic Revolution, when he told Iranians, "Do not use this term, 'democratic.' That is the Western style."[111] Although it is in contrast with his commandment to Mehdi Bazargan. It is a subject of lively debate among pro-Islamic Iranian intelligentsia. Also they maintain that Iran's sharia courts, the Islamic Revolutionary Court, blasphemy laws of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and the Islamic religious police violate the principles of democratic governance.[112] However, it should be understood that when a democracy is accepted to be Islamic by people, the law of Islam becomes the democratically ratified law of that country. Iranians have ratified the constitution in which the principle rules are explicitly mentioned as the rules of Islam to which other rules should conform. Khomeini fervently believed that principles of democracy can't provide the targeted justice of Islam in the Sharia and Islamic thoughts.(Mohaghegh. Behnam 2014) This contrast of view between the two Iranian head leaders of this Islamic country, as above mentioned about Khatami's and Khomeini's views have provisionally been being a case of disaffiliation of nearly half a country in most probable political coincidence, so the people cognizant of this heterogeneous political belief shall not be affiliated by newly formed views of democratic principles.(Mohaghegh, Behnam 2014)

A number of deviations from traditional sharia regulations have been noted in Iran

... the financial system has barely been Islamized; Christians, for example, are not subject to a poll tax and pay according to the common scheme. Insurance is maintained (even though chance, the very basis for insurance should theoretically be excluded from all contracts). The contracts signed with foreigners all accept the matter of interest.[113]

Indices of democracy in Muslim countries

There are several non-governmental organizations that publish and maintain indices of democracy in the world, according to their own various definitions of the term, and rank countries as being free, partly free, or unfree using various measures of freedom, including political rights, economic rights, freedom of the press and civil liberties.

The following lists Muslim-majority countries and shows the scores given by two frequently used indices: 2022 Democracy Index (The Economist)[114] and 2023 V-Dem Democracy indices[115] for electoral democracy. These indices are frequently used in Western media, but have attracted some criticism and may not reflect recent changes.

Location Democracy Index Score Democracy Index Rank Democracy Index Category V-Dem electoral democracy index Type of government Religion and State
 Afghanistan 0.32 167 Authoritarian regime 0.082 Unitary provisional theocratic Islamic emirate Islamic state
 Albania 6.41 64 Flawed democracy 0.484 Parliamentary system Secular state
 Algeria 3.66 113 Authoritarian regime 0.281 Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic State religion
 Azerbaijan 2.87 134 Authoritarian regime 0.188 Presidential system Secular state
 Bahrain 2.52 141 Authoritarian regime 0.122 Constitutional monarchy State religion
 Bangladesh 5.99 73 Hybrid regime 0.274 Parliamentary republic State religion
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.00 97 Hybrid regime 0.528 Parliamentary republic Secular state
 Brunei Authoritarian regime - Absolute monarchy Islamic state
 Burkina Faso 3.08 127 Authoritarian regime 0.295 Semi-presidential system Secular state
 Chad 1.67 160 Authoritarian regime 0.14 Presidential system Secular state
 Comoros 3.20 120 Authoritarian regime 0.284 Presidential system, Federal republic Islamic state (de jure)
Secular state (de facto)
 Djibouti 2.74 137 Authoritarian regime 0.255 Semi-presidential system State religion
 Egypt 2.93 131 Authoritarian regime 0.175 Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic State religion
 Gambia 4.47 102 Hybrid regime 0.62 Presidential system Secular state
 Guinea 2.32 145 Authoritarian regime 0.191 Presidential system Secular state
 Guinea-Bissau 2.56 140 Authoritarian regime 0.371 Semi-presidential system Secular state
 Indonesia 6.71 54 Flawed democracy 0.574 Presidential system Secular state
 Iran 1.96 154 Authoritarian regime 0.182 Unitary theocratic presidential Islamic Republic Islamic state
 Iraq 3.13 124 Authoritarian regime 0.362 Parliamentary republic State religion
 Ivory Coast 4.22 106 Hybrid regime 0.437 Presidential system Secular state
 Jordan 3.17 122 Authoritarian regime 0.259 Constitutional monarchy State religion
 Kazakhstan 3.08 127 Authoritarian regime 0.277 Presidential system Secular state
 Kosovo - 0.618 Secular state
 Kuwait 3.83 111 Authoritarian regime 0.317 Constitutional monarchy State religion
 Kyrgyzstan 3.62 116 Authoritarian regime 0.382 Parliamentary republic Secular state
 Lebanon 3.64 115 Hybrid regime 0.426 Confessionalist Parliamentary republic Secular state
 Libya 2.06 151 Authoritarian regime 0.213 Provisional government State religion
 Malaysia 7.30 40 Flawed democracy 0.438 Constitutional monarchy, parliamentary democracy State religion
 Maldives 0.583 State religion
 Mali 3.23 119 Authoritarian regime 0.235 Semi-presidential system Secular state
 Mauritania 4.03 108 Hybrid regime 0.395 Islamic republic, Semi-presidential system Islamic state
 Morocco 5.04 95 Hybrid regime 0.264 Constitutional monarchy State religion
 Niger 3.73 112 Authoritarian regime 0.511 Semi-presidential system Secular state
 Nigeria 4.23 105 Hybrid regime 0.49 Federalism, presidential system Secular state, Islamic state (only in the northern Nigerian states)
 Oman 3.12 125 Authoritarian regime 0.17 Absolute monarchy Islamic state
 Pakistan 4.13 107 Hybrid regime 0.388 Islamic Republic, Federalism, parliamentary republic Islamic state[116][117][118]
 State of Palestine 3.86 110 Authoritarian regime 0.26 Semi-presidential system State religion[119]
 Qatar 3.65 114 Authoritarian regime 0.088 Semi-constitutional monarchy State religion
 Saudi Arabia 2.08 150 Authoritarian regime 0.016 Islamic absolute monarchy Islamic state
 Senegal 5.72 79 Hybrid regime 0.69 Semi-presidential system Secular state
 Sierra Leone 5.03 96 Hybrid regime 0.559 Presidential system Secular state
 Somalia 0.162 Federalism, Semi-presidential system State religion
 Somaliland (Somalia) 0.421 State religion
 Sudan 2.47 144 Authoritarian regime 0.169 Federalism, presidential system Secular state (de jure)
Islamic state (de facto)
 Syria 1.43 163 Authoritarian regime 0.138 Semi-presidential system Secular state
 Tajikistan 1.94 156 Authoritarian regime 0.175 Presidential system Secular state
 Tunisia 5.51 85 Hybrid regime 0.307 Semi-presidential system Secular state
 Turkey 4.35 103 Hybrid regime 0.276 Presidential system Secular state[120][121]
 Turkmenistan 1.66 161 Authoritarian regime 0.149 Presidential system, one-party state Secular state
 United Arab Emirates 2.90 133 Authoritarian regime 0.101 Federalism, Constitutional monarchy State religion
 Uzbekistan 2.12 149 Authoritarian regime 0.221 Presidential system Secular state
Western Sahara (controlled by Morocco) - State religion
 Yemen 1.95 155 Authoritarian regime 0.123 Provisional government Islamic state
Key: – Disputed territory (according to Freedom House)

Islamic democratic parties and organizations

This is a list of parties and organizations which aim for the implementation of Sharia or an Islamic State, or subscribe to Muslim identity politics, or in some other way fulfil the definitions of political Islam, activist Islam, or Islamism laid out in this article; or have been widely described as such by others.

Country or scope Movement/s
International
 Bahrain Al Menbar[122]
 Bangladesh
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Party of Democratic Action
 Egypt
 Finland Finnish Islamic Party
 India
 Indonesia
 Iran
 Iraq
 Israel Ra'am
 Jordan Islamic Action Front[57]
 Kuwait Hadas
 Libya
 Malaysia
 Maldives
 Morocco Justice and Development Party[136][137]
 Pakistan
 Palestine
 Philippines
 Rwanda Islamic Democratic Party
 Sudan National Umma Party Sudan
 Somalia Peace and Development Party
 Syria Muslim Brotherhood of Syria[141][142][143]
 Turkey
 Yemen Al-Islah

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Muslih, Muhammad; Browers, Michaelle (2009). "Democracy". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on June 11, 2017.
  2. ^ a b Esposito, John L. "Rethinking Islam and Secularism" (PDF). Association of Religion Data Archives. pp. 13–15. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 29, 2015. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Esposito, John L.; DeLong-Bas, Natana J. (2018). Shariah: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. p. 145.
  4. ^ a b "Most Muslims Want Democracy, Personal Freedoms, and Islam in Political Life". Pew Research Center. July 10, 2012. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  5. ^ a b Rheault, Magali; Mogahed, Dalia (October 3, 2017). "Majorities See Religion and Democracy as Compatible". Gallup. Archived from the original on August 12, 2019. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  6. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2004), vol. 1, p. 116–123.
  7. ^ Weeramantry, Christopher G. (1997). Justice Without Frontiers: Furthering Human Rights. The Hague: Kluwer Law International. p. 135. ISBN 90-411-0241-8.
  8. ^ a b Feldman, Noah (March 16, 2008). "Why Shariah?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 11, 2019. Retrieved October 5, 2008.
  9. ^ Makdisi, George (April–June 1989). "Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 109 (2): 175–182 [175–77]. doi:10.2307/604423. JSTOR 604423.
  10. ^ Islam, Md Nazrul; Islam, Md Saidul (March 20, 2020). Islam and Democracy in South Asia: The Case of Bangladesh. Springer Nature. p. 87. ISBN 978-3-030-42909-6. Retrieved August 25, 2022.
  11. ^ "The Kingdom's Failed Marriage". Halaqa. Retrieved April 26, 2024.
  12. ^ a b "Concept of democracy in Islam - Islam Question & Answer". islamqa.info. January 22, 2015. Archived from the original on April 28, 2022. Retrieved August 4, 2022.
  13. ^ Trauthig, Inga Kristina; Eyre, Guy Robert (October 29, 2023). "'Quietist' Salafis after the 'Arab revolts' in Algeria and Libya (2011–2019): Between insecurity and political subordination". Mediterranean Politics: 1–24. doi:10.1080/13629395.2023.2272474. Retrieved April 26, 2024.
  14. ^ "Ruling on democracy and elections". en.islamway.net. Retrieved April 26, 2024.
  15. ^ "In Sissi's Egypt, Salafis are Saudi Pawns". Daily Sabah. May 31, 2014. Retrieved April 26, 2024.
  16. ^ "Sinai's Role in Morsi's Ouster". Retrieved April 26, 2024.
  17. ^ "Politicization of Salafism in Egypt" (PDF). Retrieved April 26, 2024.
  18. ^ "Ruling on democracy and elections and participating in that system - Islam Question & Answer". islamqa.info. Archived from the original on August 4, 2022. Retrieved August 4, 2022.
  19. ^ "Ruling on democracy and elections". en.islamway.net. December 21, 2012. Archived from the original on March 19, 2022. Retrieved August 4, 2022.
  20. ^ a b "Scholars Urge Western Muslims to Vote: Saudi Arabia | MWJ". Muslim World Journal. May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on October 10, 2022. Retrieved August 4, 2022.
  21. ^ "৬. ৩. অনুবাদে, ব্যাখ্যায় ও গবেষণায় মিথ্যা". Archived from the original on October 23, 2022. Retrieved November 26, 2022.
  22. ^ Jahangir, Khandaker Abdullah (September 2010). হাদীসের নামে জালিয়াতি: প্রচলিত মিথ্যা হাদীস ও ভিত্তিহীন কথা (Forgery in the name of Hadith: common false hadith and baseless words) (PDF) (in Bengali) (4th ed.). Jhenaidah, Bangladesh: As-Sunnah Publications. p. 84. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 8, 2023. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  23. ^ Jahangir, Khandaker Abdullah (April 2017). হাদীসের নামে জালিয়াতি: প্রচলিত মিথ্যা হাদীস ও ভিত্তিহীন কথা (Forgery in the name of Hadith: common false hadith and baseless words) (in Bengali) (5th ed.). Jhenaidah, Bangladesh: As-Sunnah Publications. p. 184. ISBN 978-984-90053-3-9.
  24. ^ Arabic and Islamic Natural Philosophy and Natural Science. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. 2018. Archived from the original on August 2, 2019. Retrieved December 17, 2008. ((cite book)): |website= ignored (help)
  25. ^ Bontekoe, Ronald; Stepaniants, Mariėtta Tigranovna (1997). Justice and Democracy: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. University of Hawaii Press. p. 251. ISBN 0-8248-1926-8.
  26. ^ a b John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Secularism". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  27. ^ Bontekoe, Ronald; Stepaniants, Mariėtta Tigranovna (1997). Justice and Democracy: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. University of Hawaii Press. p. 253. ISBN 0-8248-1926-8.
  28. ^ "HonestThinking - Quotes". www.honestthinking.org. Archived from the original on July 18, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  29. ^ Maududi, Sayyid Abdul al'al (1960). Political Theory of Islam (1993 ed.). Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Publications. p. 35. the power to rule over the earth has been promised to the whole community of believers. [italics original]
  30. ^ Ullah, Haroon K. (2013). Vying for Allah's Vote: Understanding Islamic Parties, Political Violence, and Extremism in Pakistan. Georgetown University Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-62616-015-6. Maududi proposed forming a Muslim theodemocracy in which Islamic law would guide public policy in all areas of life. (Maududi specifically rejected the term 'theocracy' to describe his ideal state, arguing that the truly Islamic state would be ruled not by the ulema but by the entire Muslim community.)
  31. ^ Choueiri, p.111, quoted in Ruthven, Malise (2000). Islam in the World (2nd ed.). Penguin. p. 70.
  32. ^ Choueiri, Youssef M. (2010). Islamic Fundamentalism: The Story of Islamist Movements (3rd ed.). London: Bloomsbury Continuum. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-8264-9801-4.
  33. ^ "Abstracts: A Theory of Universal Democracy". University of Wisconsin Law School. Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. Retrieved November 3, 2014.
  34. ^ "Is Democracy Compatible with Islam? | Javed Ahmad Ghamidi". www.al-mawrid.org. Archived from the original on September 23, 2019. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  35. ^ Esposito, John L.; DeLong-Bas, Natana J. (2018). Shariah: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. pp. 142–143.
  36. ^ Waltz, S.E., 1995, Human Rights & Reform: Changing the Face of North African Politics, London, University of California Press Ltd
  37. ^ Roy, Olivier (April 16, 2012). "The New Islamists". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on October 9, 2014. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  38. ^ a b Weiffen, Britta (2004). "The Cultural-Economic Syndrome: Impediments to Democracy in the Middle East" (PDF). Comparative Sociology. 3 (3–4): 353–375. doi:10.1163/1569133043019780. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2009 – via European Public Choice Society (EPCS).
  39. ^ Kedourie, E., 1994, Democracy and Arab Political Culture, London, Frank Cass & Co Ltd, page 1
  40. ^ Esposito, J. & Voll, J.,2001, Islam and Democracy, Humanities, Volume 22, Issue 6
  41. ^ "Can Arab and Islamic values be reconciled with democracy?". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved November 3, 2014.
  42. ^ a b Whitaker, Brian (March 15, 2004). "Beware instant democracy". The Guardian. Retrieved November 3, 2014.
  43. ^ Beblawi, H., 1990, The Rentier State in the Arab World, in Luciani, G., The Arab State, London, Routledge
  44. ^ Slimani, Salah (May 10, 2012). "Islamists Predict Victory as Algerians Head to the Polls". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on May 18, 2012.
  45. ^ "Algeria's Islamists confident of election victory". RNW. May 7, 2012. Archived from the original on October 25, 2014.
  46. ^ Schemm, Paul (May 11, 2012). "Algerian Islamists fall to govt party in election". Associated Press. Archived from the original on January 9, 2016 – via HighBeam Research.
  47. ^ Faucon, Benoît (May 11, 2012). "Algerian Ruling Party Beats Islamists in Vote". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
  48. ^ "Guide to Bahrain's politics". The Guardian. February 15, 2011. Archived from the original on February 5, 2017. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
  49. ^ Riaz, Ali (2003). ""God Willing": The Politics and Ideology of Islamism in Bangladesh". Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. 23 (1–2): 301–320. doi:10.1215/1089201X-23-1-2-301.
  50. ^ "Obituary: Alija Izetbegovic". BBC. October 19, 2003. Archived from the original on January 7, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  51. ^ Binder, David (October 20, 2003). "Alija Izetbegović, Muslim Who Led Bosnia, Dies at 78". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 26, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
  52. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (January 21, 2012). "Islamists Win 70% of Seats in the Egyptian Parliament". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 4, 2022. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
  53. ^ "Who Was Mohamed Morsi? A Timeline of His Rise and Fall". Egyptian Streets. June 18, 2019. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
  54. ^ a b Evans, Kevin R (2003). The history of political parties & general elections in Indonesia. Jakarta:Arise Consultancies.
  55. ^ Schwarz, Adam (1994). A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s. Allen & Unwin. pp. 172. ISBN 0-521-77326-1.
  56. ^ Dhume, Sadanand (December 1, 2005). "Indonesian Democracy's Enemy Within". YaleGlobal Online. Archived from the original on December 21, 2015.
  57. ^ a b "Jordan's Islamic Front rallies Muslims". Archived from the original on March 16, 2003. Retrieved November 3, 2014.
  58. ^ Hamzeh, A. Nizar (1997). "Islamism in Lebanon: A Guide to the Groups". Middle East Quarterly. 4: 47–53. Archived from the original on February 8, 2013. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
  59. ^ "Muslim Brotherhood formally launches party". Libya Herald. March 3, 2012. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  60. ^ Soguel, Dominique (March 4, 2012). "Muslim Brother picked to lead new Libya party". Times of Malta. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  61. ^ a b Haimzadeh, Patrick (July 3, 2012). "Libya's Unquiet Election". Middle East Online. Archived from the original on March 25, 2016.
  62. ^ Grant, George (July 1, 2012). "Party Profile: The National Forces Alliance". Libya Herald. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
  63. ^ "Perlembagaan". UMNO Online (in Malay). Archived from the original on February 29, 2012. : Goal 3.3 and 3.5
  64. ^ "ISLAM HADHARI: Antara Pemalsuan dan Bid'ah" (PDF). Parti Islam Se Malaysia (PAS). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 11, 2012.
  65. ^ "PAN Malaysian party, democratic Islamist or Illiberal ethno-nationalists?". Australian National University. October 20, 2017. Archived from the original on May 2, 2022. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
  66. ^ Chen, Cherice (November 25, 2011). "Morocco votes in first election since protests; Islamist party eyes victory". Taiwan News. Archived from the original on November 27, 2011. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  67. ^ Alami, Aida (November 25, 2011). "Moroccans Vote in Election Marking Shift of Power From King". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on June 4, 2013. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  68. ^ Sly, Liz (May 12, 2012). "Syria's Muslim Brotherhood is gaining influence over anti-Assad revolt". Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 9, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
  69. ^ Oweis, Khaled Yacoub (May 6, 2012). "Syria's Muslim Brotherhood rise from the ashes". Reuters. Archived from the original on October 15, 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
  70. ^ "Mountain Rigger". The Economist. November 11, 2006.
  71. ^ "Tunisia legalises Islamist group Ennahda". BBC News Online. March 1, 2011. Archived from the original on August 18, 2019. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
  72. ^ Khalaf, Roula (April 27, 2011). "Tunisian Islamists seek poll majority". Financial Times. Archived from the original on December 10, 2022. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
  73. ^ "Tunisian leader returns from exile". Al Jazeera English. January 20, 2011. Archived from the original on January 23, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
  74. ^ Kaminski, Matthew (October 26, 2011). "On the Campaign Trail With Islamist Democrats". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on July 13, 2018. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
  75. ^ Feldman, Noah (October 30, 2011). "Islamists' Victory in Tunisia a Win for Democracy: Noah Feldman". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on January 17, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2011.
  76. ^ "Decree of 23 Nov. 2011 about the Final Results of the National Constituent Assembly Elections" (in Arabic). 2011. Archived from the original on November 18, 2011.
  77. ^ Lynch, Marc (June 29, 2011). "Tunisia's New al-Nahda". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
  78. ^ Bay, Austin (November 30, 2011). "Tunisia and its Islamists: The Revolution, Phase Two". RealClearPolitics. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  79. ^ Totten, Michael (March 21, 2012). "No to America and No to Radical Islam". Archived from the original on March 24, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.((cite web)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  80. ^ "Objectives Resolution, Republic of Rumi Archived November 7, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  81. ^ (Revival of Constitution of 1973 Order, 1985 (President's Order No. 14 of 1985))
  82. ^ (with effect from March 2, 1985)
  83. ^ a b "Annex 731 The Objectives Resolution [Article 2(A)]". pakistan.org. Archived from the original on March 29, 2016. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
  84. ^ (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 2010, Section 99 (with effect from April 19, 2010)
  85. ^ "Isi Butir-Butir Pancasila Sila 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 dan Penjelasannya". tirto.id (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on September 22, 2022. Retrieved August 24, 2022.
  86. ^ Latif, Yudi (June 2011). Negara Paripurna: Historitas, Rasionalitas, Aktualitas Pancasila. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
  87. ^ "Bung Hatta dalam Merevisi Sila 'Ketuhanan dengan kewajiban menjalankan syariat Islam bagi pemeluk-pemeluknya'". University of Udayana. Archived from the original on September 9, 2022. Retrieved September 9, 2022.
  88. ^ "President Sukarno and the Islamic State" (PDF). Institute of Current World Affairs. January 29, 1953. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 17, 2023. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
  89. ^ Jo, Hendi (October 9, 2015). "Bung Karno's Tears Melt in Aceh". Historia.id. Archived from the original on June 21, 2022.
  90. ^ Ahsan, Ivan Aulia (August 29, 2019). "Nurcholish Madjid & Sekularisasi: Dua Sisi yang Kerap Disalahpahami". tirto.id (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on April 13, 2021. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  91. ^ Wahid, Abdurrahman (July 1, 2001). "Indonesia's Mild Secularism". SAIS Review. 21 (2): 25–28. doi:10.1353/sais.2001.0051. ISSN 1945-4724. S2CID 154646071. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  92. ^ "The Peculiar Case of Viktor Orban's Visit to Indonesia". Jakarta Globe. January 15, 2020. Archived from the original on April 13, 2021. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  93. ^ Umam, Chaerul (July 23, 2020). "Politikus PKS Jawab PDIP: Ideologi Bernegara Kita Sama, Pancasila". Tribunnews.com (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on April 13, 2021. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  94. ^ "HTI dinyatakan ormas terlarang, pengadilan tolak gugatan". BBC News Indonesia (in Indonesian). May 7, 2018. Archived from the original on April 13, 2021. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  95. ^ "Peresmian Pembukaan Musyawarah Nasional V Asosiasi Pemerintah Kabupaten Seluruh Indonesia (APKASI) Tahun 2021, 26 Maret 2021, di Istana Negara, Provinsi DKI Jakarta". Sekretariat Kabinet Republik Indonesia (in Indonesian). March 26, 2021. Archived from the original on April 13, 2021. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  96. ^ Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement (Article 1). August 15, 2005.
  97. ^ [1] [dead link]
  98. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand, A History of Modern Iran, Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 165
  99. ^ Schirazi, Asghar. The Constitution of Iran, p. 212
  100. ^ "Khomeini's REVERSALS of Promises". Archived from the original on July 8, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  101. ^ Arjomand, Said Amir (1993). "Shi'ite Jurisprudence and Constitution Making in the Islamic Republic of Iran". In Marty, Martin E.; Appleby, R. Scott (eds.). Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance. University of Chicago Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-226-50884-9.
  102. ^ "President Says Democracy Conforms With Religion in Iran". Tehran Times. August 10, 2002. Archived from the original on March 8, 2007 – via WorldWide Religious News.
  103. ^ "" Official Website of Sayyid Mohammad Khatami " www.khatami.ir". Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  104. ^ "AbdolKarim Soroush:: عبدالکريم سروش". Archived from the original on December 17, 2014. Retrieved November 3, 2014.
  105. ^ "News". The Office of the Supreme Leader, Sayyid Ali Khamenei. Archived from the original on March 10, 2012.
  106. ^ "Participation in Majlis Elections, Religious and Logical Duty: Leader". Institute for Preserving and Publishing Works by Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenie. December 20, 2003. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
  107. ^ "Islam naturally stands against liberal democracy's plot to dominate the world - Khamenei.ir". Archived from the original on March 16, 2023. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  108. ^ "پایگاه اطلاع رسانی دفتر مرجع عالیقدر حضرت آیت الله العظمی مکارم شیرازی". Archived from the original on October 31, 2020. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  109. ^ انوار الفقاهه- كتاب البيع – ج 1 ص 516
  110. ^ "Envoy: Religious democracy materialized by Islamic Revolution". Irna. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007.
  111. ^ Bakhash, Shaul, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, p.73
  112. ^ "Iranian President Khatami Clashes with Reformist Students at Tehran University". MEMRI TV. June 12, 2004. Archived from the original on February 9, 2005.
  113. ^ The Failure of Political Islam, by Olivier Roy, translated by Carol Volk, Harvard University Press, 1994, pp. 139–140.
  114. ^ "Democracy Index 2022". Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived from the original on February 10, 2022. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  115. ^ Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Staffan I. Lindberg, Jan Teorell, Nazifa Alizada, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, Agnes Cornell, M. Steven Fish, Lisa Gastaldi, Haakon Gjerløw, Adam Glynn, Allen Hicken, Garry Hindle, Nina Ilchenko, Joshua Krusell, Anna Lührmann, Seraphine F. Maerz, Kyle L. Marquardt, Kelly McMann, Valeriya Mechkova, Juraj Medzihorsky, Pamela Paxton, Daniel Pemstein, Josefine Pernes, Johannes von Römer, Brigitte Seim, Rachel Sigman, Svend-Erik Skaaning, Jeffrey Staton, Aksel Sundström, Eitan Tzelgov, Yi-ting Wang, Tore Wig, Steven Wilson and Daniel Ziblatt. 2021. "V-Dem [Country–Year/Country–Date] Dataset v11.1" Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project. https://doi.org/10.23696/vdemds21.
  116. ^ The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Archived from the original on March 23, 2022. Retrieved April 5, 2020 – via Wikisource.
  117. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original (PDF) on December 26, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2020.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  118. ^ "ENFORCEMENT OF SHARI'AH ACT. 1991" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on August 18, 2019. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  119. ^ "BASIC LAW - OF THE PALESTINIAN NATIONAL AUTHORITY". Archived from the original on October 30, 2021. Retrieved January 23, 2022.
  120. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Turkey". Archived from the original on December 4, 2020. Retrieved November 12, 2015 – via Wikisource.
  121. ^ https://global.tbmm.gov.tr/docs/constitution_en.pdf Archived February 9, 2020, at the Wayback Machine [bare URL PDF]
  122. ^ Guide to Bahrain's politics Archived February 5, 2017, at the Wayback Machine – 4 Sep 2008. Ambassador Ereli, US Embassy, Bahrain/Wikileaks/The Guardian
  123. ^ "The Tenacity of Hope". The Economist. December 30, 2008. Retrieved October 25, 2014. [The BNP] seems also to have been hurt by its alliance with Islamist parties, the largest of which, Jamaat-e-Islami, was reduced from 17 seats to just two.
  124. ^ "Bangladesh and war crimes: Blighted at birth". The Economist. July 1, 2010. West [Pakistan]'s army had the support of many of East Pakistan's Islamist parties. They included Jamaat-e-Islami, still Bangladesh's largest Islamist party ... reinstating and enforcing that original constitution might amount to an outright ban on Jamaat, the standardbearer in Bangladesh for a conservative strain of Islam.
  125. ^ Islamists Win 75% of Seats in the Egyptian Parliament Archived October 4, 2022, at the Wayback Machine The New York Times.
  126. ^ Schwarz, Adam (1994). A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s. Allen & Unwin. p. 172. ISBN 0-521-77326-1.
  127. ^ Dhume, Sadanand. (December 1, 2005). Indonesian Democracy's Enemy Within. Yale Global.
  128. ^ "Muslim Brotherhood formally launches party". Libya Herald. March 3, 2012. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  129. ^ Soguel, Dominique (March 3, 2012). "Muslim Brother picked to lead new Libya party". The Times of India. Tripoli. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on July 1, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  130. ^ Beaumont, Peter (December 3, 2011), "Political Islam poised to dominate the new world bequeathed by Arab spring", The Guardian, archived from the original on August 20, 2012, retrieved January 31, 2012
  131. ^ Nordland, Rod; Kirkpatrick, David D. (September 15, 2011). "Islamists' Growing Sway Raises Questions for Libya". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 25, 2012. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  132. ^ Spencer, Richard (November 19, 2011), "Libyan cleric announces new party on lines of 'moderate' Islamic democracy", The Telegraph, archived from the original on January 12, 2022, retrieved January 31, 2012
  133. ^ Grant, George (July 1, 2012), "Party Profile: The National Forces Alliance", Libya Herald, archived from the original on January 16, 2014, retrieved January 18, 2013
  134. ^ [2] Archived March 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  135. ^ UMNO Online. UMNO's Constitution: Goal 3.5. From:"Perlembagaan". umno-online. Archived from the original on February 29, 2012. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  136. ^ Chen, Cherice (November 25, 2011). "Morocco votes in first election since protests; Islamist party eyes victory". Taiwan News. Archived from the original on November 27, 2011. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  137. ^ Alami, Aida (November 25, 2011). "Moroccans Vote in Election Marking Shift of Power From King". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on November 27, 2011. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  138. ^ Sidrah Moiz Khan "Pakistan's creation pointless if it fails to become Islamic welfare state" Archived November 5, 2019, at the Wayback Machine "Imran Khan said on Wednesday that Pakistan's creation had been pointless if the country fails to become an Islamic welfare state" 27 June 2012.
  139. ^ Marcus Michaelsen "Pakistan's dream catcher" Archived May 10, 2012, at the Wayback Machine "Iqbal's work has influenced Imran Khan in his deliberations on an "Islamic social state" 27 March 2012.
  140. ^ * "This is particularly the case in view of the scholarly debate on the compatibility of Islam and democracy but even more so in view of Hamas's self-definition as an Islamic national liberation movement." The Palestinian Hamas: vision, violence, and coexistence, by Shaul Mishal & Avraham Sela, 2006, p. xxviii;
  141. ^ Syria's Muslim Brotherhood is gaining influence over anti-Assad revolt Archived December 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine By Liz Sly, Washington Post, 12 May 2012
  142. ^ Khaled Yacoub Oweis "Syria's Muslim Brotherhood rise from the ashes," Archived October 15, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Reuters (6 May 2012).
  143. ^ "Syria Muslim Brotherhood Issues Post-Assad State-for-All Commitment Charter," Archived January 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine ikhwanweb.com (The Muslim Brotherhood's Official English web site) (7 April 2012).
  144. ^ "AKP explains charter changes, slams foreign descriptions". Hürriyet Daily News. Istanbul. March 28, 2010. Archived from the original on July 16, 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2014. In the Western press, when the AK Party administration, the ruling party of the Turkish Republic, is being named, unfortunately most of the time 'Islamic,' 'Islamist,' 'mildly Islamist,' 'Islamic-oriented,' 'Islamic-leaning,' 'Islamic-based' or 'with an Islamic agenda,' and similar language is being used. These characterizations do not reflect the truth, and they sadden us," Çelik said. "Yes, the AK Party is a conservative democratic party. The AK Party's conservatism is limited to moral and social issues.
  145. ^ "Arşivlenmiş kopya". Archived from the original on December 14, 2019. Retrieved December 13, 2019.

Bibliography