Islamic ethics (أخلاق إسلامية) is the "philosophical reflection upon moral conduct" with a view to defining "good character" and attaining the "pleasure of God" (raza-e Ilahi). It is distinguished from "Islamic morality", which pertains to "specific norms or codes of behavior".
It took shape as a field of study or an "Islamic science" (ʿIlm al-Akhlaq), gradually from the 7th century and was finally established by the 11th century. Although it was considered less important than sharia and fiqh "in the eyes of the ulama" (Islamic scholars) "moral philosophy" was an important subject for Muslim intellectuals. Many scholars consider it shaped as a successful amalgamation of the Qur'anic teachings, the teachings of Muhammad, the precedents of Islamic jurists (see Sharia and Fiqh), the pre-Islamic Arabian tradition, and non-Arabic elements (including Persian and Greek ideas) embedded in or integrated with a generally Islamic structure. Although Muhammad's preaching produced a "radical change in moral values based on the sanctions of the new religion ... and fear of God and of the Last Judgment"; the tribal practice of Arabs did not completely die out. Later Muslim scholars expanded the religious ethic of the Qur'an and Hadith in immense detail.
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A number of related terms refer to the right way to behave in Islam: Akhlaq, Adab, Ihsan.
Akhlaq (Arabic: أخلاق, //, plural of (Arabic: خلق khulq which means disposition), is the practice of virtue, morality and manners in Islamic theology and falsafah (philosophy). Akhlaq is the most commonly used Islamic term for morality.
The science of ethics (`Ilm al-Akhlaq) teaches that through practice and conscious effort man can surpass their natural dispositions and natural uncorrupted state (Fitrah) to become more ethical and well mannered. Akhlaq is a kind of normative ethical system known as "virtue ethics", which is based on "virtues, or moral character", rather than "conceptions of the right (as in Kantian ethics) or the good (as in utilitarianism)".
Akhlaq is not found in the Quran, but its root -- kh-l-q -- is shared by khaliq (Creator) and makhluq (creature), which are found throughout the Quran. It is most commonly translated in English-Arabic dictionaries as: disposition, nature, temper, ethics, morals or manners or in general a person who has good manners, and behaves well.: 470
Adab (Arabic: أدب) in the context of behavior, refers to prescribed Islamic etiquette: "refinement, good manners, morals, decorum, decency, humaneness" (according to the book Religion and Law). While interpretation of the scope and particulars of Adab may vary among different cultures, common among these interpretations is regard for personal standing through the observation of certain codes of behavior. To exhibit Adab would be to show "proper discrimination of correct order, behavior, and taste."
A description of the difference between Akhlaq and Adab is
Furthermore, according to one source (Abdulmajeed Hassan Bello), sharia (usually defined as Islamic law) is not just concerned with concerned "with legal rules and regulations indicating "what man is entitled or bound to do, ... but also what he ought, in conscience, to do or refrain from doing. Thus, shari’ah ... embraces both private and public activities."
Iḥsān (also Ihsaan, Arabic: إحسان), is an Arabic term meaning "beautification", "perfection" or "excellence", but is also defined in Islam (by Malcolm Clark) as ethics/morality "literally virtue, including right living," and (according to Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood) is a matter of taking one's inner faith and showing it in both deed and action.
Other terms found in the Quran that "denote the concept of moral or religious goodness" are:
Further information: Morality in Islam
Juan E. Campo describes the difference between Akhlaq/ethics and morality in Islam as :
Ethics means philosophical reflection upon moral conduct, while morality pertains to specific norms or codes of behavior. Questions of ethics, therefore, involve such subjects as human nature and the capacity to do good, the nature of good and evil, motivations for moral action, the underlying principles governing moral and immoral acts, deciding who is obliged to adhere to the moral code and who is exempted from it, and the implications of either adhering to the moral code or violating it. Morality encompasses the values and rules that govern human conduct ...
The Quran, which Muslims believe to be the verbatim word of God, serves as the primary source of moral teachings in Islam. Verse 2:177 declares:
Another verse states:
However, the Quran offers "more in the way of general principles"—justice, goodness, kindness, forgiveness, honesty, and piety -- "than specific rules".
Hadith, which are based on reports of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions, also serves as an important source for Islamic moral teachings. Some hadith cited expressing good conduct, deeds, morals in Islam, and the importance of these include:
A "famous" hadith "Hadith of jibril" describes the angel Jibril (Gabriel) questioning Muhammad about "what is faith?" "what is Islam?" and "What is Ihsan (perfection or virtue)?", where in reply Muhammad lists the "Five Pillars of Islam", the "Six Articles of Faith", and describes Ihsan (which Clark defines as ethics, or "virtue and including right living") thusly:
Besides the Quran and hadith, there are a number of other sources, (not all universally followed in Islam):
While Christian ethics (with its original sin), and to a lesser extent Judiaism, focus on the "universal presence of sin and related needs of salvation", and on holy nature of asceticism (at least in Catholicism). Fear of God has a more central place in Islam—the Quran making "over a hundred Qur'anic references to hell and judgment". Islam highlights the awesome power of God and limits of human beings but does not portray humans as "inherently sinful or corrupt". Social action and social consciousness also have a higher importance with the doctrine of man's vicegerency on earth and the alms-tax of zakat elevated to a "pillar" of the religion.
Some of the most important scholars who contributed to the area of moral philosophy during the Middle Ages were
Also influential were
Moral philosophy as a topic of Muslim scholarly discussion "declined after the 12th century", but underwent a revival in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Islamic ethics was codified, based on the Qur'an and practices of Muhammad, over a period of time and in context of the practices of the Muslim community (ummah). The Quran commands every human being, in all spheres of life, to "command the good and forbid evil", as spelled out by Muhammad. Another key factor in the field of Islamic ethics is the belief (as described in the Qur'an) that all mankind has been granted the faculty to discern God's will (fitrah), and thus the moral responsibility to submit to His will by following Islam, regardless of their environment.
This natural inclination to obey God, is, according to the Qur'an, in conflict with another human inclination, the desire for material possessions and comforts; first for basic survival or security, then for status in society. Ultimately, this desire results in a state of jahiliyya, "heedlessness," or ignorance of mankind's responsibility to obey God.
The establishment of Islam brought a great transformation in the society, moral order of life, world view, and the hierarchy of values in the Arabian Peninsula.
But although pre-Islamic Arabia exemplified "heedlessness," it was not entirely without merit, and certain aspects—such as the care for one's near kin, for widows, orphans, and others in need and for the establishment of justice—would be retained in Islam, re-ordered in importance and placed in the context of strict monotheism.
According to Lenn Goodman, many medieval Muslim thinkers pursued humanistic and rational approaches in discourses regarding values. On the other hand, Roderick Hindery finds it difficult to find "humanistic values that have not been later affirmed" by Muslim (and Christian) "theologians and religious ethicians", as they "reexamine and rewrite" their religion's "history to make it coincide with a humanistic history".
Some scholars and activists have esteemed "the Islamic tradition as the highest manifestation of human right", while others have criticized the concept of “human rights” as a "western colonial invention used to oppress Muslims by making them conform to certain western norms". In 1990, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), issued the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights (CDHR), in reply to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The CDHR is based on traditional sharia law ("shari‘a is mentioned throughout the entire document as the most authoritative source of law"), and guarantees some human rights, while denying some articles from the UDHR "dealing with gender, the family, religious freedom, and importantly, self-determination".
While religious minorities were not granted equality with Islam, classical Sharia, allowed the functioning of the religious laws and courts of Christians, Jews and Hindus in lands ruled by Islam. These were usually accommodated within the Islamic legal framework, as seen in the early Caliphate, Al-Andalus, the Indian subcontinent, and the Ottoman Millet system. Non-Muslims were allowed to engage in religious practices that were forbidden to Muslims by Islamic law. In a notable example, Zoroastrian practice of incestuous "self-marriage" where a man could marry his mother, sister or daughter, was to be tolerated according to Ibn Qayyim (1292–1350). He based his opinion on the precedent that Muhammad had knowledge of their practices, coming in contact with them, but did not forbid such self-marriages. Religious minorities were also free to do whatever they wished in their own homes, provided they did not publicly engage in illicit sexual activity in ways that could threaten public morals.
Freedom of expression in Islamic history has not included the freedom to blaspheme (by denying any of the fundamental beliefs of Islam) or apostatize (abandoning Islam in word or through deed). According to Juan Campo, the charge of apostasy has often been used by religious authorities to condemn and punish skeptics, dissidents, and minorities in their communities. Expression of poetry and other literature was controlled in a number of ways in the medieval Arab Muslim world -- "from mild self-censorship to the actual execution of authors by state authorities", according to scholar Zoltan Szombathy. Large numbers of freethinkers (Zindiq) were persecuted and executed by Al-Mahdi (d. 169/785) from 779 to 786 CE.
On the other hand, Amira Nowaira writes that
Islamic thinkers of the early medieval period expressed ideas and engaged in debates that would appear strangely enlightened in comparison with the attitudes and views adopted by modern Islamic scholarship.
An example being the toleration of medieval physician, philosopher and alchemist Abu Bakr al-Razi (865-925 CE), who argued that the Quran was "illogical and self-contradictory".
Islamic literature also includes charming anecdotes of tolerance towards non-Muslims and others lacking in power. Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad quotes a letter by a cousin of Caliph al-Ma'mun, in which he gives permission to a Christian he was attempting to convert to speak his mind freely, as evidence that in Islam even religious controversies were not exempt from open discussion. In a letter written by the fourth Rashidun Caliph and first cousin of Muhammad, Ali ibn Abi Talib to his governor of Egypt, Malik al-Ashtar. The Caliph advises his governor on dealings with the poor masses thusly:
Out of your hours of work, fix a time for the complainants and for those who want to approach you with their grievances. During this time you should do no other work but hear them and pay attention to their complaints and grievances. For this purpose you must arrange public audience for them during this audience, for the sake of Allah, treat them with kindness, courtesy and respect. Do not let your army and police be in the audience hall at such times so that those who have grievances against your regime may speak to you freely, unreservedly and without fear. Nahjul Balaagha letter 53
Because Islam views itself as a total system governing all areas, Islamic medical ethics view the patient as a whole. Classical texts speak more about "health", than "illness", showing an emphasis on prevention rather than cure.
The first documented description of a peer review process is found in the Ethics of the Physician by Ishaq ibn 'Ali al-Ruhawi (854–931) of al-Raha, Syria, where the notes of a practising Islamic physician were reviewed by peers and the physician could face a lawsuit from a maltreated patient if the reviews were negative.
See also: Islam and animals
Concern for the treatment of animals can be found in the Qur'an and in the teachings of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, which inspired debates over animal rights by later medieval Muslim scholars. The 10th-century work, "Disputes Between Animals and Man", part of the Epistles of the Brethren of Purity, has been considered a classic in this regard. Inspired by the Qur'anic verse: "All living beings roaming the earth and winged birds soaring in the sky are communities like yourselves." ( 6:38), the Shafi'i jurist 'Izz al-Din Ibn 'Abd al-Salam al-Sulami (d. 1262) formulated the first full-fledged charter of the rights of livestock and animals in his legal treatise Rules for Judgement in the Cases of Living Beings (Qawa'id al-ahkam fi masalih al-anam) which was based on the stories and sayings of Muhammad.
See also: Muslim Agricultural Revolution
A number of sources assert the benevolent attitude of Muhammad and Islam towards natural resources, conservation and wildlife. Tom Verde writes in Aramco World that in early Islam, after Muslims established themselves in Medina, Muhammad surveyed the natural resources in the region—the wadis (riverbeds); the rich, black volcanic soil; the high rangelands—and decreed that they be preserved and set aside as a hima (“protected place”). Ibrahim Ozdemir writes that[Note 1] "approximately 200 verses" in the Quran are concerned with the environment—such as one stating “greater indeed than the creation of man is the creation of the heavens and the earth”.[Note 2]
Akhlaq is described as a system of "Virtue ethics" that emphasize the virtues, or moral character of the human actor involved. Virtue ethics are one of "three major approaches in normative ethics" in human societies — the other two being "deontology", which emphasizes duties or rules, and "consequentialism", which emphasizes the consequences of actions of the human actor. Another source, (Technical University Darmstadt), describes "virtue theory" ethics as emphasizing moral education to "develop good habits of character based" on "rules like 'do not steal'," etc.
Moral Character primarily refers to the assemblage of moral qualities (virtues and vices) in an individual. Promotion of good/virtuous character is found in the canonical texts of Islam. The Quran describes Muhammad as being 'on exalted quality of character' (Q 68:4), and refers to him as 'an excellent example' ( Q33:21) which ultimately means that the religious and moral examples, set by Muhammad, are to be followed and cultivated by the Muslims in order to construct a morally good character. In addition, numerous sayings of Muhammad highlighted the importance of good character:
There was a debate among the early Islamic moralists as to whether character could be changed to promote virtue and diminish vices. They recognized the dual aspect of character – innate and acquired – and thus noted that with conscious practice it could be changed to a certain degree. "Just as a muscle grows stronger with exercise, character grows strong with practice ... the good act becomes easier to us each time we do it."
Muslim moralists have discussed the importance of having a good character as well as the ways of acquiring it. Imam Birgivi, a 16th-century Muslim scholar and moralist, says that 'To cure yourself of a bad feature of character is an obligation'. Continuous practice of moral virtues and a conscious effort to internalize those qualities can lead to the formation of a morally good character. Al-Isfahani says that purification of soul means the control, not the elimination, of desires. He taught that character meant not only obeying the laws of Islam but internalizing them in your soul. According to Birgivi, changing of character depends on such things as 'a person's wish' and 'the strength of one's understanding', and the preservation of a good character requires the avoidance of the company of evil-charactered people who indulge into indecent activities, drunkenness, and meaningless gossip.
Ethics or "Disposition" is a "faculty" (malakah), "a property of the soul" (nafs), "which comes into existence through exercise and repetitive practice" is not easily destroyed. A particular malakah may appear because of one of the following reasons:
Although fitra produces certain dispositions, (it is thought) man can surpass nature through free will and effort. While dispositions caused by mental faculties (i.e., intelligence, memory, mental agility etc.) are not alterable, others dispositions can change. man's capacity to change his dispositions need not mean destroying instincts of reproduction or self-preservation, but avoiding extremes so they (the dispositions) perform their functions properly.
ʿIlm al-Akhlaq is translated in English as "ethics, moral science, morals" (ʿIlm being science or study). Al-Ghazali defined Ilm al-Akhlaq as "the way to acquire the well being of the soul and to guard it against the vices".
The science also dwells on how the level of human virtue is determined by discipline and effort; the movement between the extremes of human behavior, "the lowest is below beasts and the highest surpasses even the angels;" how 'knowledge is the thickest of veils', preventing man from seeing reality (haqiqah when ethics and purification (tazkiyah) have not been mastered; and how by improving their akhlaq, the Muslims improve their Ibadah (worship).
Tazkiyah al-nafs, "is the purification of the soul from inclination towards evils and sins, and the development of its fitrah (natural unsocialized state) towards goodness, which leads to its uprightness and its reaching ihsaan [perfection or at least excellence]", according to Anas Karzoon. Scholars (such as Mulla Muhammad Mahdi Naraqi) teach that "moral virtues bring eternal happiness, while moral corruption leads to everlasting wretchedness", so that blameworthy traits (akhlāq madhmūma) must be purged. God will help those seeking purification: "And those who strive for Us - We will surely guide them to Our ways. And indeed, Allah is with the doers of good." (Q. 29:69)
The soul is created devoid of traits. As one progresses through life, he develops malakat related to his lifestyle. The soul becomes accustomed to repeated behavior, which then determines actions. Noble faculties manifest moral and wise behaviour, while evil faculties manifest immorality. These faculties determine the fate in the Akhira.
The Quran says:
The aim of tazkiyah and moral development is to attain felicity and happiness. Tazkiyah causes self-knowledge and knowledge of God. Man's most consummate felicity is reflecting divine attributes. According to Qatada ibn al-Nu'man, the content soul (an-nafs al-mutma'inna) is, "the soul of the believer, made calm by what Allah has promised. Its owner is at complete rest and content with his knowledge of Allah's Names and Attributes..."
Main article: Morality in Islam
"Practical guidelines" or "specific norms or codes of behavior" for good doing based primarily on the Quran and the Hadith are primarily "commonly known moral virtues" whose major points "most religions largely agree on". They include kindness (to people and animals), charity, forgiveness, honesty, patience, justice, respecting parents and elders, keeping promises, and controlling one's anger.
Drawing on a cross-sectional study of Muslim youths in southern Thailand and other sources, academic Kasetchai Laeheem found that the "common behavioral problem" of a lack of Islamic ethics within Muslim societies, often leads to Muslim youths committing "sin openly" and "as a habit without shame". However, high levels of Islamic ethical behavior among Muslim youth, are often correlated with "the Islamic way of upbringing, knowledge of the religion, participation in Islamic activities, and practicing Islamic principles".