Judith Ann Lawrence
BornJudith Ann Lawrence
(1934-12-14) December 14, 1934 (age 86)
New York City, US
Pen nameJ. A. Lawrence, Judy Blish
GenreScience fiction
Years active1968–2009
(m. 1964)

Judith Ann Blish (née Lawrence; born December 14, 1934)[2] is an American sketch artist and short fiction writer, known professionally as Judith L. Blish, Judy Blish, and J.A. Lawrence. From 1967 to 1978, she co-wrote a sequence of short story adaptations based on episodes of Star Trek with her husband, James Blish.

Since 1975, Lawrence has been active in preserving and promoting her husband's work.[citation needed]

Early life

Lawrence was born on December 14, 1934, to pulp-fiction writers Jack Lawrence and Muriel Bodkin.[2][3]

She and James Blish met sometime after his divorce from Virginia Kidd, in 1963. Lawrence and Blish married in November 1964.[1] In 1968, she and Blish moved to Oxford, England. Her mother followed sometime later.[3]

After her husband's death, in 1975, Lawrence spent considerable time in Athens, Greece. She settled there permanently in 1977.[4]


Lawrence illustrated the covers to editions of Black Easter and The Day After Judgment. She also sketched the cover of Fugue for a Darkening Island by Christopher Priest. She contributed two covers to the Kalki: Studies in James Branch Cabell fanzine, for which she served as Art Director from 1967 to 1971.[5] Lawrence created the cover for the April 1972 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction.[6][7] Lawrence's short fiction was regularly published by Galaxy Science Fiction, and was included in several short-fiction anthologies.

Star Trek

Main article: Star Trek (Bantam Books) § Episode novelizations

In 1975, James Blish was unable to complete the work on the Star Trek episode novelizations. Lawrence completed the novelizations. She and her mother, Muriel, had contributed to the series since 1972.[8] However, Lawrence went uncredited until Star Trek 12 (1977).[9] The last volume in the series, Mudd's Angels, was released in 1978. It included two episode adaptations originally by James Blish, featuring the popular character Harry Mudd, and an original novella by Lawrence. In the book's introduction, it is stated that Blish left the adaptations incomplete and Lawrence finished them; Blish does not receive author credit on the final book.


Cover Art

Collected Works

Short Fiction

Star Trek (1977–78)

Title Publisher Date ISBN
Star Trek 12 Bantam Books November 1977 0-553-11382-8
Mudd's Angels Bantam Books May 1978 0-553-11802-1
  • "Mudd's Women", from teleplay by Stephen Kandel. Adapted by James Blish.
  • "I, Mudd", from teleplay by Stephen Kandel. Adapted by James Blish.
  • Business As Usual, During Altercations, novella by J.A. Lawrence


  1. ^ a b Olendorf, Donna, ed. (October 1981). "BLISH, James (Benjamin) 1921–1975". Something About the Author. 66. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research, Inc. p. 21. ISBN 9780810322769. ISSN 0276-816X.
  2. ^ a b "Petition for Naturalization by Muriel Bodkin Lawrence on behalf of John Lawrence" (1942-03-30). Naturalization Records, ID: 232758. Waltham, Massachusetts: National Archives at Boston.
  3. ^ a b Hanley, Terence E. (January 18, 2019). "Muriel Cameron Bodkin (1903-1994)". Tellers of Weird Tales. Retrieved March 2, 2020 – via Blogspot.
  4. ^ Ayers, Jeff (July 30, 2010). "Read Long and Prosper". In Goldberg, Lee (ed.). Tied In. Calabasas, California: International Association of Media Tie-In Writers (published July 30, 2010). p. 169. ISBN 9781453716106.
  5. ^ "Kalki Issues: Tables of Contents". The Silver Stallion: The James Branch Cabell Website. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  6. ^ "Summary Bibliography: J. A. Lawrence". ISFDB. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
  7. ^ "Lawrence, J A". The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. March 4, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
  8. ^ Ayers, Jeff (November 14, 2006). Voyages of Imagination : The Star Trek Fiction Companion. Star Trek. New York: Pocket Books. p. 9. ISBN 9781416503491.
  9. ^ Ketterer, David (September 1987). Imprisoned in a Tesseract: The Life and Work of James Blish. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780873383349.