Flag (c. 1699–1818)
Coat of arms
|Dūlaha Rāya (first)|
|Man Singh II (last)|
• Acceded to India
|Today part of||Rajasthan,|
Republic of India
Jaipur State was a princely state in India during East India Company rule and thereafter under the British Raj. It signed a treaty creating a subsidiary alliance with the Company in 1818. It acceded to independent India in 1947 and was integrated into India by 1949. Upon integration, the ruler was granted a pension (privy purse), certain privileges, and the use of the title Maharaja of Jaipur by the Government of India. However, the pension, privileges, and the use of the title were ended in 1971 by the 26th Amendment to the Constitution of India.
Jaipur's predecessor state was the Kingdom of Dhundhar founded in 1093 by Dullah Rai, also known as Dulha Rao. The state was known as Amber between the fourteenth century and 1727. In that year, a new capital was built and named Jayapura, when the kingdom was renamed as Jaipur.
The Kachwahas claim descent from Kusha, son of the legendary Rama. Their ancestors allegedly migrated from Rama's kingdom of Kosala and established a new dynasty at Gwalior. After 31 generations, they moved to Rajputana and created a kingdom at Dhundhar.
In 11th century, Dullah Rai, one of the ancestors of the Kachwaha rulers, defeated the Meenas of Manchi and Amber and later completed the conquest of Dhundhar by defeating the Bargurjars (Rajput) of Dausa and Deoti.
The rulers of Amber fought as generals in the army of Prithviraj Chauhan and later under the banner of Rana Sanga against the Mughals under Babur. The small kingdom of Amber was later conquered by Maldev Rathore and became feudatories of Marwar format while. In 1562, Raja Bharmal Kachhwaha, sought alliance with Akbar to gain his political and military support against the Mirza Sharfuddin Husain and his own divided clansmen. He was invested into the Mughal nobility and his daughter's marriage was fixed to Emperor Akbar. Raja Bharmal's daughter, Mariam-uz-Zamani, who married Akbar, later became the mother of the fourth Mughal Emperor Jahangir. She gained prestige in the Mughal court both during the reign of her husband and that of her son as Empress and Queen mother respectively. The Rajas of Amer also gained significant prominence in the Mughal court due to Akbar's need of trustworthy generals against his treacherous Uzbek and other turkic generals and Afghan Rebels.
The son of Raja Bharmal, Bhagwant Das and his grandson Kunwar Man Singh were given service in Mughal Empire and Raja Bharwal Returned to his kingdom.
The ruling dynasty of Amber prospered under Mughal rule and provided the Mughal Empire with some distinguished generals. Among them were Bhagwant Das, Man Singh I, Jai Singh I and Jai Singh II.
Jai Singh I was succeeded by Ram Singh I, Bishan Singh and Jai Singh II. Jai Singh II, also known as Sawai Jai Singh, ruled the state from 1699 to 1743 and was a famous mathematician and astronomer. During his rule, the new capital city of Jaipur was founded in 1727.
Throughout the disintegration of the Mughal Empire, the armies of Jaipur were in a constant state of warfare. Towards the end of the 18th century, the Jats of Bharatpur and the Kachwaha chief of Alwar declared themselves independent from Jaipur and each annexed the eastern portion of Jaipur's territory. This period of Jaipur's history is characterised by internal power-struggles and constant military conflicts with the Marathas, Jats, other Rajput states, as well as the British and the Pindaris. Jaipur defeated Maratha forces of Mahadji Scindia in the Battle of Lalsot 1787  suffered against the Rathors of Marwar in the Battle of Gangwana with appalling losses. The kingdom again suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the Maratha forces of Mahadji Scindia in the Battle of Patan in 1790, forcing the rulers of Jaipur to pay heavy tributes. Nevertheless, enough wealth remained in Jaipur for the patronage of fine temples/palaces, continuity of its courtly traditions and the well-being of its citizens and merchant communities. Jaipurs again fought maratha invaders but ended in a defeat at the Battle of Malpura. A treaty was initially made by Maharaja Sawai Jagat Singh and the British under Governor General Marquis Wellesley in 1803, however the treaty was dissolved shortly afterwards by Wellesley's successor, Lord Cornwallis. In this event, Jaipur's Ambassador to Lord Lake observed that "This was the first time, since the English government was established in India, that it had been known to make its faith subservient to its convenience".
In 1818 Jaipur became a British protectorate by entering into a subsidiary alliance. In 1835 there was a serious disturbance in the city because of a false rumour that the British had murdered the infant raja to ensure the annexation, after which the British government intervened. The state later became well-governed and prosperous. During the Indian rebellion of 1857, when the British invoked the treaty to request assistance in the suppression of rebellious sepoys, the Maharaja opted to preserve his treaty, and thus sent in troops to help to subdue the uprisings in the area around Gurgaon.
Jaipur state had a revenue of Rs.65,00,000 in 1901, making it the wealthiest princely state in Rajputana.
Jaipur's last princely ruler signed the accession to the Indian Union on 7 April 1949.
Padmanabh Singh is the current head of the erstwhile royal family that once ruled Jaipur. Estimates of the royal family's wealth vary, but Singh is estimated to control a fortune of between $697 million and $2.8 billion.
The list of rulers and titular rulers are as follows:
He merged Jaipur State in Union of India in 1949 CE.
The titular [note 1] rulers of the Jaipur State includes:
See also: Rajputana Agency § Subdivisions
The Jaipur Residency was established in 1821. It included the states of Jaipur, Kishangarh and Lawa. The latter had belonged to the Haraoti-Tonk Agency until 1867.
The crucial document was the Instrument of Accession by which rulers ceded to the legislatures of India or Pakistan control over defence, external affairs, and communications. In return for these concessions, the princes were to be guaranteed a privy purse in perpetuity and certain financial and symbolic privileges such as exemption from customs duties, the use of their titles, the right to fly their state flags on their cars, and to have police protection. ... By December 1947 Patel began to pressure the princes into signing Merger Agreements that integrated their states into adjacent British Indian provinces, soon to be called states or new units of erstwhile princely states, most notably Rajasthan, Patiala and East Punjab States Union, and Matsya Union (Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karaulli).
Between 1947 and 1949 all 600-odd ruling princes in India were pensioned off and their ancestral domains—the so-called 'princely states'—were submerged in the bodypolitic of the Indian union. Nowadays the few former rulers still alive are just ordinary citizens, while the ex-states survive—if at all—only in attenuated shape as components of larger administrative units. As a practical system of governance monarchy in India has been consigned to the dustbin of history.
Although the Indian states were alternately requested or forced into union with either India or Pakistan, the real death of princely India came when the Twenty-sixth Amendment Act (1971) abolished the princes' titles, privileges, and privy purses.
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