Jajpur
Town
The Biraja Temple in Jajpur
The Biraja Temple in Jajpur
Jajpur is located in Odisha
Jajpur
Jajpur
Location in Odisha, India
Jajpur is located in India
Jajpur
Jajpur
Jajpur (India)
Coordinates: 20°51′N 86°20′E / 20.85°N 86.33°E / 20.85; 86.33Coordinates: 20°51′N 86°20′E / 20.85°N 86.33°E / 20.85; 86.33
CountryIndia
StateOdisha
districtJajpur
Founded byJajati Keshari
Government
 • TypeMunicipality
 • Collector and District Magistrate of JajpurChakravarti Singh Rathore[1]
 • Superintendent of PoliceShri Rahul P R[2]
Area
 • Total2,887.69 km2 (1,114.94 sq mi)
Elevation
8 m (26 ft)
Population
 (2011)[3]
 • Total37,458
 • Density620/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialOdia
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationOD-04 &OD-34
Websitewww.jajpur.nic.in

Jajpur[4] (also known as Jajapur) is a town and a municipality in Jajpur district in the Indian state of Odisha. It was the capital of the Kesari dynasty, later supplanted by Cuttack.[3][5] Now, it is the headquarter of Jajpur district.

Etymology and names

Jajpur,[6] the place of the ancient Biraja Temple, was originally known as Biraja. Other names of the town in the ancient texts include Viranja, Varanja-nagara, Varaha-tirtha.[7] The Bhauma-Kara kings established their capital city of Guhadevapataka (or Guheshvarapataka), identified with modern Gohiratikar (or Gohiratikra) near Jajpur.[8] The later Somavanshi kings moved their capital from Yayatinagara (modern Binka) to Guheshvarapataka, and renamed the town Abhinava-Yayatinagara ("the new city of Yayati").[7]

Later, the Jajpur[9] town came to be known as Yajanagara. According to one theory, this name is a corruption of "Yayatinagara". Another theory is that it derives from the Brahmanical sacrifices (Yajna) that became popular during the Ganga-Gajapati period (11th-16th century).[10] In the Muslim chronicles such as Tabaqat-i-Nasiri and Tarikh-i-Firuzshahi, the town's name was mentioned as "Jajnagar". Later, the suffix "-nagar" ("town") was replaced with the equivalent "-pur", and the town's name became "Jajpur".[7]

History

Earliest account of Jajpur is part of the history of the Odisha. It was the capital of Keshari King Yayati Keshari in 473 CE.[11] Accounts by Chinese travelers mention Jajpur as capital in 7th century. It has been a center of Tantrism. The Buddhist kingdom of Bhauma Karas also kept Jajpur as their capital in 8th century CE. Many Buddhist structures have been unearthed in and around Jajpur that point to the Buddhist past of the town.[5][12]

Geography and climate

Jajpur[13]
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
41
 
 
29
15
 
 
26
 
 
32
19
 
 
28
 
 
35
23
 
 
49
 
 
37
25
 
 
131
 
 
38
26
 
 
243
 
 
35
26
 
 
341
 
 
32
26
 
 
401
 
 
32
25
 
 
270
 
 
32
25
 
 
196
 
 
32
23
 
 
37
 
 
31
19
 
 
39
 
 
29
15
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Jajpur is located at 20°51′N 86°20′E / 20.85°N 86.33°E / 20.85; 86.33[14] and has an average elevation of 8 metres (26 ft). The climate of Jajpur District is normal as per Indian standards. All the seasons arrive in the District at their usual time. The District's average height from the sea level is 331 m and its average rain fall is 1014.5 mm. The average maximum and minimum temperatures are 40 degree C and 10 degree C respectively. Overall, the climate of the District is neither hotter nor cooler. The summer season is from March to June when the climate is hot and humid. Thunderstorms are common at the height of the summer. The monsoon months are from July to October when the town receives most of its rainfall from the South West Monsoon. The annual rainfall is around 1014.5 mm. The winter season from November to February is characterised by mild temperatures and occasional showers.

Climate data for Jajpur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.2
(84.6)
32.3
(90.1)
35.4
(95.7)
37.0
(98.6)
37.5
(99.5)
34.7
(94.5)
32.3
(90.1)
31.8
(89.2)
32.3
(90.1)
32.0
(89.6)
30.7
(87.3)
29.0
(84.2)
32.9
(91.1)
Average low °C (°F) 15.2
(59.4)
18.7
(65.7)
22.6
(72.7)
25.0
(77.0)
26.2
(79.2)
26.1
(79.0)
25.5
(77.9)
25.3
(77.5)
25.0
(77.0)
23.3
(73.9)
19.1
(66.4)
15.0
(59.0)
22.3
(72.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 41.3
(1.63)
26.0
(1.02)
27.8
(1.09)
48.5
(1.91)
130.6
(5.14)
243.4
(9.58)
340.6
(13.41)
401.1
(15.79)
269.5
(10.61)
195.8
(7.71)
37.2
(1.46)
38.5
(1.52)
1,800.3
(70.87)
Source: Jajpur Weather

Demographics

As of 2011 Indian Census, Jajpur municipality had a total population of 37,458, of which 19,216 were males and 18,242 were females. Population within the age group of 0 to 6 years was 3,823. The total number of literates in Jajpur was 29,975, which constituted 80.0% of the population with male literacy of 83.5% and female literacy of 76.4%. The effective literacy rate of 7+ population of Jajpur was 89.1%, of which male literacy rate was 92.9% and female literacy rate was 85.1%. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes population was 6,363 and 565 respectively. Jajpur had 8198 households in 2011.[3]

Education

Colleges

See also

References

  1. ^ "Collector & District Magistrate of Jajpur District". District Portal Jajpur. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  2. ^ "Who's Who | Jajpur District:Odisha | India". Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  3. ^ a b c "Census of India: Jajpur". www.censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  4. ^ Das, Saudamini; Vincent, Jeffrey R.; Daily, Gretchen C. (2009). "Mangroves Protected Villages and Reduced Death Toll during Indian Super Cyclone". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (18): 7357–7360. ISSN 0027-8424.
  5. ^ a b Rout, K.C. (1988). Local Self-government in British Orissa, 1869-1935. Daya Publishing House. p. 35. ISBN 978-81-7035-046-0. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  6. ^ Nath, Suryakant (2013). "GANDHI'S HARIJAN PADYATRA IN ORISSA IN 1934: CLAIMS OVER A CONTESTED SOCIAL SPACE". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 74: 564–570. ISSN 2249-1937.
  7. ^ a b c Thomas E. Donaldson 2001, p. 51.
  8. ^ Thomas E. Donaldson 2001, p. 6.
  9. ^ Saran, Richard D.; Ziegler, Norman P. (2001), "THE TRANSLATIONS", The Mertiyo Rathors of Merto, Rajasthan, Select Translations Bearing on the History of a Rajput Family, 1462–1660, Volumes 1–2, University of Michigan Press, pp. 81–216, doi:10.3998/mpub.19305.15#metadata_info_tab_contents, ISBN 978-0-89148-085-3, retrieved 6 May 2021
  10. ^ Kailash Chandra Dash 2010, p. 169.
  11. ^ Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India); Asiatic Society of Bengal (1871). Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Bishop's College Press. p. 151. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  12. ^ Deshpande, A. (2013). Buddhist India Rediscovered. Jaico Publishing House. p. 245. ISBN 978-81-8495-247-6. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  13. ^ Chhotray, G. P.; Pal, B. B.; Khuntia, H. K.; Chowdhury, N. R.; Chakraborty, S.; Yamasaki, S.; Ramamurthy, T.; Takeda, Y.; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Nair, G. Balakrish (2002). "Incidence and Molecular Analysis of Vibrio cholerae Associated with Cholera Outbreak Subsequent to the Super Cyclone in Orissa, India". Epidemiology and Infection. 128 (2): 131–138. ISSN 0950-2688.
  14. ^ "Maps, Weather, Videos, and Airports for Jajpur, India".

Bibliography