Jamaah Ansharut Daulah (JAD, literally Helpers of the State Congregation) is an Indonesian terrorist group that has been reported to be linked to the 2018 Surabaya bombings as well as the 2019 Jolo Cathedral bombings. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant has been reported as claiming responsibility for both attacks. The group had been identified by the United States Department of State as a terrorist organization in 2017. It's banned by Iraq and Indonesia. It is also listed terrorist organization by United Nations Security Council on 4 March 2020.
History of JAD still unclear, due to secretive nature of the group. However, several glimpses of its history had been known.
See also: Islamic Defenders Front § Organization
Islamic Defenders Front (FPI), at its existence, renowned for having loose coordination despite its complexity of their structure and rank. Although the networks penetrate into district and sub-district levels, they are loosely coordinated, and often there are cases of fragmentation. Among many of its branches, there was a branch renowned for its extremism, FPI Lamongan branch (FPI Lamongan), which has linked and strong relationship with Dr. Azahari and Noordin M. Top, both Malaysian terrorist kingpin.
Zainal Anshori, then National Leader of JAD, was head of FPI Lamongan of 2005 - 2008 period. He was appointed by Muhammad Rizieq Shihab himself to lead FPI Lamongan. Prior the appointment, he was renowned as Islamic activist that moved independently to commit sweepings with his group, against undesirables and un-Islamic elements. Since then, FPI Lamongan actively committed sweepings . However, all changed when the branch involved with Jamaah Islamiyah, and subsequent contact with Aman Abdurrahman [id], an Islamic militant, as well as with the death of Dr. Azahari and Noordin M. Top. Start from there FPI Lamongan shifted away to Islamic extremism. Affected with Islamic extremism ideology, FPI Lamongan used extreme approach of imposing the Islamic doctrine of amr ma'ruf nahy munkar (enjoining good and forbidding wrong). They also often to use excessive force. On 10 August 2008, Muhammad Rizieq Shihab personally warned FPI Lamongan, following a brutal attack against an alcohol seller during a sweeping. Due to its extreme way and acts, FPI Lamongan was disavowed by central leadership of FPI on request of East Java Regional FPI around 2010. Despite that, the sympathizers remain exist, and in 2013 the sympathizers of the disavowed branch clashed with Lamongan locals in a clash.
In his confession made 9 February 2021, Zainal Anshori stated that the seed of what will be JAD had come into being during this period. The element that subsequently evolved into JAD was integrated during his leadership of FPI Lamongan on 2005. What happened to this element after FPI Lamongan being disavowed is unclear.
Aman Abdurrahman was recaptured by law enforcement for his involvement on training JAT terrorists in Jantho (Aceh) in 2010 and assisting escape of Dulmatin. Soon after announcement of formation of ISIL by Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi, he pledged his allegiance to him in June 2014 during his incarceration at Kembang Kuning Detention House, Nusakambangan Island. He later drafted a concept of organization that will support ISIS in Indonesia. Sometime later Zainal Anshori and Marwan visited him. On November 2014, JAD formed followed a majlis ta'lim in Batu. In that majlis ta'lim, Aman Abdurrahman become the Spiritual Leader of the group, Marwan become the National Emir, Zainal Anshori become the Emir of East Java, others have each specific posts established.
During its time as organization, JAD actively participated in various terrorism acts, notably 2016 Jakarta attacks, 2016 Samarinda church bombing, 2017 Jakarta bombings, 2018 Mako Brimob standoff, and 2018 Surabaya bombings.
On 21 June 2018, Joko Widodo signed Law No. 5 of 2018, as amendment of Law No. 15 of 2003 (Law on Anti-Terrorism Acts). The law granted much sweeping powers for law enforcement to capture terrorists and suspected terrorists. With the new law, even membership of announced terrorist organization enough to capture its member.
On 31 July 2018, a South Jakarta court made a ruling. The ruling, known as South Jakarta District Court Ruling No. 809/Pid.Sus/2018/PN JKT.SEL outlawed the organization, allowing the arrest of all its members and organizers.
Even after disbandment, JAD still active clandestinely. After the disbandment, 2019 Medan suicide bombing, 2020 South Daha attack, and 2021 Makassar cathedral bombing happened. Aside the attacks, Two members of the JAD were believed to have conducted the knife assault on security minister Wiranto on 10 October 2019, which resulted in Wiranto being hospitalized. Three other people, including a policeman, were stabbed and injured.
It is still difficult to weed out JAD members, due to each cell of JAD are autonomous and do not have commanding figures and chain of command. Even each cell may not know each other. Due to being autonomus and have widespread presence across the country, the multiple attacks by JAD cells may happened in nearly same time, or even triggering domino effect which triggered with one act of one cell may happened.