Jefferson County
Jefferson County Courthouse in Waurika (2014)
Map of Oklahoma highlighting Jefferson County
Location within the U.S. state of Oklahoma
Map of the United States highlighting Oklahoma
Oklahoma's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 34°06′N 97°50′W / 34.1°N 97.84°W / 34.1; -97.84
Country United States
State Oklahoma
Founded1907
Named forThomas Jefferson
SeatWaurika
Largest cityWaurika
Area
 • Total774 sq mi (2,000 km2)
 • Land759 sq mi (1,970 km2)
 • Water15 sq mi (40 km2)  2.0%%
Population
 (2010)
 • Total6,472
 • Estimate 
(2019)
6,002
 • Density8.5/sq mi (3.3/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district4th
Websitewww.jeffcoinfo.org

Jefferson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,472.[1] Its county seat is Waurika.[2] The county was created at statehood and named in honor of President Thomas Jefferson.[3]

History

In the 1750s, the Taovaya Indians, a Wichita tribe, established twin villages along the Red River, in Jefferson County and across the river near present-day Spanish Fort, Texas. The village became "a lively emporium where Comanches brought Apache slaves, horses and mules to trade for French packs of powder, balls, knives, and textiles and for Taovaya-grown maize, melons, pumpkins, squash, and tobacco."[4]

In 1759, in response to the destruction of the San Saba Mission, the Spanish led an expedition against the Taovaya and their allies and attacked the twin villages. The Indians defeated the Spanish army. (See Battle of the Twin Villages) The Taovaya villages were abandoned before 1841 as the Taovaya had been decimated by smallpox and encroachment by other Indians and Anglo-Americans.[5]

In the 1830s, the Choctaw tribe acquired more than two-thirds of the land now covered by Jefferson County, and the closely related Chickasaw tribe began to relocate there. In 1855, the two tribes formally divided and this area became part of the Chickasaw Nation. The western part of the present county became part of the Kiowa-Comanche-Apache Reservation, created by the 1867 Medicine Lodge Treaty. That area was opened to settlement by non-Indians by the Kiowa-Comanche-Apache Opening in 1901.[3]

After the Civil War, the Chisholm Trail, which passed through this area, was heavily used to drive cattle from Texas to markets in Kansas. In 1892, the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway laid tracks along the trail route. The Enid and Anadarko Railway, sold to the Rock Island in 1903, built a line from Lawton to Waurika. The Wichita Falls and Oklahoma Railroad built the last railroad in the county in 1923, from Texas to Waurika. It went out of business in 1942.[3] A railway line was built from Ardmore to Ringling.

Until statehood, the territory of the present-day county was part of Pickens County, Chickasaw Nation.[6]

Statehood in 1907 brought about the demise of the Chickasaw government and creation of Jefferson County. At that time the southeast corner of the county extended to Mud Creek including the communities of Belleville and Courtney. In 1924 the southeast corner of the county was realigned to its current boundary. The Oklahoma Constitutional Convention named Ryan as the county seat. An election for the seat was held in 1908 between Ryan, Sugden and Waurika, but none of the towns won a majority. Another election was held in 1912, resulting in Waurika being named as the county seat.[3]

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 774 square miles (2,000 km2), of which 759 square miles (1,970 km2) is land and 15 square miles (39 km2) (2.0%) is water.[7] The county drains into the Red River via Beaver and Mud creeks. Waurika Lake was created in 1971 by damming Beaver Creek in northwestern Jefferson County.[3]

Major highways

Adjacent counties

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
191017,430
192017,6641.3%
193017,392−1.5%
194015,107−13.1%
195011,122−26.4%
19608,192−26.3%
19707,125−13.0%
19808,18314.8%
19907,010−14.3%
20006,818−2.7%
20106,472−5.1%
2019 (est.)6,002[8]−7.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]
1790-1960[10] 1900-1990[11]
1990-2000[12] 2010-2019[1]
Age pyramid for Jefferson County, Oklahoma, based on census 2000 data.
Age pyramid for Jefferson County, Oklahoma, based on census 2000 data.

At the 2000 census there were 6,818 people, 2,716 households, and 1,863 families in the county. The population density was 9 people per square mile (3/km2). There were 3,373 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile (2/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 87.14% White, 0.69% Black or African American, 5.24% Native American, 1.13% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.86% from other races, and 2.92% from two or more races. 7.01%.[13] were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Of the 2,716 households 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.60% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.40% were non-families. 28.80% of households were one person and 15.40% were one person aged 65 or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.92.

The age distribution was 24.00% under the age of 18, 7.20% from 18 to 24, 25.40% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, and 20.10% 65 or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.80 males.

The median household income was $23,674 and the median family income was $30,563. Males had a median income of $25,195 versus $16,589 for females. The per capita income for the county was $12,899. About 16.30% of families and 19.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.30% of those under age 18 and 18.40% of those age 65 or over.

Politics

Despite a sizable Democratic voter registration advantage, Jefferson County has almost exclusively supported Republican candidates in almost every election of the 21st century. The last Democrat to carry the county at the presidential level was Bill Clinton of neighboring Arkansas in 1996, and the GOP vote share has only grown since, with Republican Donald Trump winning more than 80% of the county's vote in 2020, an even larger margin than four years earlier.

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of January 15, 2019[14]
Party Number of Voters Percentage
Democratic 1,662 48.91%
Republican 1,241 36.52%
Unaffiliated 495 14.57%
Total 3,398 100%
United States presidential election results for Jefferson County, Oklahoma[15]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 2,026 84.95% 319 13.38% 40 1.68%
2016 1,910 81.28% 365 15.53% 75 3.19%
2012 1,634 72.98% 605 27.02% 0 0.00%
2008 1,652 67.24% 805 32.76% 0 0.00%
2004 1,546 59.39% 1,057 40.61% 0 0.00%
2000 1,320 50.91% 1,245 48.01% 28 1.08%
1996 865 32.69% 1,430 54.04% 351 13.27%
1992 671 22.23% 1,580 52.34% 768 25.44%
1988 1,063 37.35% 1,767 62.09% 16 0.56%
1984 1,656 52.09% 1,496 47.06% 27 0.85%
1980 1,440 43.22% 1,812 54.38% 80 2.40%
1976 956 29.10% 2,303 70.11% 26 0.79%
1972 1,709 62.12% 969 35.22% 73 2.65%
1968 780 25.09% 1,628 52.36% 701 22.55%
1964 811 24.09% 2,555 75.91% 0 0.00%
1960 1,343 40.85% 1,945 59.15% 0 0.00%
1956 1,186 31.84% 2,539 68.16% 0 0.00%
1952 1,384 32.52% 2,872 67.48% 0 0.00%
1948 556 14.32% 3,326 85.68% 0 0.00%
1944 974 24.74% 2,948 74.88% 15 0.38%
1940 1,226 24.23% 3,814 75.38% 20 0.40%
1936 1,032 21.62% 3,719 77.92% 22 0.46%
1932 485 11.97% 3,566 88.03% 0 0.00%
1928 2,251 53.79% 1,916 45.78% 18 0.43%
1924 1,108 29.44% 2,441 64.87% 214 5.69%
1920 1,733 39.36% 2,289 51.99% 381 8.65%
1916 493 17.23% 1,739 60.76% 630 22.01%
1912 361 16.74% 1,118 51.83% 678 31.43%


Communities

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ a b c d e Larry O'Dell, "Jefferson County," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, 2009. Accessed February 25, 2015.
  4. ^ Elam, Earl Henry, "Anglo-American Relations with the Wichita Indians in Texas, 1822–1859." Master's Thesis, Texas Technological College, 1967, 11
  5. ^ ANNE, MORRELL, LEA (June 15, 2010). "SPANISH FORT, TX". www.tshaonline.org. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  6. ^ Charles Goins, Historical Atlas of Oklahoma (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2006), plate 105.
  7. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  8. ^ "County Population Totals: 2010-2019". Retrieved February 7, 2021.
  9. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  10. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  11. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  12. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  13. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  14. ^ "Oklahoma Registration Statistics by County" (PDF). OK.gov. January 15, 2019. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  15. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 29, 2018.

Further reading

Coordinates: 34°06′N 97°50′W / 34.10°N 97.84°W / 34.10; -97.84