Jengish Chokusu
Tomur Peak / Pobeda Peak / Victory Peak
Jengish Chokusu from base camp in Kyrgyzstan
Highest point
Elevation7,439 m (24,406 ft)[1][2]
Ranked 60th
Prominence4,148 m (13,609 ft)[1]
Ranked 16th
Isolation560 km (350 mi) Edit this on Wikidata
ListingCountry high point
Ultra
Coordinates42°02′15″N 80°07′30″E / 42.03750°N 80.12500°E / 42.03750; 80.12500[1]
Naming
Native name
  • Жеңиш чокусу (Kyrgyz)
  • جەڭىش چوقۇسۇ (Kyrgyz)
Geography
Jengish Chokusu is located in Southern Xinjiang
Jengish Chokusu
Jengish Chokusu
Ak-Suu, Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan
Wensu County, Xinjiang, China
Jengish Chokusu is located in Kyrgyzstan
Jengish Chokusu
Jengish Chokusu
Jengish Chokusu (Kyrgyzstan)
Parent rangeKakshaal Too, Tian Shan
Climbing
First ascent1956 by Vitaly Abalakov
Easiest routeSnow/ice climb

Jengish Chokusu or Victory Peak[note 1] is the highest mountain in the Tian Shan mountain system at 7,439 metres (24,406 ft). It lies on the KyrgyzstanChina border between the Ak-Suu District in the Issyk-Kul Region of far Eastern Kyrgyzstan and Wensu County, Xinjiang, China. It is part of the Kakshaal Too, the highest part of the Tian Shan, and is southeast of lake Issyk-Kul.

Names

The mountain is called Jengish Chokusu (its official[citation needed] Kyrgyz-language name) or Pobeda Peak (from the Russian name Pik Pobedy); both mean “Victory Peak.” On the Chinese side it is known as Tomur Peak (Tuomuer Feng in Chinese) from its Uighur name Tömür meaning “iron.”

Description

Jengish Chokusu is a massif, with several summits along its lengthy ridge. Only its main summit breaks 7,000 metres (22,966 ft). It is 16 km (9.9 mi) southwest of Khan Tengri (7,010 m/23,000 ft), from which it is separated by the South Engilchek glacier, where base camps for both mountains are usually located.

The massif runs at right angles to the glaciers which flow from it into three alpine valleys in Kyrgyzstan on the north, all eventually running to the Engilchek Glacier, the largest in the Tian Shan. Its main summit is usually approached from the Zvozdochka (Russian for "little star") glacier, which is coloured red with rocks from Jengish Chokusu.

Administratively, the Kyrgyzstan side of the mountain is in the Ak-Suu District of Issyk-Kul Region, and the Chinese side in Wensu County of the Aksu Prefecture of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

Records

Jengish Chokusu (Pobeda Peak) on a Kyrgyzstan stamp

Jengish Chokusu is the highest mountain in Kyrgyzstan and Earth's highest mountain north of 39°N. It is considered the most northerly 7,000-metre mountain in the world by geologists; the actual rock summit of Khan Tengri, the Tian Shan's third-highest peak, is 6,995m above sea level, though a thick layer of ice adds another 15m to its altitude, such that mountaineers consider it a 7,000m peak.

The South Engilchek Glacier and its side glaciers occupy the entire north side of Peak Jengish Chokusu. This glacier, currently 60.5 kilometres (37.6 mi) long, is the sixth longest outside of the world's polar regions.[3]

History

Peak seen in 1987. Photo by Jaan Künnap.

Although Jengish Chokusu is over 400 metres higher, Khan Tengri was believed to be the highest peak in the range until Jengish Chokusu's survey in 1943.[4]

A Soviet expedition mounted in 1938 to mark the 20th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Youth movement Komsomol claimed to have climbed the highest peak in the area, the summit being reached on 19 September by L. Gutman, E. Ivanov and A. Sidorenko. They measured the altitude as 6,900 metres, and named the peak Pik 20-ti letiya Komsomola (Peak of the 20th Anniversary of Komsomol).

A survey by another team in 1943 found the peak to be 7,439 metres high. The peak was renamed as Pik Pobedy (Victory's Peak) in 1946 to commemorate the Soviet victory in World War II. The significant difference in altitude led to the 1938 ascent being called into question, although the official Soviet stance was to uphold the 1938 ascent.[4]

A large-scale attempt on the peak in 1955 was disastrous, when 11 of the 12 expedition members were killed in a blizzard.[5] Jengish Chokusu's first indisputably verified ascent was in 1956 by Vitaly Abalakov's party.[6] Ural Usenov - the only survivor of the 1955 expedition - accompanied Abalakov on the ascent.[7]

A Chinese expedition climbed the peak from the Chinese side in 1977: the expedition book makes no mention of the Russian first ascent and gives the impression that the Chinese ascent was the first climb.[8]

The first winter ascent of Peak Pobeda was made by Valery Khrichtchatyi (team leader), S. Ovcharenko, G. Mikhailov, and brothers G. Bogomolov and S. Bogomolov on February 2, 1990.[9]

References

  1. ^ a b c "The Central Asian Republics: Ultra-Prominence Page". peaklist.org. Retrieved 2014-05-26.
  2. ^ "Topographic map of Jengish Chokusu". opentopomap.org. Retrieved 2023-03-12.
  3. ^ Tajikistan's Fedchenko Glacier is 77 km long, and the Karakoram's Siachen and Biafo Glaciers are 70 and 67 km long respectively. Measurements are from recent imagery, with Russian 1:200,000 scale topographic mapping for reference as well as the 1990 ‘’Orographic Sketch Map: Karakoram: Sheets 1 & 2’’, Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, Zurich.
  4. ^ The Great Soviet Encyclopedia , 1979
  5. ^ Garner, William (August 1986). "High Road to Victory: Soviet and U.S. Climbers conquer Pik Pobedy". National Geographic Magazine. p. 258. Retrieved 2023-03-12.
  6. ^ "Pik Pobeda". SummitPost.org.
  7. ^ Botchkov, Dimitri (2000). "Mountaineering in the Tien Shan". The Alpine Journal. p. 29=30. Retrieved 2024-03-03.
  8. ^ Planting the Five-Star Flag on Mount Tumor, Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 1979
  9. ^ Bonington, Chris. Great Climbs: A Celebration of World Mountaineering. p. 206. ISBN 1-85732-573-7.

Notes

  1. ^

Further reading