Jiaxing
嘉兴市
Kashing
Map
Location of Jiaxing City jurisdiction in Zhejiang
Location of Jiaxing City jurisdiction in Zhejiang
Jiaxing is located in Eastern China
Jiaxing
Jiaxing
Location in eastern China
Jiaxing is located in China
Jiaxing
Jiaxing
Jiaxing (China)
Coordinates (Jiaxing municipal government): 30°44′49″N 120°45′22″E / 30.747°N 120.756°E / 30.747; 120.756
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceZhejiang
County-level divisions7
Township-level divisions75
Municipal seatNanhu District
Government
 • CPC SecretaryZhang Bing
 • MayorMao Hongfang
Area
 • Prefecture-level city4,008.76 km2 (1,547.79 sq mi)
 • Urban
986.9 km2 (381.0 sq mi)
 • Metro
986.9 km2 (381.0 sq mi)
Population
 (2020 census)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city5,400,868
 • Density1,300/km2 (3,500/sq mi)
 • Urban
1,518,654
 • Urban density1,500/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
1,518,654
 • Metro density1,500/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
GDP[2]
 • Prefecture-level cityCN¥ 551 billion
US$ 73.6 billion
 • Per capitaCN¥ 102,541
US$ 15,695
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Area code573
ISO 3166 codeCN-ZJ-04
WebsiteOfficial website
Jiaxing
"Jiaxing", as written in Chinese
Simplified Chinese嘉兴
Traditional Chinese嘉興
WuGāshīng [kɑɕiŋ]
PostalKashing

Jiaxing (simplified Chinese: 嘉兴; traditional Chinese: 嘉興; pinyin: Jiāxīng; Wade–Giles: Chia-hsing), alternately romanized as Kashing, is a prefecture-level city in northern Zhejiang province, China. Lying on the Grand Canal of China, Jiaxing borders Hangzhou to the southwest, Huzhou to the west, Shanghai to the northeast, and the province of Jiangsu to the north. As of the 2020 census, its population was 5,400,868 and its built-up (or metro) area made of 2 urban districts was home to 1,518,654 inhabitants.[3]

Administration

Jiaxing is the birthplace of the Majiabang Culture in the Neolithic Age. The ancestors engaged in farming, animal husbandry, fishing and hunting 7,000 years ago.

The prefecture-level city of Jiaxing administers 7 county-level divisions, including 2 districts, 3 county-level cities and 2 counties.

Map
Subdivision Hanzi Pinyin
Nanhu District 南湖区 Nánhú Qū
Xiuzhou District 秀洲区 Xiùzhōu Qū
Jiashan County 嘉善县 Jiāshàn Xiàn
Haiyan County 海盐县 Hǎiyán Xiàn
Haining 海宁市 Hǎiníng Shì
Pinghu 平湖市 Pínghú Shì
Tongxiang 桐乡市 Tóngxiāng Shì

These are further divided into 75 township-level divisions, including 60 towns, 2 townships and 13 subdistricts.

History

The map of "Kia-hing-fou" and "Hou-tcheou-fou" in Du Halde's 1736 Description of China, based on accounts from Jesuit missionaries.

Known as a place

Known as a county

Known as a prefecture

Climate

Climate data for Jiaxing (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.4
(72.3)
28.3
(82.9)
30.2
(86.4)
33.9
(93.0)
36.1
(97.0)
37.2
(99.0)
40.0
(104.0)
39.8
(103.6)
38.5
(101.3)
33.6
(92.5)
29.1
(84.4)
24.0
(75.2)
40.0
(104.0)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
10.6
(51.1)
14.9
(58.8)
20.8
(69.4)
25.7
(78.3)
28.4
(83.1)
32.9
(91.2)
32.3
(90.1)
28.1
(82.6)
23.2
(73.8)
17.5
(63.5)
11.1
(52.0)
21.1
(70.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
6.5
(43.7)
10.4
(50.7)
15.9
(60.6)
21.1
(70.0)
24.5
(76.1)
28.8
(83.8)
28.4
(83.1)
24.3
(75.7)
18.9
(66.0)
13.1
(55.6)
6.8
(44.2)
16.9
(62.5)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
3.2
(37.8)
6.8
(44.2)
12.0
(53.6)
17.3
(63.1)
21.6
(70.9)
25.5
(77.9)
25.4
(77.7)
21.2
(70.2)
15.4
(59.7)
9.4
(48.9)
3.5
(38.3)
13.6
(56.4)
Record low °C (°F) −7.9
(17.8)
−6.4
(20.5)
−3.0
(26.6)
0.5
(32.9)
6.9
(44.4)
13.2
(55.8)
17.9
(64.2)
18.6
(65.5)
11.2
(52.2)
2.1
(35.8)
−3.1
(26.4)
−9.0
(15.8)
−9.0
(15.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 80.3
(3.16)
74.3
(2.93)
107.8
(4.24)
92.2
(3.63)
104.4
(4.11)
211.9
(8.34)
140.7
(5.54)
174.2
(6.86)
105.0
(4.13)
57.8
(2.28)
61.8
(2.43)
54.7
(2.15)
1,265.1
(49.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 11.6 11.0 13.5 12.4 11.9 14.7 12.0 12.4 9.7 7.5 9.8 8.8 135.3
Average snowy days 3.1 2.3 0.6 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.9 7.2
Average relative humidity (%) 79 77 77 75 76 83 80 81 81 78 79 77 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 110.1 113.1 134.8 160.6 171.9 132.4 210.6 205.8 160.1 158.3 129.3 126.9 1,813.9
Percent possible sunshine 34 36 36 41 40 31 49 51 44 45 41 40 41
Source: China Meteorological Administration[6][7]

Economy

Industry is the main economic driver to the city's economy, contributing 47% to its GDP in 2015. Jiaxing is also well known as the 'hometown of silk', hence it is a famous producer of textiles and woolens. It is one of the world's largest exporters of leather goods. There are mechanical, chemical and electronic industries there.

Jiaxing is an important energy base in East China. Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, the first self-designed nuclear power station in China, and Fangjiashan Nuclear Power Plant (under construction) are located in Haiyan County.

Jiaxing Export Processing Zone

Established in 2003, Jiaxing Export Processing Zone is a state-level export processing zone approved by State Council. It has a built-up area of 2.98 km2. Its development goal is to become the export processing base for IT, IC, mechanical and electrical, electronics and other high-tech industries.[8]

Tourism

The main gate of the Zicheng, lit. "citadel", of Jiaxing
Yuehe Street

South Lake, to the south-east of the old walled city, has been a popular tourist site for centuries. The Chinese Communist Party was officially founded on a boat in the lake, after the delegates to its first congress adjourned their meeting in Shanghai and reconvened here. As a result, the lake is now a popular destination for Communist Party "education" tours.

Within the city proper, the Zicheng (citadel) of Jiaxing was for two millennia the fortified nucleus of the walled city, though only fragmented remains now survive from the imeprial era. The main gate was rebuilt in 1990. Jiaxing is one of the very few cities in south-east China that retains any vestige of a citadel. A number of famous writers' homes also survive in the old walled city, as well as a Carmelite abbey and Gothic abbey church built in 1902.

Meiwan Street and Yuehe Street (Zhongji Road and surrounds) are two restored neighbourhoods to the south and north of the old city respectively, located near the city moat, canals and lakes. Literally "Prunus bay street" and "moon river street" respectively, these two neighbourhoods combine restored historic buildings and newly landscaped gardens. Meiwan Street features buildings in the style of private residences of prominent families, and is the location of Kim Koo's refuge, a house significant in the history of the Korean independence movement, and a family shrine of the Qian family, a prominent local family. By contrast, Yuehe Street features artisan workshops and street food stores. In January 2022, Yuehe Street was named the "first provincial night cultural and tourist concentration area".

Wuzhen and Xitang, two townships within Jiaxing city limits, feature preserved and restored houses situated along small canals that are evocative of typical canal towns of the region. They are popular tourist destinations and filming locations.

Transportation

View of the G60 Highway from the Shanghai-Hangzhou high speed railway in Jiashan County

The city is served by two railway stations: Jiaxing railway station, on the Shanghai–Kunming railway, and Jiaxing South railway station on the high speed Shanghai–Hangzhou Passenger Railway. The city is served by two long-distance bus stations: Jiaxing North Bus Station and the new Jiaxing Transportation Center. Jiaxing is on the G92 Hangzhou Bay Ring Expressway, G60 Shanghai–Kunming Expressway and China National Highway 320.

Jiaxing Air Base is being converted to a public-use airport.[9]

Language

Jiaxing dialect is a Northern Wu dialect in the Sujiahu dialect grouping. As such, it is a sister dialect of both Shanghainese and Suzhou dialect, and easily intelligible with both. It is not mutually intelligible with Mandarin or other varieties of Chinese such as Cantonese, Hokkien or Hakka.

Religion

Local people believe in Buddhism, Taoism, Catholicism and Protestantism. Jiaxing Catholic Church and Jiaxing Vincent Abbey are well-known Roman Catholic Churches in Jiaxing.

Notable people

Shiing-Shen Chern

See also

References

  1. ^ "China: Zhèjiāng (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  2. ^ 浙江省统计局. "2021年浙江统计年鉴 17-2 各市国民经济主要指标(2021年)" (in Chinese (China)). Archived from the original on 2020-08-17. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  3. ^ "China: Administrative Division of Zhejiang (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts".
  4. ^ Jordan (1976), p. 91.
  5. ^ Smith (2000), p. 149.
  6. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 25 June 2023.
  7. ^ 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 25 June 2023.
  8. ^ JiaXing Government, JiaXing Government (2015-02-15). ""升级版"嘉兴出口加工区呼之欲出". 中共嘉兴市委 嘉兴市人民政府.
  9. ^ Jia Xing Government, Jia Xing Government (2022-11-24). "全面开工 快速推进|嘉兴军民合用机场改扩建工程举行动员大会".

Bibliography