38°42′N 118°6′E / 38.700°N 118.100°E / 38.700; 118.100

Jing-Jin-Ji
京津冀城市群
Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Urban Agglomeration
Beijing, the largest city in megalopolis
Beijing, the largest city in megalopolis
Beijing-Tianjin from space
Beijing-Tianjin from space
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHebei
MunicipalitiesBeijing
Tianjin
Major Prefectural CitiesBaoding
Shijiazhuang
Tangshan
Cangzhou
Langfang
Zhangjiakou
Chengde
Qinhuangdao
Government
 • Mayor of BeijingYin Yong
 • Mayor of TianjinZhang Gong
 • Governor of HebeiWang Zhengpu
Area
 • Total217,156 km2 (83,844 sq mi)
Population
 (2020[2])
 • Total110 million
 • Density507/km2 (1,310/sq mi)
GDP
 • Jing-Jin-JiCN¥ 10.444 trillion
(US$ 1.483 trillion) (2022)[3]
Time zoneUTC+8 (CST)

Jing-Jin-Ji cluster[a] is an expanded urban agglomeration consisting of Beijing (Jing), Tianjin (Jin), and Hebei (Ji). It is the biggest urban agglomeration region in North China, including an economic region surrounding the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin, and along the coast of the Bohai Sea.[4] This emerging region is rising as a northern metropolitan region rivaling the Pearl River Delta in the south and the Yangtze River Delta in the east. In 2020, Jingjinji had a total population of 110 million people, comparable to that of the Philippines.

Jing-Jin-Ji metropolitan area (in blue)

Economy

Area (km2) Population (2020) GDP (CN¥)[3] GDP (US$)
Beijing (Jing) 16,411 21,893,095 CN¥ 4,376 billion US$ 621 billion
Tianjin (Jin) 11,946 13,866,009 CN¥ 1,674 billion US$ 238 billion
Hebei (Ji) 188,800 74,610,235 CN¥ 4,394 billion US$ 624 billion
Jingjinji Urban Agglomeration 217,156 110,369,339 CN¥ 10.444 trillion US$ 1.483 trillion

In 2022, Jingjinji produced GDP of ¥10 trillion (US$1.5 trillion) or equivalent to Spain.[5] It occupied an area about twice the size of the South Korea.[6] Jingjinji had traditionally been involved in heavy industries and manufacturing. Tianjin's strengths have always been in aviation, logistics, and shipping. Beijing complements this economic activity with strong petrochemical, education, and R&D industries. The area is becoming a significant growth cluster for automobile, electronics, petrochemical sectors, automotive industry, software and aircraft, thus attracting foreign investments in manufacturing and health services.[7][8]

The Chinese central government has made it a priority to integrate all the cities in the Bohai Bay rim and foster economic development. This includes building an advanced communications network, better highways, increased education, and scientific resources, as well as tapping natural resources off the Bohai rim.[9] In 2016, the Central Government approved a US$36-billion plan to link the various cities making up this metropolis by rail in order to reduce commute times and to better integrate them. This plan includes the construction of nine railways that are 1,100 km (680 mi) in length, which are set to be completed by 2020.[6] The long-term goal is to create a one-hour commuting region; an additional 24 intercity railways are planned to be built before 2050.[10]

In recent decades, petroleum and natural gas deposits have been discovered in the Jingjinji region's coast of the Bohai sea.

Metropolitan areas

Inn 2013-2014, Xi Jinping gave directives on coordinating development in the region, elevating development strategies in the region to be a national priority.[11]: 142  In particular, planning strategies sought to alleviate development pressure in Beijing.[11]: 142–143  The desire to alleviate the development pressure of Beijing's increasing non-capital functions was formalized in the June 2015 Outline Plan for Coordinated Development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and subsequently resulted in the establishment of Xiong'an.[11]: 143  Xiong'an is where Beijing's non-capital functions, such as universities, research institutes, and high-tech innovation centers are planned to be transferred over time.[11]: 145 

Metropolitan area Chinese Cities and districts Urban population
Beijing metropolitan area 北京城市圈
Běijīng Chéngshì Quān
Beijing, Huairou, Miyun, Pinggu, Yanqing 16,858,692
Tianjin metropolitan area 天津城市圈
Tiānjīn Chéngshì Quān
Tianjin, Binhai, Baodi, Jinghai, Jizhou, Ninghe 10,277,893
Shijiazhuang metropolitan area 石家庄城市圈
Shíjiāzhuāng Chéngshì Quān
Shijiazhuang, Jinzhou, Xinji, Xinle 3,823,504
Baoding-Xiong'an metropolitan area 保定雄安城市圈
Bǎodìng-Xióng'ān Chéngshì Quān
Baoding, Xiong'an, Anguo,
Dingzhou, Gaobeidian, Zhuozhou
3,056,000
Tangshan metropolitan area 唐山城市圈
Tángshān Chéngshì Quān
Tangshan 2,237,317

Major cities

Jingjinji includes the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces. Major cities in these municipalities and provinces include:

City Pinyin Population (2010) Image Information City Map
Beijing
北京
Běijīng 19,612,368 Beijing is a metropolis in northern China and the capital of the People's Republic of China. Beijing is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of the central government. Beijing is China's second-largest city after Shanghai; more than 17 million people in Beijing's jurisdiction.
Tianjin
天津
Tiānjīn 12,938,224 The third-largest city of the People's Republic of China in terms of the urban population. Administratively it is one of the four municipalities that have provincial-level status, reporting directly to the central government. Its urban land area is the third-largest in China, ranked only after Beijing and Shanghai.
Baoding
保定
Bǎodìng 10,029,197 Baoding is the third-largest city in Hebei Province, ranked after Shijiazhuang and Tangshan. The city is located in the center of the Beijing-Tianjin-Shijiazhuang Economic Triangle, with good transportation connections and close commuting distances to its nearby major cities. The newly established Xiong'an New Area aims to be a high-tech, environmentally sustainable, modern metropolis and serves as a new hub for some administrative departments. Logistics bases in northern China are within the city limits of Baoding.[12]
Shijiazhuang
石家庄
Shíjiāzhuāng 9,547,869 Shijiazhuang is the capital of Hebei, as well as the third-largest city in Jingjinji, after Beijing and Tianjin.
Tangshan
唐山
Tángshān 7,577,284 Tangshan, a coastal city along the Bohai Bay and neighboring Tianjin, is the second-largest city in Hebei, after Shijiazhuang. It is also known for the 1976 Tangshan earthquake.
Cangzhou
沧州
Cāngzhōu 7,134,053 A city in south-east Hebei on the coast of the Bohai Sea coast. It borders Tianjin to the north.
Langfang
廊坊
Lángfāng 4,358,839 Langfang is located between Beijing and Tianjin and contains the Sanhe exclave, which is separate from the rest of Hebei.
Zhangjiakou
张家口
Zhāngjiākǒu 4,345,491 A city in north-west Hebei. It borders Beijing to the southeast.
Chengde
承德
Chéngdé 3,473,197 A city in northeast Hebei, best known for the Chengde Mountain Resort.
Qinhuangdao
秦皇岛
Qínhuángdǎo 2,987,605[13] A city in north-east coastal Hebei, best known for the Beidaihe.

Transportation

Air

Major airports

Regional airports

Road

There are many major highways servicing the routes within Jingjinji area. This includes the following expressways:

The following six China National Highways pass through Tianjin:

High-speed rail

Intercity high-speed rail lines

Other high-speed rail lines

High-speed rail lines planned or under construction

Suburban railway

Metro systems

Light rail

See also

Notes

  1. ^ 京津冀城市群; Jīng (), Jīn (), and () are the common abbreviations for Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, respectively. It is sometimes rendered in historical context as King–Sin–Peh, also known as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BJ-TJ-HB), Peking–Tientsin–Hopeh and the Capital Economic Zone

References

  1. ^ Preen, Mark (2018-04-26). "The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Integration Plan". China Briefing News. Retrieved 2019-10-11.Preen, Mark (2018-04-26). "The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Integration Plan". China Briefing News. Retrieved 2019-10-11.
  2. ^ "Main Data of the Seventh National Population Census". Archived from the original on 2021-05-11.
  3. ^ a b "Gross domestic product (GDP) of China in 2023, by region", statista.com
  4. ^ Johnson, Ian (July 19, 2015). "In China, a Supercity Rises Around Beijing". New York Times.
  5. ^ GDP-2022 is a preliminary data "Home - Regional - Quarterly by Province" (Press release). China NBS.
  6. ^ a b "China approves $36-billion railway plan for Jing-Jin-Ji megacity". Business News. Reuters. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
  7. ^ Regional Definition: Bohai Sea Archived 2006-09-30 at the Library of Congress Web Archives Unep.Org Retrieved 2010-01-09
  8. ^ Tianjin at a Glance Archived 2009-01-07 at the Wayback Machine uschina.org Retrieved 2010-01-09
  9. ^ Gain a strategic advantage in the Bohai Bay region sdic.com.cn 2007-06-11 Retrieved 2010-01-16
  10. ^ Baculinao, Eric (March 25, 2017). "Jing-Jin-Ji: China Planning Megalopolis the Size of New England". World. NBC News. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
  11. ^ a b c d Hu, Richard (2023). Reinventing the Chinese City. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-21101-7.
  12. ^ "Xiong'an, China's Newest Special Economic Zone - CKGSB Knowledge". knowledge.ckgsb.edu.cn. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  13. ^ "河北省2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报".