Jodhpur State (1818–1947 CE)
Kingdom of Marwar (1226–1581; 1583–1818 CE)
Coat of arms
• 1226–1273 CE
|Rao Siha (first)|
• 1947–1949 CE
|Hanwant Singh (last)|
|Today part of||Rajasthan|
Republic of India
Jodhpur State, historically known as the Kingdom of Marwar, was a kingdom in the Marwar region from 1226 to 1818 and a princely state under British rule from 1818 to 1947. It was established in Pali by Rao Siha, possibly a migrant Gahadavala noble, in 1243. His successors continued to struggle against regional powers for domination and 9 out of 15 rulers till 1438 died in combat. In 1395, its capital was changed to Mandore by Rao Chunda and to Jodhpur in 1459 by Rao Jodha.
The kingdom remained independent until it was annexed by the Mughal Empire in 1581 after the death of Chandrasen Rathore. It remained under direct Mughal control until Udai Singh was restored to the throne as a vassal and given the title of Raja in 1583. During the late 17th century it was under the strict control of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, but the ruling house of Rathore was allowed to remain semi-autonomous in their territory.
During this time Durgadas Rathore struggled to preserve the Rathore dynasty and freed Marwar from the Mughal Empire after 31 years of war. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries the kingdom was overrun by the Maratha hordes of Scindia and Holkar. Marwar was financially bankrupt due to heavy tributes exacted by the Marathas and its once renowned army had now thinned down because of internal wars and rebellions by its nobles, forcing its rulers to ask the British for aid.
The British had no role in the state's affairs until 6 January 1818, when the Raja at that time, Man Singh, entered into a subsidiary alliance, after which the Rajas of Marwar (or Jodhpur) continued as rulers of a princely state. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Rajput Nobles of Pali under Thakur Kushal Singh of Auwa led a rebellion against Raja Takht Singh and the British, however the rebellion was put to an end by the British armies under colonel Holmes after a siege of the Thakurs fort in Auwa. The armies of Jodhpur State fought in World War I for the British. They actively fought in Afghanistan and the Middle-east and scored a series of victories for the British empire. The Jodhpur lancers with the support of the Mysore lancers defeated a large host of Turks and Germans in the Battle of Haifa (1918). Some of the other battles they participated in were the battles of Suez, Gaza, Jordan Valley, Abu Tellul and Megiddo.
Following Indian independence in 1947 Maharaja Hanwant Singh, the last ruler of Jodhpur state, delayed signing the Instrument of Accession to India. He even briefly considered acceding to Pakistan, for Jodhpur shared a border with the new nation and he had been personally given a blank page to write his demands and an assurance of access to sea ports in Pakistan by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. But due to the effective persuasion of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Lord Mountbatten, the Maharaja of Jodhpur agreed to the accession of his state to the new Dominion of India.
Covering an area of 93,424 km2 (36,071 sq mi), Jodhpur State was the largest state under the Rajputana Agency and the third largest state in British India after Jammu and Kashmir State and Hyderabad State. The average revenue of the state was Rs.56,00,000 in 1901. the Maharaja's of Jodhpur originally had a gun salute of 19 guns with 21 personal. However the gun salute was reduced to 17 guns and 21 personal in 1870 due to a quarrel with the Maharana of Udaipur. Its last ruler signed the accession to join the Indian Union on 7 April 1949 and the state was formally dissolved on 1 November 1956.
Recent genealogists believe that the Rathores are connected to the Gahadvala dynasty of Kannauj. A connection is often established between Rajput ruler Jaichand and the Rathores. Jaichand was later defeated by Muhammad of Ghor in the Battle of Chandwar. The one branch of the defeated rulers of Kannauj migrated westwards into Rajputana and were invited to settle in Pali. Siha is regarded as the first emigrant in the region to establish his kingdom in Pali in 1243 when he helped the locals drive away the Meds and Meenas and assumed the title of Rao. He died fighting an invading Muslim force in 1273. In this invasion large amounts of Brahmins in the region were massacred.
Siha's son Rao Asthana captured Khed from the Guhilas and Idar from the Bhils. He died fighting a force of Jalaluddin Khilji in 1291 and was succeeded by his son Dhuhar. Dhuhar captured Mandore from the Pariharas but lost it later. Dhuhar's son Raipal and grandson Karanpal followed by Karanpal's son Bhim who continued to fight the Paramars and the Turkic invaders. Karanpal's son Jhalansi defeated the Sodha Rajputs, and the ruler of Multan but died fighting the Turks in 1328. His son Chhada defeated the Sodha's, the ruler of Jaisalmer, Nagaur and Jalore. He died fighting the Songaras in 1344. Chhada's son Rao Tida avenged his father's death by defeating the Songara's. Tida was succeeded by his son Tribhuvan and his grandson Mallinath. Mallinath fought with the Songaras, Deoras, Bhatis and the Tughluqs.
In 1384, Mallinath's nephew Chunda gained the title of Rao and became the ruler. Chunda married in a Parihar Rajpur clan from which he received the city of Mandore as Dowry. He shifted his capital to that city in 1395. In 1396, Zaffar Khan of Gujarat laid siege to Mandore but was repelled by Chunda. Chunda and Zaffar entered into an tribute with Zaffar but Chunda later counter-attacked Zaffar and captured Sambhar and Ajmer. Chunda's aggressive policy earned him enmity with his neignbours, namely Bhati Rao of Pugal, the Sankhlas of Janglu and the governor of Multan, Khidar Khan. These collectively invaded Nagaur. Chunda died defending Nagaur in 1428.
Towards the end of his life, he promised his throne to his younger son Kanha which angered his eldest son Ranmal who sought refuge in Mewar. Ranmals sister Hansa Bai had been married to Rana Lakha of Mewar so he was able to become a powerful member of the Mewar court. Karan died soon in the same year and Ranmal was able to gain the throne of Marwar. Ranmal attacked Bhati, Pugal and Jalore chiefs in his 10 year reign. Ranmal was called to help rule Mewar in 1433 when his sister Hansa Bai's son Mokal was assassinated. He helped rule the kingdom but his power was not received well by the Sisodia clan. Rana Kumbha, son of Mokal, got him assassinated in 1438.
After Ranmal's assassination, Mewar and Marwar's relations had gotten bitter and Ranmal's son Rao Jodha escaped Mewar and reached its borders. From there he started building his own power. He recollected allies and defeated his enemies one by one and consolidated power and by 1453, he was able to regain Mandore. To end this enmity, Kumbha and Jodha reached settlements and matrimonial alliance was established by marrying Jodha's daughter Shringar Devi to Kumbha's son Raimal in 1459. It was after this that Marwar was able to become a prosperous kingdom under the rule of Rao Jodha. Out of the 15 rulers that preceded Jodha, nine died on the battlefield, six of them against foreign armies. Jodha's son himself died after a battle in which he saved 140 women from Afghan raiders.
After restoring peace, Jodha constructed a new capital fort on a hilltop 6 miles south of Mandore named Mehrangarh. The city came to be known by his name. Thus the city of Jodhpur was settled. Soon, he expanded his territory greatly. One of his sons, Bika captured Janglu which he named Bikaner after himself and became its Rao.
He died in 1489 and was succeeded by his son Rao Satal who died in 1492 who was succeeded by Jodha's second son, Rao Suja. Suja's younger brother Bika laid siege to Jodhpur, demanding a separate kingdom in Bikaner, and in the ensuing negotiations, Bikaner was given to Bika as his independent kingdom. Suja outlived his eldest son Bagha and died in 1515 and was succeeded by his grandson Rao Ganga in 1515.
During the rule of Jodha's sons, many chiefs asserted their independence. This led to formations of factions which favored different candidates for succession. When Rao Ganga ascended to the throne, this factionalism led to a civil war like situation because the succession was disputed by another candidate called Biram Deo. Soon after Ganga's accession, Biram was expelled from Jodhpur. To avenge this, Biram started looting Jodhpur. Eventually, with the help of his son Maldeo, Ganga was able to defeat Biram.
Seeing Rana Sanga's success, Ganga decided to align Marwar with Mewar and assisted Sanga in war against Sultan of Gujarat in 1517, his siege of Bayana in 1527 and the Battle of Khanwa in 1527 against Babur. His son Maldeo Rathore participated in the battle and later escorted an unconscious Rana Sanga from the battleground after defeat. After Sanga's death, Maldeo wanted to fill the vacuum of power in Rajputana and felt that his regnant father couldn't fill it. Ganga mysteriously died in 1531 after falling from his balcony. This fall could've been an accident but is believed that was an assassination by Maldeo.
Under Maldeo Rathore, Marwar rose to great power. He was regarded as a great and fearless warrior. According to Ferishta, He was the most potent prince of Hindustan. In 1531, when Bahadur Shah of Gujarat invaded Mewar, Maldeo assisted Rana Vikramaditya. In 1534-35, Maldeo was able to capture Ajmer and Nagaur.
During Maldeo's territorial expansion, Raja of Jaisalmer sued for peace and offered his daughter Umade for marriage. He attacked Jalore in 1538 and took it. Its ruler was imprisoned where he died a few years later. During his rule, Marwar captured a large part of western Rajputana.
He continued his fathers policy towards the Kingdom of Mewar by helping its legitimate heir Udai Singh II in taking the throne back from the usurper Banvir. He invaded Bikaner, ruled by a branch of the same family and annexed it in 1542.
In 1540, Maldeo helped Mughal Emperor Humayun against Sher Shah Suri by providing him 20,000 troops at Bhakkar. There are many reasons about why he provided this assistance including increasing the sphere of influence or avenging shelter given to fugitives in Sher Shah's court. Eventually, an expelled Humayun reached Phalodi, in Marwar, to seek assistance from Maldeo but couldn't secure much help from the Raja. Following a half hearted welcome for Humayun by Maldeo, Sher Shah marched down to Phalodi and asked Maldeo for handing over Humayun, who escaped to Amarkot.
Following Humayun's escape, Sher Shah returned to Delhi and consolidated power. He later planned to invade Maldeo because he was very ambitious. When Sher Shah reached Marwar, he devised a deceptive plan. He dropped several letters addressed to Marwari soldiers asking them to defect to Delhi. This made Maldeo suspect them and order them to retreat. A few thousand soldiers still held frontier who met Sher Shah Suri at the Battle of Sammel. Sher Shah won the battle and further pursued Marwar. Jodhpur was occupied for several months, but was retaken by Maldeo in 1545.
In 1550, Maldeo invaded Pokhran and Phalodi and took it over from its chiefs.In 1556, Haji Khan, an ally of Rana Udai Singh of Mewar, sought help from Maldeo to invade Mewar after differences arose between Udai and Haji. In the Battle of Harmada in 1557, Udai Singh was defeated and the territory of Merta was captured by Maldeo.
Akbar succeeded Humayun in 1556, many Rajput chiefs mustered around him with their grievances against the Rathore Chief of Jodhpur. Akbar used this as a casus belli against Maldeo. The Mughals conquered Ajmer and Nagaur in 1557 and soon after Akbar captured Jaitaran and Parbatsar. However the Mughals failed to capture the core territories of Marwar. Maldeo before his death held the districts of Jodhpur, Sojat, Jaitaran, Phalodi, Siwana, Pokhran, Jalore, Sanchore, Merta, Barmer, Kotra and some parts of Jaisalmer. These territories were later captured by Akbar due to the succession war between Maldeo's sons.
Maldeo Rathore died on 7 November 1562.
After the death of Maldeo, according to his will, his third son Chandrasen Rathore was crowned the Rao. But is first and second son Ram and Udai started a war of succession for the throne. They were defeated by Chandrasen by 1563.
While Chandrasen continued to defend his kingdom from the Mughal invasions, his neighbor Rana Pratap of Mewar was defeated in the Battle of Haldighati in 1576. After the battle of Haldighati, Mughals turned their attention to Marwar and invaded in the same year. Chandrasen was dislodged from Bhadrajun and became a wanderer for the next 5 years with no capital, throne or shelter. He made several attempts to regain his kingdom, which included several raids on the imperial forces. Although his efforts went in vain and he died in 1581.
In 1583, Akbar formally recognized Chandrasen's rival brother Udai Singh as the ruler of Marwar as a Mughal state. This new ruler of Marwar recognized Akbar's supremacy readily as he was under him since 1570. Udai also contributed to Akbar's imperial force in the invasions of Sirohi. A matrimonial alliance was established between Mughals and Marwar in 1586 when Udai Singh's daughter Manvati bai was married to Jahangir. In 1592, Akbar tasked Udai to take care of the administrative affairs of his capital Lahore while he led conquest in Kashmir. Udai Singh died in Lahore in 1595.
Udai was succeeded by his son Sur Singh in 1595. Because of his military abilities, he was given the title Sawai Raja. In 1596, he was also given the control of Gujarat. In 1599, he was sent to assist Daniyal Mirza in the conquest of the Deccan for Emperor Akbar. In 1604 on the request of Daniyal Mirza, he was allowed to return to Jodhpur and was granted Jaitaran and western half of Merta pargana. During Udai and his son Sur's rule, their pradhan (prima minister) Govind Das Bhati reformed the Marwari administrative system and made it similar to the Mughal system. In 1613, he was deputed by the Mughal emperor along with Prince Khurram to undertake the expedition of Mewar. Sur Singh died in 1619 and was succeeded by his son Gaj Singh.
The Rathore dynasty of Jodhpur are Rajputs claimed to be descendants of Rastrakuta dynasty On the fall of the Rashtrakuta dynasty they migrated north and formed their kingdom in Kannauj as Gahadavala dynasty and after the death of last emperor Jaichand in Battle of Chandwar his descendants migrated to Marwar and established Rathore dynasty 
|Name||Notes||Reign began||Reign ended|
|1||Rao Siha||He conquered Pali and became the first rao of the Rathore dynasty in Marwar. He died in the battle of Lakha Jhawar (1273) against Ghaus ud-din Balban.||1226||1273|
|2||Rao Asthan||Conquered Kher from the Gohils and Idar from the Bhils. He died in battle against Jalaludin Khilji.||1273||1292|
|3||Rao Doohad||He conquered more than 140 villages. He was killed in battle against the Parihars.||1292||1309|
|4||Rao Raipal||He avenged his father by killing the ruler of the Parihars. During a famine in Marwar he distributed his own personal grains to the people.||1309||1313|
|5||Rao Kanhapal||He suffered raids from the Turko-Afgan tribes and was killed in action defending his lands.||1313||1323|
|6||Rao Jalansi||He defeated the Sodhas. He took the turban of the Sodha chief to mark his supremacy in the region.||1323||1328|
|8||Rao Tida||He was killed in battle against the sultan of Delhi.||1344||1357|
|11||Rao Chunda||He successfully defended Mandore from the Turks in 1396. He further conquered the areas of Nagaur, Sambhar, Khatu, Nadol and Ajmer from the Tughlaq Empire. Was killed in battle against Khidar Khan of Multhan.||1383||1428|
|12||Rao Kanha||Fought battles with his brothers. Died young in Mandore.||1428||1428|
|13||Rao Ranmal||He consolidated his rule with the help of the Sisodiyas of Mewar. He was later assassinated on the orders of Rana Kumbha.||1428||1438|
|Name||Notes||Reign began||Reign ended|
|1||Rao Jodha||Fought Rana Kumbha and reclaimed his lands. He later founded the city of Jodhpur and made it his capital. He subjugated the states of Jalore and Bundi and annexed Ajmer, Sambhar and Mohilavati.||12 May 1438||6 April 1489|
|2||Rao Satal||Died from wounds after saving 140 women from Afghan raiders.||6 April 1489||March 1492|
|3||Rao Suja||March 1492||2 October 1515|
|4||Rao Biram Singh||Grandson of Suj.||2 October 1515||8 November 1515|
|5||Rao Ganga||Assisted Rana Sanga in his campaigns against the Sultans of India.||8 November 1515||9 May 1532|
|6||Rao Maldeo||Successfully repelled the invasions of Sher Shah Suri. Called as one of the most potent rulers of Hindustan by Ferishta.||9 May 1532||7 November 1562|
|7||Rao Chandra Sen||He defended his kingdom for nearly two decades against relentless attacks from the Mughal Empire.||7 November 1562||1581|
|8||Raja Udai Singh Mota Raja||He became ruler of Jodhpur after death of Rao Chandrasen and was granted the title of Raja.||4 August 1583||11 July 1595|
|9||Sawai Raja Suraj Mal||Was granted the title of Sawai Raja in recognition of his many services.||11 July 1595||7 September 1619|
|10||Maharaja Gaj Singh I||The first to take the title Maharaja||7 September 1619||6 May 1638|
|11||Maharaja Jaswant Singh||He fought against Aurangzeb in the Battle of Dharmatpur.||6 May 1638||28 November 1678?|
|12||Maharaja Ajit Singh||Became Maharaja of Marwar after 25 years of war with Aurangzeb. Durgadas Rathore played a key role in the war.||19 February 1679||24 June 1724|
|13||Raja Indra Singh||Installed in opposition to Maharaja Ajit Singh by Emperor Aurangzeb but unpopluar with people of Marwar||9 June 1679||4 August 1679|
|14||Maharaja Abhai Singh||Defeated Sarbuland Khan and occupied all of Gujarat for a short time.||24 June 1724||18 June 1749|
|15||Maharaja Ram Singh||First reign||18 June 1749||July 1751|
|16||Maharaja Bakht Singh||He was the general of the Marwari forces against Sarbuland Khan and defeated him. In the Battle of Gangwana he defeated a combined army of Kachwahas and Mughal reinforcements .||July 1751||21 September 1752|
|17||Maharaja Vijay Singh||First reign||21 September 1752||31 January 1753|
|18||Maharaja Ram Singh||Second reign||31 January 1753||September 1772|
|19||Maharaja Vijay Singh||Second reign – Was defeated by Mahadji Scindia and forced to surrender the fort and city of Ajmer.||September 1772||17 July 1793|
|20||Maharaja Bhim Singh||17 July 1793||19 October 1803|
|21||Maharaja Man Singh||Entered into treaty relations with the British on 6 January 1818.||19 October 1803||4 September 1843|
|22||Maharaja Sir Takht Singh||Not in the direct line, but a great-great-great grandson of Ajit Singh. Formerly from Ahmednagar.||4 September 1843||13 February 1873|
|23||Maharaja Sir Jaswant Singh II||Kaisar-i-Hind||13 February 1873||11 October 1895|
|24||Maharaja Sir Sardar Singh||Colonel in the British Indian Army||11 October 1895||20 March 1911|
|25||Maharaja Sir Sumer Singh||Colonel in the British Indian Army||20 March 1911||3 October 1918|
|26||Maharaja Sir Umaid Singh||Lieutenant-General in the British Indian Army||3 October 1918||9 June 1947|
|27||Maharaja Sir Hanwant Singh||Ruler of Marwar (Jodhpur) until accession to the Union of India in 1949; died on 26 January 1952||9 June 1947||7 April 1949|
|28||(titular) Maharaja Gaj Singh II of Jodhpur||Became head of the House on 26 January 1952||26 January 1952||Present|