Jodhpur State (1818–1947 CE)
Kingdom of Marwar (1226–1581; 1583–1818 CE)
1226–1581 CE
1583–1947 CE
Flag of Jodhpur
Flag
Coat of arms of Jodhpur
Coat of arms
Jodhpur State in the Imperial Gazetteer of India
Jodhpur State in the Imperial Gazetteer of India
Status
CapitalPali
(1243-1395)
Mandore
(1395-1459)
Jodhpur
Common languagesMarwari
Hindi
Religion
Hinduism
Maharaja 
• 1226–1273 CE
Rao Siha (first)
• 1947–1949 CE
Hanwant Singh (last)
Today part ofRajasthan
Republic of India
Rao Jodha.jpg
Rao Maldev Rathore of Marwar
Mehrangarh Fort
Rao Chandrasen of Marwar
Amar Singh Rathore was a prince of Marwar
Amar Singh Rathore was a prince of Marwar
Durgadas Rathore's painting in Mehrangarh museum
Maharaja Jaswant Singh II of Marwar, c. 1880. Attributed to Narsingh. The Brooklyn Museum.
Maharaja Jaswant Singh II of Marwar, c. 1880. Attributed to Narsingh. The Brooklyn Museum.
Maharaja Umaid Singh (1903–1947) of Jodhpur
Maharaja Umaid Singh (1903–1947) of Jodhpur
Umaid Bhawan Palace

Jodhpur State, historically known as the Kingdom of Marwar, was a kingdom in the Marwar region from 1226 to 1818 and a princely state under British rule from 1818 to 1947. It was established in Pali by Rao Siha, possibly a migrant Gahadavala noble, in 1243. His successors continued to struggle against regional powers for domination and 9 out of 15 rulers till 1438 died in combat. In 1395, its capital was changed to Mandore by Rao Chunda and to Jodhpur in 1459 by Rao Jodha.

The kingdom remained independent until it was annexed by the Mughal Empire in 1581 after the death of Chandrasen Rathore. It remained under direct Mughal control until Udai Singh was restored to the throne as a vassal and given the title of Raja in 1583. During the late 17th century it was under the strict control of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, but the ruling house of Rathore was allowed to remain semi-autonomous in their territory.

During this time Durgadas Rathore struggled to preserve the Rathore dynasty and freed Marwar from the Mughal Empire after 31 years of war. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries the kingdom was overrun by the Maratha hordes of Scindia and Holkar. Marwar was financially bankrupt due to heavy tributes exacted by the Marathas and its once renowned army had now thinned down because of internal wars and rebellions by its nobles, forcing its rulers to ask the British for aid.

The British had no role in the state's affairs until 6 January 1818, when the Raja at that time, Man Singh, entered into a subsidiary alliance, after which the Rajas of Marwar (or Jodhpur) continued as rulers of a princely state. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Rajput Nobles of Pali under Thakur Kushal Singh of Auwa led a rebellion against Raja Takht Singh and the British, however the rebellion was put to an end by the British armies under colonel Holmes after a siege of the Thakurs fort in Auwa.[1] The armies of Jodhpur State fought in World War I for the British. They actively fought in Afghanistan and the Middle-east and scored a series of victories for the British empire. The Jodhpur lancers with the support of the Mysore lancers defeated a large host of Turks and Germans in the Battle of Haifa (1918). Some of the other battles they participated in were the battles of Suez, Gaza, Jordan Valley, Abu Tellul and Megiddo.

Following Indian independence in 1947 Maharaja Hanwant Singh, the last ruler of Jodhpur state, delayed signing the Instrument of Accession to India. He even briefly considered acceding to Pakistan, for Jodhpur shared a border with the new nation and he had been personally given a blank page to write his demands and an assurance of access to sea ports in Pakistan by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. But due to the effective persuasion of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Lord Mountbatten, the Maharaja of Jodhpur agreed to the accession of his state to the new Dominion of India.[2][3]

Geography

Covering an area of 93,424 km2 (36,071 sq mi), Jodhpur State was the largest state under the Rajputana Agency and the third largest state in British India after Jammu and Kashmir State and Hyderabad State. The average revenue of the state was Rs.56,00,000 in 1901.[4] the Maharaja's of Jodhpur originally had a gun salute of 19 guns with 21 personal. However the gun salute was reduced to 17 guns and 21 personal in 1870 due to a quarrel with the Maharana of Udaipur.[5][6] Its last ruler signed the accession to join the Indian Union on 7 April 1949 and the state was formally dissolved on 1 November 1956.[7]

History

Origin

Recent genealogists believe that the Rathores are connected to the Gahadvala dynasty of Kannauj. A connection is often established between Rajput ruler Jaichand and the Rathores.[8] Jaichand was later defeated by Muhammad of Ghor in the Battle of Chandwar.[9] The one branch of the defeated rulers of Kannauj migrated westwards into Rajputana and were invited to settle in Pali.[10] Siha is regarded as the first emigrant in the region to establish his kingdom in Pali in 1243 when he helped the locals drive away the Meds and Meenas and assumed the title of Rao.[11][12] He died fighting an invading Muslim force in 1273. In this invasion large amounts of Brahmins in the region were massacred.[13]
Siha's son Rao Asthana captured Khed from the Guhilas and Idar from the Bhils.[14][15] He died fighting a force of Jalaluddin Khilji in 1291 and was succeeded by his son Dhuhar.[16][17] Dhuhar captured Mandore from the Pariharas but lost it later.[18] Dhuhar's son Raipal and grandson Karanpal followed by Karanpal's son Bhim who continued to fight the Paramars and the Turkic invaders.[19] Karanpal's son Jhalansi defeated the Sodha Rajputs, and the ruler of Multan but died fighting the Turks in 1328.[20] His son Chhada defeated the Sodha's, the ruler of Jaisalmer, Nagaur and Jalore.[21] He died fighting the Songaras in 1344.[22] Chhada's son Rao Tida avenged his father's death by defeating the Songara's.[23] Tida was succeeded by his son Tribhuvan and his grandson Mallinath. Mallinath fought with the Songaras, Deoras, Bhatis and the Tughluqs.[24]

Rao Chunda

In 1384, Mallinath's nephew Chunda gained the title of Rao and became the ruler.[25] Chunda married in a Parihar Rajpur clan from which he received the city of Mandore as Dowry. He shifted his capital to that city in 1395.[26] In 1396, Zaffar Khan of Gujarat laid siege to Mandore but was repelled by Chunda. Chunda and Zaffar entered into an tribute with Zaffar but Chunda later counter-attacked Zaffar and captured Sambhar and Ajmer.[27] Chunda's aggressive policy earned him enmity with his neignbours, namely Bhati Rao of Pugal, the Sankhlas of Janglu and the governor of Multan, Khidar Khan. These collectively invaded Nagaur. Chunda died defending Nagaur in 1428.[28]

Ranmal

Towards the end of his life, he promised his throne to his younger son Kanha which angered his eldest son Ranmal who sought refuge in Mewar. Ranmals sister Hansa Bai had been married to Rana Lakha of Mewar so he was able to become a powerful member of the Mewar court.[29] Karan died soon in the same year and Ranmal was able to gain the throne of Marwar.[30] Ranmal attacked Bhati, Pugal and Jalore chiefs in his 10 year reign. Ranmal was called to help rule Mewar in 1433 when his sister Hansa Bai's son Mokal was assassinated. He helped rule the kingdom but his power was not received well by the Sisodia clan. Rana Kumbha, son of Mokal, got him assassinated in 1438.[31]

Rao Jodha

After Ranmal's assassination, Mewar and Marwar's relations had gotten bitter and Ranmal's son Rao Jodha escaped Mewar and reached its borders. From there he started building his own power. He recollected allies and defeated his enemies one by one and consolidated power and by 1453, he was able to regain Mandore.[32][33] To end this enmity, Kumbha and Jodha reached settlements and matrimonial alliance was established by marrying Jodha's daughter Shringar Devi to Kumbha's son Raimal in 1459.[34] It was after this that Marwar was able to become a prosperous kingdom under the rule of Rao Jodha. Out of the 15 rulers that preceded Jodha, nine died on the battlefield, six of them against foreign armies. Jodha's son himself died after a battle in which he saved 140 women from Afghan raiders.[35]

After restoring peace, Jodha constructed a new capital fort on a hilltop 6 miles south of Mandore named Mehrangarh. The city came to be known by his name. Thus the city of Jodhpur was settled.[36] Soon, he expanded his territory greatly. One of his sons, Bika captured Janglu which he named Bikaner after himself and became its Rao.[37]

He died in 1489 and was succeeded by his son Rao Satal who died in 1492 who was succeeded by Jodha's second son, Rao Suja.[38] Suja's younger brother Bika laid siege to Jodhpur, demanding a separate kingdom in Bikaner, and in the ensuing negotiations, Bikaner was given to Bika as his independent kingdom.[39] Suja outlived his eldest son Bagha and died in 1515 and was succeeded by his grandson Rao Ganga in 1515.[40]

During the rule of Jodha's sons, many chiefs asserted their independence. This led to formations of factions which favored different candidates for succession. When Rao Ganga ascended to the throne, this factionalism led to a civil war like situation because the succession was disputed by another candidate called Biram Deo. Soon after Ganga's accession, Biram was expelled from Jodhpur. To avenge this, Biram started looting Jodhpur. Eventually, with the help of his son Maldeo, Ganga was able to defeat Biram.[41]

Maldeo Rathore

Seeing Rana Sanga's success, Ganga decided to align Marwar with Mewar and assisted Sanga in war against Sultan of Gujarat in 1517, his siege of Bayana in 1527 and the Battle of Khanwa in 1527 against Babur. His son Maldeo Rathore participated in the battle and later escorted an unconscious Rana Sanga from the battleground after defeat.[42][43][44] After Sanga's death, Maldeo wanted to fill the vacuum of power in Rajputana and felt that his regnant father couldn't fill it. Ganga mysteriously died in 1531 after falling from his balcony. This fall could've been an accident but is believed that was an assassination by Maldeo.[45]

Expansion

Under Maldeo Rathore, Marwar rose to great power. He was regarded as a great and fearless warrior. According to Ferishta, He was the most potent prince of Hindustan.[45] In 1531, when Bahadur Shah of Gujarat invaded Mewar, Maldeo assisted Rana Vikramaditya.[46] In 1534-35, Maldeo was able to capture Ajmer and Nagaur.[46]

During Maldeo's territorial expansion, Raja of Jaisalmer sued for peace and offered his daughter Umade for marriage.[47] He attacked Jalore in 1538 and took it. Its ruler was imprisoned where he died a few years later.[48] During his rule, Marwar captured a large part of western Rajputana.

He continued his fathers policy towards the Kingdom of Mewar by helping its legitimate heir Udai Singh II in taking the throne back from the usurper Banvir.[48] He invaded Bikaner, ruled by a branch of the same family and annexed it in 1542.[49]

Humayun and Sher Shah Suri

In 1540, Maldeo helped Mughal Emperor Humayun against Sher Shah Suri by providing him 20,000 troops at Bhakkar. There are many reasons about why he provided this assistance including increasing the sphere of influence or avenging shelter given to fugitives in Sher Shah's court.[50] Eventually, an expelled Humayun reached Phalodi, in Marwar, to seek assistance from Maldeo but couldn't secure much help from the Raja.[51] Following a half hearted welcome for Humayun by Maldeo, Sher Shah marched down to Phalodi and asked Maldeo for handing over Humayun, who escaped to Amarkot.[52]

Following Humayun's escape, Sher Shah returned to Delhi and consolidated power. He later planned to invade Maldeo because he was very ambitious.[53] When Sher Shah reached Marwar, he devised a deceptive plan. He dropped several letters addressed to Marwari soldiers asking them to defect to Delhi. This made Maldeo suspect them and order them to retreat. A few thousand soldiers still held frontier who met Sher Shah Suri at the Battle of Sammel.[54] Sher Shah won the battle and further pursued Marwar. Jodhpur was occupied for several months, but was retaken by Maldeo in 1545.[55]

Continued expansion

In 1550, Maldeo invaded Pokhran and Phalodi and took it over from its chiefs.[56]In 1556, Haji Khan, an ally of Rana Udai Singh of Mewar, sought help from Maldeo to invade Mewar after differences arose between Udai and Haji. In the Battle of Harmada in 1557, Udai Singh was defeated and the territory of Merta was captured by Maldeo.[57]

Akbar

Akbar succeeded Humayun in 1556, many Rajput chiefs mustered around him with their grievances against the Rathore Chief of Jodhpur. Akbar used this as a casus belli against Maldeo. The Mughals conquered Ajmer and Nagaur in 1557 and soon after Akbar captured Jaitaran and Parbatsar. However the Mughals failed to capture the core territories of Marwar. Maldeo before his death held the districts of Jodhpur, Sojat, Jaitaran, Phalodi, Siwana, Pokhran, Jalore, Sanchore, Merta, Barmer, Kotra and some parts of Jaisalmer. These territories were later captured by Akbar due to the succession war between Maldeo's sons.[58][59][60]

Maldeo Rathore died on 7 November 1562.[61]

Rao Chandrasen

After the death of Maldeo, according to his will, his third son Chandrasen Rathore was crowned the Rao. But is first and second son Ram and Udai started a war of succession for the throne. They were defeated by Chandrasen by 1563.[62]

While Chandrasen continued to defend his kingdom from the Mughal invasions, his neighbor Rana Pratap of Mewar was defeated in the Battle of Haldighati in 1576.[63] After the battle of Haldighati, Mughals turned their attention to Marwar and invaded in the same year. Chandrasen was dislodged from Bhadrajun and became a wanderer for the next 5 years with no capital, throne or shelter. He made several attempts to regain his kingdom, which included several raids on the imperial forces. Although his efforts went in vain and he died in 1581.[64][65]

As a Mughal state

In 1583, Akbar formally recognized Chandrasen's rival brother Udai Singh as the ruler of Marwar as a Mughal state. This new ruler of Marwar recognized Akbar's supremacy readily as he was under him since 1570.[66] Udai also contributed to Akbar's imperial force in the invasions of Sirohi.[67] A matrimonial alliance was established between Mughals and Marwar in 1586 when Udai Singh's daughter Manvati bai was married to Jahangir.[68] In 1592, Akbar tasked Udai to take care of the administrative affairs of his capital Lahore while he led conquest in Kashmir. Udai Singh died in Lahore in 1595.[67]

Udai was succeeded by his son Sur Singh in 1595. Because of his military abilities, he was given the title Sawai Raja. In 1596, he was also given the control of Gujarat. In 1599, he was sent to assist Daniyal Mirza in the conquest of the Deccan for Emperor Akbar.[69][70] In 1604 on the request of Daniyal Mirza, he was allowed to return to Jodhpur and was granted Jaitaran and western half of Merta pargana.[71] During Udai and his son Sur's rule, their pradhan (prima minister) Govind Das Bhati reformed the Marwari administrative system and made it similar to the Mughal system.[72] In 1613, he was deputed by the Mughal emperor along with Prince Khurram to undertake the expedition of Mewar.[73] Sur Singh died in 1619 and was succeeded by his son Gaj Singh.[74]

Rulers of Marwar

The Rathore dynasty of Jodhpur are Rajputs claimed to be descendants of Rastrakuta dynasty[75] On the fall of the Rashtrakuta dynasty they migrated north and formed their kingdom in Kannauj as Gahadavala dynasty and after the death of last emperor Jaichand in Battle of Chandwar his descendants migrated to Marwar and established Rathore dynasty [76][75]

Rulers 1226–1438 CE (From Pali & Mandore)

Name Notes Reign began Reign ended
1 Rao Siha He conquered Pali and became the first rao of the Rathore dynasty in Marwar. He died in the battle of Lakha Jhawar (1273) against Ghaus ud-din Balban. 1226 1273
2 Rao Asthan Conquered Kher from the Gohils and Idar from the Bhils. He died in battle against Jalaludin Khilji. 1273 1292
3 Rao Doohad He conquered more than 140 villages. He was killed in battle against the Parihars. 1292 1309
4 Rao Raipal He avenged his father by killing the ruler of the Parihars. During a famine in Marwar he distributed his own personal grains to the people. 1309 1313
5 Rao Kanhapal He suffered raids from the Turko-Afgan tribes and was killed in action defending his lands. 1313 1323
6 Rao Jalansi He defeated the Sodhas. He took the turban of the Sodha chief to mark his supremacy in the region. 1323 1328
7 Rao Chado 1328 1344
8 Rao Tida He was killed in battle against the sultan of Delhi. 1344 1357
9 Rao Tribhuvan
10 Rao Mallinath
11 Rao Chunda He successfully defended Mandore from the Turks in 1396. He further conquered the areas of Nagaur, Sambhar, Khatu, Nadol and Ajmer from the Tughlaq Empire. Was killed in battle against Khidar Khan of Multhan. 1383 1428
12 Rao Kanha Fought battles with his brothers. Died young in Mandore. 1428 1428
13 Rao Ranmal He consolidated his rule with the help of the Sisodiyas of Mewar. He was later assassinated on the orders of Rana Kumbha. 1428 1438

Rulers 1438–1949 CE (From Jodhpur)

Name Notes Reign began Reign ended
1 Rao Jodha Fought Rana Kumbha and reclaimed his lands. He later founded the city of Jodhpur and made it his capital. He subjugated the states of Jalore and Bundi and annexed Ajmer, Sambhar and Mohilavati. 12 May 1438 6 April 1489
2 Rao Satal Died from wounds after saving 140 women from Afghan raiders. 6 April 1489 March 1492
3 Rao Suja March 1492 2 October 1515
4 Rao Biram Singh Grandson of Suj. 2 October 1515 8 November 1515
5 Rao Ganga Assisted Rana Sanga in his campaigns against the Sultans of India. 8 November 1515 9 May 1532
6 Rao Maldeo Successfully repelled the invasions of Sher Shah Suri. Called as one of the most potent rulers of Hindustan by Ferishta. 9 May 1532 7 November 1562
7 Rao Chandra Sen He defended his kingdom for nearly two decades against relentless attacks from the Mughal Empire. 7 November 1562 1581
8 Raja Udai Singh Mota Raja He became ruler of Jodhpur after death of Rao Chandrasen and was granted the title of Raja. 4 August 1583 11 July 1595
9 Sawai Raja Suraj Mal Was granted the title of Sawai Raja in recognition of his many services.[77] 11 July 1595 7 September 1619
10 Maharaja Gaj Singh I The first to take the title Maharaja 7 September 1619 6 May 1638
11 Maharaja Jaswant Singh He fought against Aurangzeb in the Battle of Dharmatpur. 6 May 1638 28 November 1678?
12 Maharaja Ajit Singh Became Maharaja of Marwar after 25 years of war with Aurangzeb. Durgadas Rathore played a key role in the war. 19 February 1679 24 June 1724
13 Raja Indra Singh Installed in opposition to Maharaja Ajit Singh by Emperor Aurangzeb but unpopluar with people of Marwar 9 June 1679 4 August 1679
14 Maharaja Abhai Singh Defeated Sarbuland Khan and occupied all of Gujarat for a short time. 24 June 1724 18 June 1749
15 Maharaja Ram Singh First reign 18 June 1749 July 1751
16 Maharaja Bakht Singh He was the general of the Marwari forces against Sarbuland Khan and defeated him. In the Battle of Gangwana he defeated a combined army of Kachwahas and Mughal reinforcements . July 1751 21 September 1752
17 Maharaja Vijay Singh First reign 21 September 1752 31 January 1753
18 Maharaja Ram Singh Second reign 31 January 1753 September 1772
19 Maharaja Vijay Singh Second reign – Was defeated by Mahadji Scindia and forced to surrender the fort and city of Ajmer. September 1772 17 July 1793
20 Maharaja Bhim Singh 17 July 1793 19 October 1803
21 Maharaja Man Singh Entered into treaty relations with the British on 6 January 1818. 19 October 1803 4 September 1843
22 Maharaja Sir Takht Singh Not in the direct line, but a great-great-great grandson of Ajit Singh. Formerly from Ahmednagar. 4 September 1843 13 February 1873
23 Maharaja Sir Jaswant Singh II Kaisar-i-Hind 13 February 1873 11 October 1895
24 Maharaja Sir Sardar Singh Colonel in the British Indian Army 11 October 1895 20 March 1911
25 Maharaja Sir Sumer Singh Colonel in the British Indian Army 20 March 1911 3 October 1918
26 Maharaja Sir Umaid Singh Lieutenant-General in the British Indian Army 3 October 1918 9 June 1947
27 Maharaja Sir Hanwant Singh Ruler of Marwar (Jodhpur) until accession to the Union of India in 1949; died on 26 January 1952 9 June 1947 7 April 1949
28 (titular) Maharaja Gaj Singh II of Jodhpur Became head of the House on 26 January 1952 26 January 1952 Present

See also

References

  1. ^ Political Awakening and Indian Freedom Movement with Special Reference to Rajasthan pg 28–35
  2. ^ How did Maharaja of Jodhpur get convinced to be part of Independent India instead of Pakistan?
  3. ^ Ramachandra Guha, India after Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy. HarperCollins, 2007
  4. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 14, page 195 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library".
  5. ^ The Administration of Jodhpur State, 1800-1947 A.D. by Nirmala M. Upadhyaya, International Publishers, 1973 p.240
  6. ^ Gazetteer of the Territories Under the Government of the Viceroy of India p.388
  7. ^ William Barton, The princes of India. Delhi 1983
  8. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Following Muhammad of Ghor’s victory over the forces of Prithviraj Chauhan in the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192, in 1194 it was the turn of Jayachand and the kingdom of Kanauj to face the might of Ghor upon the battleground of Chandwar. Jayachand died in battle, leaving the Ghori chief victorious and the might and splendour of the fabled Imperial Kanauj shattered.".
  9. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Out of the Kanauj émigrés, one branch of the Kanauj ruling family apparently journeyed westward.".
  10. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Tradition holds that the first prince of the displaced Kanauj royal family to establish himself as a chief in any part of Marwar was Siha, son of Set Ram, who probably reached Marwar about c. AD 1243.".
  11. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Having occupied Pali, Siha went on to put down the Meds. Simultaneously, Siha became the ruler of Pali, taking the title of ‘Rao’.".
  12. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Siha died in 1273 fighting off a Muslim force that attacked Pali and put to death its prosperous Brahmin community.".
  13. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "There is a tradition that it was during Asthana’s reign that the territory of Khed (near Balotra, in present-day Barmer district), was captured by the Rathores from the Guhilas (Gohils) who held it at the time.".
  14. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Asthana is credited with capturing the Idar area from the Bhils who held it.".
  15. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "He met his end fighting off an attack on Pali by the Delhi Sultanate troops of Jalaluddin Khilji in AD 1291.".
  16. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, " Asthana was followed by his son, Rao Dhuhar (r. 1291-1309).".
  17. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Dhuhar led his clan against their neighbours, and captured Mandore (ancient Mandavyapur) from the Parihars. (Mandore was later lost).".
  18. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Raipal was succeeded by Karanpal, and the latter by his eldest son, Bhim. According to the khyats of Bankidas and Dayaldas, like Raipal, these Rathore chiefs too fought the Parihars, Bhatis and Turkish soldiers".
  19. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Karanpal’s younger son, Rao Jalansi (r. ?13-d. 1328) is remembered for having defeated Sodha Rajputs of Umarkot, the Solankis of Bhinmal and the Muslim governor of Multan, before he too fell in battle around c. 1328, while leading his troops against the Bhatis and Turks’.".
  20. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Jalanasi’s eldest son and successor, Rao Chhada (r. 1328-1344), now picked up the gauntlet, and set about avenging his immediate predecessors, while at the same time expanding the frontiers of Rathore-held lands. He forced the Sodhas to yield up horses as warindemnity, marched against the ruler of Jaisalmer, and fought the Muslim governors of Jalore and Nagaur".
  21. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "He lost his life on the battlefield near the village of Rama, in the tract of Jalore, in an engagement against the Sonagra and Deora Chauhans in 1344.".
  22. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Chhada’s successor, Tida (r. 1344-??), exacted revenge for his father’s death by defeating the Sonagra Chauhans".
  23. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, " His successor, Tribhuvanshi, and after him Mallinath (b. circa 1358, d. 1399), also took up arms against their neighbours. It seems that Rao Mallinath, son of Salkha, grandson of Rao Tida and tenth in descent from Rao Siha, took the throne from Tribhuvanshi forcibly. He fought the Sonagras, Deoras, Bhatis, Turks, and in c. 1378 Firoze Shah Tughlaq’s subedar of Malwa, Nizamuddin, besides the ruler of Gujarat.".
  24. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Rao Chunda (r. 1384-1428), Mallinath’s nephew, became the twelfth Rathore to rule in Marwar.".
  25. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Meanwhile, around c. AD 1395. Chunda had married into the Eenda branch of the Parihar Rajput clan, who were masters of Mandore. The ancient walled city and fortress of Mandore (old Mandavyapur) was, by this time, popularly regarded as being as old as the events of the epic Ramayana. With his marriage, Chunda obtained Mandore in dowry, along with one thousand surrounding villages. Subsequently Mandore became Chunda’s capital and the centre of the Rathore principality.".
  26. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, " Soon afterwards, in 1396, Chunda was called upon to defend Mandore against a siege led by Zafar Khan, governor of Gujarat for the Tughlaq sultans of Delhi. (Zafar Khan later became an independent ruler of Gujarat in his own right, taking the name of Sultan Muzaffar Shah [r. 1407- 11]). In this, Chunda was successful, particularly when news of Timur’s advance into India convinced the attacker to come to terms with Chunda. Chunda agreed to pay an indemnity or tribute to the Tughlaqs, but kept control of Mandore. Later, after Timur’s invasion, the payment of this tribute was stopped, and Chunda led his troops against the Sultanate’s garrison at Nagaur. Conquering further tracts of territory and taking full advantage of the political disturbances prevalent, including within the Delhi Sultanate area once Tughlaq control started weakening under the later Tughlaq sultans, Chunda soon occupied places like Sambhar, Didwana, Khatu and Ajmer too. Chunda also seized the town of Phalodi, after defeating his brother, Jai Singh.".
  27. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In 1428, the combined forces of the Bhati Rao of Pugal, the Sankhlas of Janglu and the governor of Multan, Khidar Khan, attacked Nagaur. Caught relatively unprepared, Chunda took “...the only honourable course open to a Rajput in similar straits: [to] sally forth and rush into the thickest of the enemy to court an immortal death”".
  28. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Following Chunda’s declaration that promised the throne of Marwar to a younger son, his eldest son, Prince Ranmal made his way to Chittor, the fortresscapital of the neighbouring state of Mewar. As we have already noted above, Ranmal’s sister and Rao Chunda of Marwar’s daughter, the Rathore princess, Hansa-bai, was married to Rana Lakha of Mewar. Ranmal thus felt sure of a welcome at his brother-in-law’s court. Ranmal soon became very powerful at the Mewar court,".
  29. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Kanha ascended the throne in 1428, only to die shortly afterwards. Rao Satta too had a short reign. With the succession issue open once again, Ranmal returned to Mandore and wresting back his inheritance, with the help of Mewari forces, became the new Rao of Marwar (r. 1428-1438).".
  30. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Some years later, upon the premature death of Mokal, Ranmal was once upon called upon by his sister Hansa-bai for assistance in administering Mewar until such time as Mokal’s young son could take over the reins of administration independently. Thus, Ranmal (accompanied by some of his twenty-four sons), returned to the court of the Sisodias, nominally as the caretaker for his sister’s minor grandson, Rana Kumbha. In reality, however, the Rathore ruler became the real seat of power in Mewar, much to the dismay of the Sisodia clan, until his assassination at Chittor around c. 1438.".
  31. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Ranmal’s death and the accompanying falling out between Marwar and Mewar resulted in Mandore and the surrounding lands of the Rathores being occupied by Mewar’s armies .... It took Jodha several years to strengthen his vulnerable position, during which he continued fighting his enemy to recover the occupied portions of his patrimony fully. It is said that Jodha took the battle deep into Mewar State’s territory to satisfy honour and avenge the death of his father, Ranmal.".
  32. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Finally, the one-time capital of Mandore appeared within his grasp, and Jodha regained it in AD 1453.".
  33. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Eventually, Rao Jodha of Marwar and his kinsman, Rana Kumbha of Mewar entered into diplomatic negotiations to end the strife between the two kingdoms. Peace terms were settled....To further cement the new understanding, a matrimonial alliance was arranged, with the daughter of Jodha, Shringar Devi, marrying Kumbha’s son, Raimal.".
  34. ^ Vyas, Varsha S. (2007). Rajasthan, the Quest for Sustainable Development. New Delhi: Academic Foundation. p. 355.
  35. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Peace having been established between Marwar and Mewar, in 1459 Rao Jodha laid the foundation of a new fort which was fated to become the future capital of Marwar .... Jodhpur would remain its capital city, and even today it is a major city of Rajasthan.".
  36. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Prince Bika, ... founded a separate kingdom that came to be known as ‘Bikaner’ after his name".
  37. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Rao Jodha died in April 1489 ... Satal fell in battle at the battle of Kosana in 1492, whereupon another of Jodha’s sons, Suja (r. 1492-1515) ascended the gaddi (throne) of Marwar.".
  38. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "The early part of Suja’s reign was marked by the siege of Jodhpur at the hands of Rao Bika of Bikaner .... (believed to date back to the migration from Kanauj)".
  39. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Upon Suja’s death in AD 1515, the throne of Marwar passed to his grandson Ganga.".
  40. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 515–516.
  41. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 516–517.
  42. ^ Agarwal, B.D. (1979). Rajasthan District Gazetteers: Jodhpur. Gazetteer of India. Directorate of District Gazetteers, Government of Rajasthan. p. 31. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
  43. ^ History of Mewar from Earliest Times to 1751 A.D., R.V. Somani. p. 173.
  44. ^ a b Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 517–518.
  45. ^ a b Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 519.
  46. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 520.
  47. ^ a b Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 521–522.
  48. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 522.
  49. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 522–523.
  50. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 524.
  51. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Humayun hastily led his small party away to the security offered by Amarkot, from where he would later attempt to get help from Iran.".
  52. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 527.
  53. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 526–529.
  54. ^ Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part II, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.43
  55. ^ Rima Hooja 2006: "In 1550, he seized Pokhran from its chief, Kanha. The same year, he sent his forces to take Phalodi from its Bhati chief"
  56. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 532.
  57. ^ Kothiyal, Tanuja (2016). Nomadic Narratives: A History of Mobility and Identity in the Great Indian. Cambridgr University Press. p. 78. ISBN 9781107080317. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  58. ^ G.R. Parihar,Marwar and the Marathas: 1724–1843 A.D. p. xiii
  59. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 533.
  60. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 534, " However, before the Mughal emperor put such a plan into practice, Marwar’s doughty warrior-king died at Jodhpur on 7 November 1562 .".
  61. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 535.
  62. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 536.
  63. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 536–537.
  64. ^ Visheshwar Sarup Bhargava 1966, pp. 52–53.
  65. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 537.
  66. ^ a b Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 538.
  67. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 539.
  68. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 543.
  69. ^ Visheshwar Sarup Bhargava 1966, pp. 63.
  70. ^ Visheshwar Sarup Bhargava 1966, pp. 65.
  71. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Maharaja Sur Singh, with the help of his premier, or pradhan, Bhati Govind Das (who had previously served Sur Singh’s predecessor, ‘Mota’ Raja Udai Singh), saw to the further reorganisation of the administration of Marwar on the pattern of the Mughal system. Posts such as that of the dewan, bakshi, hakim, daftri, daroga, potedar, waqiya-navees, khansama, etc. became firmly established as part and parcel of the Marwar administrative system".
  72. ^ Visheshwar Sarup Bhargava 1966, pp. 68.
  73. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Sur Singh was succeeded by his eldest son, Gaj Singh (r. 1619-1638), who was at the time on Imperial duty at Burhanpur".
  74. ^ a b India: The Peacock's Call by Aline Dobbie p.41
  75. ^ Niyogi, Roma (1959). The History of the Gāhaḍavāla Dynasty.pg -30 Oriental. OCLC 5386449
  76. ^ Singh, Dhananjaya. The House of Marwar. p. 77.

Bibliography

Coordinates: 26°28′N 73°02′E / 26.467°N 73.033°E / 26.467; 73.033