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A KS-1A mobile SAM launcher on display at the Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution in Beijing
A KS-1A mobile SAM launcher on display at the Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution in Beijing
A H-200 radar on display at the same exhibition
A H-200 radar on display at the same exhibition

The Kai Shan - 1 (KS-1) (凯山一号) is the first Chinese surface-to-air missile to adopt a phased array radar.

Design

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The KS-1 missile was developed for the PLA as a replacement for the HQ-2(a reverse-engineered copy of the Soviet S-75 Dvina). This launcher could be mounted on a 6x6 truck to increase system mobility or be emplaced in the standard fashion.

KS-1A is the updated version, roughly the Chinese equivalent of the American MIM-23 HAWK, except it was designed to engage missiles as well as aircraft. This unique design feature means that it is the first Chinese SAM to adopt an indigenous planar passive phased array engagement radar, designated the H-200, which can simultaneously track multiple targets 100+ km away, it can guide six missiles to three targets at the same time (two missiles at each target). The new radars substantially improve the systems performance over the original KS-1.

Development

The first successful test-firing of the missile was in 1989; KS-1 development was complete in 1994. The missile was first publicized in 1998 at the Zhuhai Airshow. An improved version, the KS-1A, which greatly enhanced its minimum altitude and range, has already been developed and first appeared at the sixth Zhuhai airshow in 2006. It was rumored that this improvement also increased its ability to engage targets maneuvering at a higher g force.[citation needed]

History

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The People's Liberation Army (PLA) preferred to wait for the improved model, the KS-1A, which has better performance, thus the KS-1 was only delivered to the Chinese armed forces in very small numbers for evaluation purposes. However, due to more advanced SAM systems being available, such as the HQ-16 and the HQ-17, it is unlikely that the PLA would ever purchase the KS-1A, the fate of both missiles is uncertain.

Both the KS-1 and the KS-1A are offered for export.

Components of the KS-1A system such as the modern planar array engagement radars could be used for upgrading legacy HQ-2 and S-75 systems, dramatically improving their performance.

Components

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Standard deployment of a KS-1A SAM battery typically includes:

Variants

HQ-12 as seen after the military parade held in Beijing on September 3, 2015 to commemorate 70 years since the end of WWII.
HQ-12 as seen after the military parade held in Beijing on September 3, 2015 to commemorate 70 years since the end of WWII.
KS-1M medium range air defence system of Myanmar Army at the 71st Armed Force Day Parade(2016)
KS-1M medium range air defence system of Myanmar Army at the 71st Armed Force Day Parade(2016)
GYD-1B(KS-1M) missile of Myanmar Army
GYD-1B(KS-1M) missile of Myanmar Army
GYD-1B(KS-1M) missile production facility of Myanmar Army
GYD-1B(KS-1M) missile production facility of Myanmar Army

Operators

Map with KS-1 operators in blue
Map with KS-1 operators in blue

Current operators

 People's Republic of China
KS-1M of Myanmar Army in 2016
KS-1M of Myanmar Army in 2016
 Myanmar
 Thailand

Specifications

See also

References

  1. ^ https://www.ainonline.com/aviation-news/defense/2018-01-18/thai-army-boosts-air-defense-missile-capability
  2. ^ https://www.ainonline.com/aviation-news/defense/2018-01-18/thai-army-boosts-air-defense-missile-capability
  3. ^ "SJ-202/212 radar for HQ-12 (in Chinese)"
  4. ^ https://www.ainonline.com/aviation-news/defense/2017-08-02/china-shows-new-fighters-missiles-and-drones
  5. ^ http://missiledefenseadvocacy.org/missile-threat-and-proliferation/todays-missile-threat/china-anti-access-area-denial-coming-soon/hq-12/
  6. ^ https://www.armyrecognition.com/dsa_2014_official_show_daily_news_coverage_report/china_to_show_latest_generation_of_surface-to-air_missile_weapon_system_fk-3_at_dsa_2014_2004146.html
  7. ^ "Trade Registers". SIPRI. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
  8. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-10-21. Retrieved 2006-12-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)