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Kanakanavu
Native toTaiwan
RegionMaya Village, Namasia District, Kaohsiung City
Ethnicity250 (no date)[1]
Native speakers
4 (2012)[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3xnb
Glottologkana1286
ELPKanakanavu

Kanakanavu (also spelled Kanakanabu) is a Southern Tsouic language spoken by the Kanakanavu people, an indigenous people of Taiwan (see Taiwanese aborigines). It is a Formosan language of the Austronesian family.

The Kanakanavu live in the two villages of Manga and Takanua in Namasia District (formerly Sanmin Township), Kaohsiung.[3]

The language is moribund.[4]

History

The native Kanakanavu speakers were Taiwanese aboriginals living on the islands. Following the Dutch Colonial Period in the 17th century, Han-Chinese immigration began to dominate the islands population. The village of Takanua is a village assembled by Japanese rulers to relocate various aboriginal groups in order to establish easier dominion over these groups.[5]

Phonology

There are 14 different consonant phonemes, containing only voiceless plosives within Kanakanavu. Adequate descriptions of liquid consonants become a challenge within Kanakanavu. It also contains 6 vowels plus diphthongs and triphthongs. Vowel length is often not clear if distinctive or not, as well as speakers pronouncing vowel phonemes with variance. As most Austronesian and Formosan languages, Kanakanavu has a CV syllable structure (where C = consonant, V = vowel). Very few, even simple words, contain less than three to four syllables.[6]

Consonants

Kanakanavu consonants
Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ ⟨ng⟩
Plosive p ɓ ⟨p⟩ t ɖ ⟨l⟩ c k ʔ ⟨'⟩
Fricative f v s z h
Rhotic ɽ
Approximant w ɫ ⟨hl⟩ ɭ j ⟨y⟩

Vowels

Front: i, e, a

Central: ʉ, e/ə

Back: u, o

Orthography

Kanakanavu is usually written with the Latin script. The following are often used to represent sounds in the language: A, C, E, I, K, L, M, N, Ng, O, P, R, S, T, U, Ʉ, V, ' /ʔ.

C represents the phoneme /c/.

L represents the phonemes /ɗ/ and /ɽ/.

P represents both /ɓ/ and /p/.

/ɫ/ is spelled as hl.

References

  1. ^ Kanakanavu language at Ethnologue (15th ed., 2005)
  2. ^ Kanakanavu at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  3. ^ Zeitoun, Elizabeth; Teng, Stacy F. (2016). "Reassessing the Position of Kanakanavu and Saaroa among the Formosan Languages" (PDF). Oceanic Linguistics. 55 (1): 162–198. doi:10.1353/ol.2016.0001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2021-05-04 – via www.ling.sinica.edu.tw.
  4. ^ "Did You Know Kanakanabu is Critically Endangered?". endangeredlanguages.com. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
  5. ^ "Ethnographic Setting". Kanakanavu: An Aboriginal Language on Taiwan. Archived from the original on 2016-09-20. Retrieved 2016-09-15.
  6. ^ "Phonology". Kanakanavu: An Aboriginal Language on Taiwan. Archived from the original on 2016-10-05. Retrieved 2016-09-26.

Further reading