.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Turkish. (February 2022) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Turkish article. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 438 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Turkish Wikipedia article at [[:tr:Karahanlı Türkçesi]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|tr|Karahanlı Türkçesi)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Türki or Türkçe
RegionKara-Khanid Khanate
Era11th century
Language codes
ISO 639-3xqa

Karakhanid, also known as Khaqani Turkic (self referring to as Türki or Türkçe),[1] was a historical Turkic language developed in the 11th century during the Middle Turkic period under the Kara-Khanid Khanate. It has been described as the first literary Islamic Turkic language. It is sometimes classified under the Old Turkic category, rather than Middle Turkic, as it is contemporary to the East Old Turkic languages of Orkhon and Old Uyghur. Eastern Middle Turkic languages, namely Khorezmian and later Chagatai are descendents of the Karakhanid language.[2]

Karakhanid vocabulary was influenced by Arabic and Persian loanwords, but the language itself was still noted to be similar to the Old Uyghur language. The language was written using the Arabic script. Mahmud al-Kashgari's Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk and Yūsuf Balasaguni's Kutadgu Bilig are considered to be important literary works written in Karakhanid language.[2]


It was spoken between the 5th-15th centuries. It is one of the three parts of the Old Turkish period. According to Ligeti's classification, it is divided into three periods:

a) Mani and Buddha translations and the foundation period of Uyghur written language

b) Chagatai writing language period

c) Kipchak and Oghuz language relics period

Hakaniye Turkish can also be called the Old Kashgar language. It was the literary language used by the Turks in this area until the beginning of the 14th century. Karakhanid Turkish and Khorezmian Turkish in the west were replaced by Chagatai Turkish in the Timurid period.


Main article: Ottoman Turkish alphabet

Plain End Middle Start Name ALA-LC Transcription Modern Turkish
elif a, â a, e, â
hemze ˀ ', a, e, i, u, ü
be b, p b
pe p p
te t t
se s s
cim c, ç c
çim ç ç
ha h
ẖ, x h
dal d d
zel z z
re r r
ze z z
je j j
sin s s
şın ş ş
sad s
ﺿ dad ż, ḍ d, z
ayın ', h
gayın ġ g, ğ
fe f f
kaf ḳ, q k
kef k, g, ŋ k, g, ğ, n
gef¹ g g, ğ
nef, sağır kef ŋ n
lam l l
mim m m
nun n n
vav v, w, o, ô, ö, u, û, ü v, o, ö, u, ü, û
he h, e, a h, e, a
lamelif la
ye y, ı, i, î y, ı, i, î

Additional Letters

Only 18 of these letters are used. There are seven more letters which have no place in spelling, but are necessary in pronunciation and are not considered as root letters. Turkish languages cannot exist without these letters. These are:

پ p
ج c
رۛ j
ف f
غ g
ك g
ڭ ŋ

Literary works

Although the Ghaznavids and Seljuks did not attach great importance to Turkish and were more fond of Persian, other Turks and Turkish elders valued the national language and left 21 works.[3] The most important and valuable of these that have reached our hands are;

The famous work Kutadgu Bilig written by Yusuf Has Hajip (Yūsuf Khāss Hājib), which was written in Hakaniye Turkish for the first time during the Karakhanid State, and the famous work Divān-ı Lügati't-Türk written in the same century by Kāshgarlı Mahmud. Unfortunately, four works mentioned by Ibn Muhannā, one work called Bilik mentioned by Abu Hayyan (Abū Mūsā Ǧābir ibn Ḥayyān) and others have not been found. There was also a Turkish poet named Çuçu during the Karakhanid period.


Vowels are found in Karakhanid Turkish, as in all periods of the Turkish language.

Front Vowels Back Vowels
/e/ /a/
/i/ /ɯ/
/ø/ /o/
/y/ /u/


  1. ^ Yusuf Has Hacib. Kutadğu Bilig. Translated by Mustafa S. Kaçalin. T. C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Kütüphaneler ve Yayımlar Genel Mudürlüğü. p. 3. ISBN 978-975-17-3359-7.
  2. ^ a b Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Á (2015-04-29). The Turkic Languages. Routledge. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-136-82527-9.
  3. ^ Atalay, Besim (2006). Divanü Lügati't - Türk. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi. ISBN 975-16-0405-2, Cilt I, sayfa VIII.