Kh-22
(NATO reporting name: AS-4 'Kitchen')
Kh-22 at museum
TypeAnti-ship missile
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1968-present
Used byRussia
Wars
Production history
DesignerMKB Raduga
Unit cost$1 million[1]
Produced1962
Specifications
Mass5,820 kg (12,800 lb)
Length11.65 m (38.2 ft)
Diameter92 cm (36 in)
Wingspan300 cm (120 in)
Warhead1,000 kg (2,205 lb) RDX
or 350–1,000 kt (1.5–4.2 PJ) thermonuclear weapon

EngineR-201 liquid-fuel rocket
PropellantTonka-250 and IRFNA
Operational
range
600 km (320 nmi) (Kh-22M/MA)[2]
Flight ceiling10–14 km (33,000–46,000 ft) or 27 km (89,000 ft)
Maximum speed Mach 4.6 (5,600 km/h; 3,500 mph)[3]
Guidance
system
Inertial guidance followed by terminal active radar homing
Accuracy30-40 m (CEP)[citation needed]
Launch
platform
Tu-22M, Тu-22К, Тu-95К22

The Kh-22 "Storm" (Russian: Х-22 "Буря", NATO reporting name AS-4 'Kitchen') is a large, long-range anti-ship missile developed by MKB Raduga in the Soviet Union. It was designed for use against aircraft carriers and carrier battle groups, with either a conventional or nuclear warhead. Kh-32 is an updated conventional variant of the Kh-22 and was accepted to service in 2016; it features an improved rocket motor and a new seeker head.

Development

After analyzing World War II naval battles and encounters in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Soviet military thinkers concluded that the era of large seaborne battles was over, and that stand-off attacks would be the way to neutralize and incapacitate large battle groups without having to field a similar force against them. Substituting cruise missiles for air attacks, Soviet Air Forces and Soviet Naval Aviation commanders set about converting their heavy bombers to raketonosets, or missile carriers, which could be launched against approaching enemy fleets from coastal or island airfields. The Kh-22 (Complex 22) weapon was developed by the Raduga design bureau and used to arm the Tupolev Tu-22.

Design

The Kh-22 uses a Tumansky liquid-fuel rocket engine, fueled with TG-02 (Tonka-250) and IRFNA (inhibited red fuming nitric acid), giving it a maximum speed of Mach 4.6 and a range of up to 600 km (320 nmi). It can be launched in either high-altitude or low-altitude mode. In high-altitude mode, it climbs to an altitude of 27,000 m (89,000 ft) and makes a high-speed dive into the target, with a terminal speed of about Mach 4.6. In low-altitude mode, it climbs to 12,000 m (39,000 ft) and makes a shallow dive at about Mach 3.5. The missile is guided by a gyroscope-stabilized autopilot in conjunction with a radio altimeter.

Soviet tests revealed that when a shaped charge warhead weighing 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) was used in the missile, the resulting hole measured 5 m (16 ft) in diameter, 19.6 m2 (210 sq ft) in area, and was 12 m (40 ft) deep.[4][5][6][7][8][9][page needed]

By August 2016, Russia was finalizing the trials of the Kh-32 cruise missile, a derivative of the Kh-22. Designed for use by the Tu-22M3 bomber, the missile is designed to climb to 40 km (130,000 ft) to the stratosphere after launch, transition to level flight, then perform a steep dive to the target. The cruise missile version is also designed to target enemy ships, as well as radars, and "radio-contrast targets" like bridges, military bases, electric power plants, and others. The Kh-32 has an inertial navigation system and radar homing head, making it independent of GPS/GLONASS navigation satellites. Presumably, it has a range of 1,000 km (620 mi; 540 nmi) and a speed of at least 5,000 km/h (3,100 mph; Mach 4.1).[10] Apparently the missile entered service in the same year.[citation needed] Thirty-two Kh-22 missiles will be modernized to the Kh-32 level in 2018–2020[needs update].[11]

Operational history

Kh-22 under a Tu-22M3

The fist Kh-22PG missile was fired in 1963.The Kh-22 entered service in 1968, along with its missile carrier, the Tu-22K.

Soviet era

The missiles were used by Soviet and then Russian Air Forces on the Тu-22K ('Blinder-B') and Tu-95K22 ('Bear-G') strategic bombers in patrol mission. later, the main launch platform is currently the Tupolev Tu-22M3 ('Backfire') long-range strategic bomber.[12][13]

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

The first combat use of the missile was reported during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. On 11 May 2022, a video emerged on internet showing a Russian Air Force Tu-22M3 strategic bomber launching a pair of two Kh-22 or Kh-32 missiles at targets somewhere in Ukraine.[14]

The UK Ministry of Defence stated that Russia is possibly using anti-ship missiles, like the Kh-22, against ground targets and claimed that such missiles "are highly inaccurate and therefore can cause severe collateral damage and casualties".[15]

On 9 May 2022, 13 Kh-22 missiles were reportedly fired by the Russian Air Force: seven at Fontanka, a coastal village about 15 km (9.3 mi) north of Odesa, where at least one smashed into the Riviera shopping mall around 10:35 PM (after curfew), killing one, and six at targets in the Donetsk Oblast.[16]

Between 12 May and 25 June 2022, at least 10 other Russian Kh-22 strikes in Ukraine, involving at least 44 missiles in total, were reported in the media.[16]

On 27 June 2022, two Kh-22 or Kh-32 missiles, launched by Russian Tupolev Tu-22M3 bombers, were reportedly used in the Kremenchuk shopping mall attack, killing at least 21 people and injuring at least 59.[17][16][4] One missile smashed directly into the mall while the other fell about 450 meters away, into the edge of the Kredmash Road Machinery Plant, which primarily manufactures asphalt and concrete mixers, where it injured two of the 100 employees present.[16] Both missiles might have been aimed at the same target since such distance is within the limited accuracy of Kh-22 missiles.[16]

In the night between 30 June and 1 July 2022, three Kh-22 missiles were fired from Tu-22M3s into a 9-storey apartment building and a recreational center in Serhiivka, Ukraine, killing at least 21 people and wounding at least 39.[18][19][20]

On 14 September 2022, it was reported at least seven Kh-22 missiles were launched by Russia at various hydraulic structures in Kryvyi Rih, including a nearby dam. This caused the water level of the Inhulets river to increase by 2–3 metres (6 ft 7 in – 9 ft 10 in), or even 5–6 metres (16–20 ft). Previously, the Inhulets was too shallow, allowing the Ukrainian army to build pontoon bridges during its southern counteroffensive.[21] However, Ukrainian MoD claimed that Kh-101 missiles were used in the strike.[22]

On 14 January 2023, a Russian missile strike, possibly using a Kh-22, demolished a 9-story apartment building in Dnipro and started a large fire. At least 44 civilians were killed and 73 were wounded in the attack.[23][24]

On 8 May 2023, Ukrainian Air Force spokesman Colonel Yurii Ihnat said that "seven aircraft and up to eight launches of Kh-22 cruise missiles" at Odesa Oblast. Many of the missiles are believed to have self-destructed due to their age. Only one is believed to have hit a food storage warehouse in Odesa. The missiles were fired from Tu-22 bombers.[25]

Three nights of attacks on Odesa, 17–20 July, had been successful due to the then less advanced systems protecting the city compared to those in Kyiv. Out of nineteen cruise missiles fired, Ukraine only intercepted five on 20 July. The Kh-22 missiles cannot be shot down due to their speed. Yurii Ihnat, spokesman for the Ukrainian Air Force, said that “What could be shot down is being shot down,” They required either Patriot missiles or SAMP-T to protect the region from missiles like Kh-22.[26]

During the 29 December 2023 Russian strikes on Ukraine and other attacks, eight X-22/Kh-22s have been fired at Ukraine by Russian forces. None have been shot down by Ukrainian forces. Although it is suggested that Russia has been targeting areas where there are no Patriot missile batteries, of which Ukraine has three, or one SAMP/T.[27][28]

On 19 April 2024, Ukraine claimed to have shot down two Kh-22/32s for the first time during the war. Pictures were later released showing the Kh-32 was manufactured in 2023.[29][30]

Variants

Two initial versions were built, the Kh-22 with a large conventional warhead and the Kh-22N with a 350–1000-kiloton nuclear warhead.[31] In the mid-1970s, this was supplemented by the Kh-22P, an anti-radiation missile for the destruction of radar installations. In the 1970s, the Kh-22 was upgraded to Kh-22M and Kh-22MA standard, with new attack profiles, somewhat longer range, and a datalink allowing mid-course updates.

Kh-22 under a Tu-22M3

Operators

 Russia

Former operators

 Soviet Union
 Ukraine

Notes

  1. ^ Landa, Volodymyr; Gnenny, Konstantin. "Over the weekend, Russia launched missiles worth about $200 million over Ukraine., Росія за вихідні випустила по Україні ракет вартістю близько $200 млн" (in Ukrainian). Forbes. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  2. ^ ausairpower (6 August 2009), Anti Shipping Missile Survey, ausairpower, p. 1
  3. ^ Scribd, Anti Shipping Missile Survey, Scribd, p. 37
  4. ^ a b Precision Guided Munitions in the Region, Technical Report APA-TR-2007-0109, 2004 - 2012 Carlo Kopp, ausairpower.net
  5. ^ КРЫЛАТАЯ РАКЕТА Х-22Н "Буря" Archived 8 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Д-2Н, AS-4 Kitchen, Образцы вооружений Военно - морского флота, vs.milrf.ru
  6. ^ "Вооружения ВМФ Крылатая ракета Х-22Н". Vs.milrf.ru. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  7. ^ "Крылатая ракета Х-22 (комплекс К-22) | Ракетная техника". Rbase.new-factoria.ru. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  8. ^ "Противокорабельная крылатая ракета воздушного базирования Х-22 "Буря"" (in Russian). Defendingrussia.ru. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  9. ^ "Tupolev Tu-22 'Blinder', Tu-22M 'Backfire': Russia's long range supersonic bombers" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 December 2017.
  10. ^ a b Next Gen Kh-32 ant-ship cruise missile tests drawing to a close in Russia - Navyrecognition.com, 24 August 2016
  11. ^ "Russian MoD to upgrade 32 Kh-22 long-range anti-ship missiles". Navyrecognition.com. 16 May 2018. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  12. ^ Rosoboronexport Air Force Department and Media & PR Service, AEROSPACE SYSTEMS export catalogue (PDF), Rosoboronexport State Corporation, p. 122, archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2007
  13. ^ China's Military Faces the Future, James R. Lilley, David L. Shambaugh, illustrated, M.E. Sharpe, 1999, ISBN 0765605066, ISBN 9780765605061
  14. ^ "We May Have Our First Sight Of A Russian Bomber Launching Missiles At Ukraine". thedrive.com. 11 May 2022.
  15. ^ KEYTON, David; LEICESTER, John. "Ukraine: Russia said to be using more deadly weapons in war". www. abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  16. ^ a b c d e Sebastien Roblin (29 June 2022). "Why Russia Is Using Old Kh-22 Aircraft Carrier-Killer Missiles to Hit Ukraine". 19FortyFive. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  17. ^ "Российская ракета попала в торговый центр в Кременчуге. Погибли 20 человек, десятки раненых" [A Russian rocket hit a shopping mall in Kremenchug. 20 people died, dozens injured]. www.bbc.com (in Russian).
  18. ^ "В Одесской области из-за ракетного удара погибли 18 человек" [18 people have died in Odesa Oblast after missile strike] (in Russian). Meduza. 1 July 2022.
  19. ^ Medina, Eduardo; Kim, Victoria (1 July 2022). "Missile Strikes on Ukraine Kill at Least 21 Near Odesa". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  20. ^ Williams, Sophie; Lukov, Yaroslav (1 July 2022). "Ukraine war: Russian missile strikes kill 21 in Odesa region - emergency service". BBC. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  21. ^ "Water level of Ukraine's river Inhulets rises after Russia strikes hydraulic structures of Kryvyi Rih". Novaya Gazeta. 14 September 2022.
  22. ^ "Russian missile strike damaged hydraulic structures in Kryvyi Rih". mil.in.ua. 14 September 2022.
  23. ^ "Ракетний удар по багатоповерхівці у Дніпрі: кількість загиблих знову зросла". tsn.ua. 15 January 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  24. ^ "As Dnipro deaths mount, survivors plead for anti-missile defense". www.washingtonpost.com. 15 January 2023. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  25. ^ "Russian invaders fire 8 Kh-22 missiles at Odesa Oblast". news.yahoo.com. 8 May 2023. Retrieved 8 May 2023.
  26. ^ Kottasová, Ivana; Voitovich, Olga; Krever, Mick; Marquardt, Alex; McWhinnie, Scott; Shukla, Sebastian (20 July 2023). "Ukrainian air defenses in Odesa outgunned as Russia targets global grain supply". CNN. Retrieved 21 July 2023.
  27. ^ Danylo Kramarenko; Daria Shekina (20 July 2023). "Nuclear warfighter: Key characteristics of Russian Tu-22M3 bomber and Kh-22 'blind' missiles". MSN. MSN. Retrieved 30 December 2023.
  28. ^ "Nuclear warfighter: Key characteristics of Russian Tu-22M3 bomber and Kh-22 'blind' missiles". MSN. The Kyiv Post. 30 December 2023. Retrieved 30 December 2023.
  29. ^ Kateryna Denisova (20 April 2024). "Ukraine's obsolete S-200 missile systems reportedly back on track to hit Russian targets". The Kyiv Independent. Retrieved 21 April 2024.
  30. ^ ALYA SHANDRA (20 April 2024). "Ukraine air defense intercept state-of-the-art Russian Kh-32 missile produced in 2023". Euromaidanpress. Retrieved 21 April 2024.
  31. ^ В Полтаве готовятся к утилизации последнего бомбардировщика , 26 Jan 2006, aviaport.ru
  32. ^ Air Power Australia (27 January 2014). "Soviet/Russian Cruise Missiles". Ausairpower.net. Archived from the original on 8 February 2014.
  33. ^ Burdin, Sergey (17 November 2005). Tupolev TU-22 - Sergey Burdin - Google Książki. Pen and Sword. ISBN 9781844152414. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  34. ^ "ОАО "Корпорация Тактическое Ракетное Вооружение"". www.eng.ktrv.ru. Archived from the original on 17 April 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  35. ^ "ДМЗ им. Н.П. Федорова: важное звено обороноспособности страны".
  36. ^ "New Russian cruise missiles to hit targets from 130,000 feet". UPI.com. 30 August 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  37. ^ "В Полтаве готовятся к утилизации последнего бомбардировщика". www.aviaport.ru (in Russian). 26 January 2006.

References