The main square of Xingmeng Mongol Ethnic Township in Tonghai County
The main square of Xingmeng Mongol Ethnic Township in Tonghai County

The Khatso people (Chinese: 喀卓人), commonly known as the "Mongols in Yunnan", is a Mongolic ethnic group, mainly distributed in Tonghai County in the Yunnan Province of southwestern China. The Khatso people are descendants of the army personnel of the Yuan dynasty.

History

Before the mid-13th century, Yunnan was held by many war-like independent states such as the Nanchao and Dali Kingdoms. The Mongol Empire under Möngke Khan conquered the Dali Kingdom in 1253.[1] Until 1273, a Chinggisid prince received viceroyalty over the area. Kublai Khan appointed the first governor, Turkmen Sayid Ajall, in Yunnan in 1273.[2] Yunnan and Hunan were main bases for Mongol military operations to Indo-China. It was called Yunnan district with Kunming as the headquarters during the Yuan. After the expulsion of the Mongols from China in 1368, the Ming Dynasty destroyed the Yuan loyalists in Yunnan under Basalawarmi in 1381 and occupied it. In 1381, "Ming Dynasty troops routed the Yuan army by the shore of the Baishui River. The Mongol soldiers, their hopes to return to their homeland having been dashed, had no alternative but to settle down in the province."[citation needed]

In the early 1980s, village elders sent a delegation to Inner Mongolia to re-learn about their long lost Mongolian culture. They adopted customs similar to Mongols in the north gradually, and wrestling became their favorite sport when they saw how popular it was with other Mongols.[citation needed]

Monument in Xingmeng Township, commemorating 750 years of history of Mongol people in Yunnan
Monument in Xingmeng Township, commemorating 750 years of history of Mongol people in Yunnan

There are about 13,000 Khatso people, whose culture is heavily influenced by the local Yi culture.

Language

Main article: Katso language

Khatso people speak the Katso language, a Loloish language, to communicate with each other, and use the Southwestern Mandarin with outsiders.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ John Man Kublai Khan, p.79
  2. ^ John Man Kublai Khan, p.80
  3. ^ Jiang Ying, Zhao Yan-zhen etc, "New Problems for Kazhuo Young People in Their Mother Tongue Acquisition", Journal of Research on Education for Ethnic Minorities, Beijing, 2008 (No.2), General No.85, Vol.19