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Alternative nameskhoya, koa, kova, maua, khowa, khava, khuaa, mawa or kurauni
Place of originIndian Subcontinent
Region or stateIndian Subcontinent
Associated national cuisineIndia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal
Main ingredientsMilk
Similar dishesKheer

Khoa, khoya, khowa or mawa is a dairy food widely used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent, encompassing India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan. It is made of either dried whole milk or milk thickened by heating in an open iron pan. It is lower in moisture than typical fresh cheeses such as ricotta.[1] It is made up of whole milk instead of whey.


Khuwa vendor in Nepal
Khuwa vendor in Nepal

A concentration of milk to one-fifth volume is normal in the production of khoa. Khoa is used as the base for a wide variety of Indian sweets. About 600,000 metric tons are produced annually in India. Khoa is made from both cow and water buffalo milk. Khoa is made by simmering full-fat milk in a large, shallow iron pan for several hours over a medium fire. The gradual evaporation of its water content leaves only the milk solids. The ideal temperature to avoid scorching is about 80 °C (180 °F).[2] Another quick way of making khoa is to add full fat milk powder to skimmed milk and mixing and heating until it becomes thick. This may, however, not have the same characteristics as traditionally made khoa.

Khoa is normally white or pale yellow. If prepared in the winter, it may be saved for use in the summer, and may acquire a green tinge and grainier texture from a harmless surface mould. This is called hariyali (green khoa) and is used in recipes where the khoa is thoroughly cooked, e.g., gulab jamun.[citation needed] With the advent of refrigeration, the production of hariyali is rare.


Milk Khoa in Mysore, India
Milk Khoa in Mysore, India

Khoa is classified into different types, based on moisture content. Different types of khoa are used for different preparations.


Assortment of barfi made of khoa, almonds and sugar, Mumbai, India.
Assortment of barfi made of khoa, almonds and sugar, Mumbai, India.

Khoa is used in various types of sweets:

See also


  1. ^ Fuzzy Math for reducing milk Archived 2007-10-12 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2008-02-24.
  2. ^ a b c d Making khoya mawa Recipe Archived 2007-10-12 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2008-02-24.
  3. ^ a b c SN Mahindru (2009). Milk & Milk Products. APH. p. 23. ISBN 978-81-313-0414-3.
  4. ^ "Khoya Dishes - Khoya Recipes - NDTV Food".