|Khowar alphabet (In Nastaliq style.)|
|Regulated by||Association for the Promotion of Khowar|
Khowar is a minor language of Pakistan which is mainly spoken in Chitral, it is given a space in this map.
Khowar (کھووار) or Chitrali, is an Indo-Aryan language primarily spoken in Chitral and surrounding areas in Pakistan.
Khowar is the lingua franca of Chitral, and it is also spoken in the Gupis-Yasin and Ghizer districts of Gilgit-Baltistan, as well in the Upper Swat district.
Speakers of Khowar have also migrated heavily to Pakistan's major urban centres, with Peshawar, Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi having significant populations. It is also spoken as a second language by the Kalash people.
The native name of the language is Khō-wār, meaning "language" (wār) of the Kho people. During the British Raj it was known to the English as Chitrālī (a derived adjective from the name of the Chitral region) or Qāshqārī. Among the Pashtuns and Badakhshanis it is known as Kashkār. Another name, used by Leitner in 1880, is Arnyiá or Arniya, derived from the Shina language name for the part of the Yasin (a valley in Gilgit-Baltistan) where Khowar is spoken. Lastly, the Wakhis and Sanglechis refer to the language and its speakers as Kivi.
Georg Morgenstierne noted, "Khowar, in many respects [is] the most archaic of all modern Indian languages, retaining a great part of Sanskrit case inflexion, and retaining many words in a nearly Sanskritic form".: 3
Khowar has a variety of dialects, which may vary phonemically. The following tables lay out the basic phonology of Khowar.
Khowar may also have nasalized vowels and a series of long vowels /ɑː/, /ɛː/, /iː/, /ɔː/, and /uː/. Sources are inconsistent on whether length is phonemic, with one author stating "vowel-length is observed mainly as a substitute one. The vowel-length of phonological value is noted far more rarely." Unlike the neighboring and related Kalasha language, Khowar does not have retroflex vowels.
Allophones of /x ɣ h ʋ ɾ/ are heard as sounds [χ ʁ ɦ w ɹ]. /q x ɣ f/ are restricted to Perso-Arabic loanwords in most IA languages but they occur natively in Khowar.
Khowar, like many Dardic languages, has either phonemic tone or stress distinctions.
Since the early twentieth century Khowar has been written in the Khowar alphabet, which is based on the Urdu alphabet and uses the Nasta'liq script. Prior to that, the language was carried on through oral tradition. Today Urdu and English are the official languages and the only major literary usage of Khowar is in both poetry and prose composition. Khowar has also been occasionally written in a version of the Roman script called Roman Khowar since the 1960s.
See also: Television in Pakistan
|TV Channel||Genre||Founded||Official Website|
|Khyber News TV (خیبر نیوز ٹیلی ویژن)||News and current affairs||http://www.khybernews.tv/|
|AVT Khyber TV (اے وی ٹی خیبر)||Entertainment||http://www.avtkhyber.tv/|
|K2 TV (کے ٹو)||Entertainment, news and current affairs||http://www.kay2.tv/|
|Zeal News (ذیل نیوز)||News and Current Affairs||2016||http://www.khowar.zealnews.tv|
These are not dedicated Khowar channels but play most programmes in Khowar.
See also: Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation
|Radio Channel||Genre||Founded||Official Website|
|Radio Pakistan Chitral FM93||Entertainment||http://www.radio.gov.pk/|
|Radio Pakistan Peshawar||Entertainment||http://www.radio.gov.pk/|
|Radio Pakistan Gilgit||Entertainment||http://www.radio.gov.pk/|
See also: List of newspapers in Pakistan § Khowar
|Chitral Vision (چترال وژن)||Karachi, Chitral, Pakistan||https://www.chitralvision.com|
((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link), with supplementary sound recordings.