Korean
Native speakers
75 million (2007)[1]
Dialects
Language codes
ISO 639-1ko
ISO 639-2kor
ISO 639-3kor
Glottologkore1280
Korean dialects in Korea and neighboring areas

A number of Korean dialects (Korean한국어의 방언) are spoken on the Korean Peninsula. The peninsula is very mountainous and each dialect's "territory" corresponds closely to the natural boundaries between different geographical regions of Korea. Most of the dialects are named for one of the traditional Eight Provinces of Korea. Two are sufficiently distinct from the others to be considered separate languages, the Jeju and the Yukjin languages.

Dialect areas

Dialect zones identified by Shinpei Ogura (1944)[2]
Dialect zones in the National Atlas of Korea[3]
Distribution of tone and length in Korean dialects:[4]
  tone   length
  no length or tone

Korea is a mountainous country, and this could be the main reason why Korean is divided into numerous small local dialects. There are few clear demarcations, so dialect classification is necessarily to some extent arbitrary and based on the traditional provinces. A common classification, originally introduced by Shinpei Ogura in 1944 and adjusted by later authors, identifies six dialect areas:[5][6]

Hamgyŏng (Northeastern)
Spoken in the Hamgyong Province (Kwanbuk and Kwannam) region, the northeast corner of Pyongan Province, and the Ryanggang Province of North Korea as well as Jilin, Heilongjiang of Northeast China; Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan of former Soviet Union. Nine vowels: the eight of the standard language plus ö. [citation needed]
Pyongan (Northwestern)
Spoken in Pyongyang, Pyongan Province, Chagang Province, and neighboring Liaoning, of China. The basis of the alleged standard language for North Korea.[Note 1]
Central dialects
The central dialect refers to a dialect generally used in the surrounding areas of Hwanghae Province, Gangwon Province (Kangwon Province), and Chungcheong Province, centering on Seoul and Gyeonggi Province. Depending on scholars, it is divided into the Gyeonggi dialect (Central dialect) and Chungcheong dialect from the beginning, or subdivided into Gyeonggi dialect, Gangwon dialect, Hwanghae dialect, and Chungcheong dialect. The central dialect region is very large, so it is not easy to extract features common to all regions. Among its characteristics, it is more difficult to extract the unique characteristics of the central dialect. For example, which dialect has an intonation as a phonological list is very important in the dialect compartment. Most of the central dialects do not have intonations, but they have intonations in Yeongdong, Gangwon Province, as well as Pyeongchang, Jeongseon, and Yeongwol, the surrounding Yeongseo regions. In the case of vocabulary, the difference is so severe that we do not know how many pieces the central dialect will be divided into. Therefore, the characteristics of the central dialect, which correspond to all regions of the central dialect region, are extremely rare, and if there is such a feature, it is easy to be found in other dialects rather than just the central dialect. Therefore, it may be close to the fact that it is the central dialect that combines the remaining dialects except for other dialects where distinct characteristics are observed, rather than having a specific phenomenon observed only in the central dialect. Since the central dialect consists of sub-dialects that are more heterogeneous than other dialects, it is more likely to be divided into several sub-dialects than any other dialect. Usually, it seems that it can be divided into five sub-dialects.
  • Gyeonggi dialect, also called the "Seoul dialect": spoken in the Gyeonggi Province, Seoul and Incheon cities, as well as in Kaesong, Kaepung and Changpung (North Korea). The basis of the standard language for South Korea.[citation needed] Although it is often called Gyeonggi dialect by combining Gyeonggi dialect and Seoul dialect, Seoul has been the capital of Joseon for more than 500 years, so the Seoul dialect is often classified separately because the royal language is permeated. And, it is sometimes called the Gyeonggi dialect by combining the Gyeonggi dialect and the Yeongseo dialect.
  • Chungcheong dialect: spoken in the Chungcheong Province (Hoseo) region of South Korea, including the metropolitan city of Daejeon.[7] The dialect of Chungcheong Province is a dialect with the most elements of the Jeolla dialect among the Central dialects, and can also be divided into the other. Some parts of South Chungcheong Province, including Daejeon and Sejong, are classified as southern dialects such as the Jeolla and Gyeongsang dialects.
  • Yeongseo dialect: spoken in Yeongseo, Gangwon Province (South Korea) and neighboring Kangwon Province (North Korea) to the west of the Taebaek Mountains. Yeongseo is quite distinct from the Yeongdong dialect to the east of the mountains. Unlike the Yeongdong dialect, the Yeongseo dialect has not been studied much because it is almost similar to the Gyeonggi dialect, and scholars often see it as just a part of Gyeonggi dialect.
  • Yeongdong dialect: spoken in Yeongdong, Gangwon Province (South Korea) and neighboring Kangwon Province (North Korea) to the east of the Taebaek Mountains. Yeongdong is quite distinct from the Central Korean dialects to the west of the mountains.[8] There are many elements of the Gyeongsang dialect, and sometimes the Hamgyŏng dialect is mixed, and it has many characteristics that are not present in the rest of the Central dialect.
  • Hwanghae dialect: spoken in Hwanghae Province of North Korea. The Hwanghae dialect is a dialect with the most elements of the Pyongan dialect among the Central dialects, and can also be divided into the other. Hwanghae dialect was commonly included among the Central dialects, but some researchers argue that it does not fit there comfortably.[9] Because the division between South Korea and North Korea has prolonged, the Hwanghae dialect has been strongly influenced by the Pyongan dialect, and now more and more people see it as a sub-dialect of the Pyongan dialect, not the Central dialect.
In any case, the central dialect can be said to be a dialect that can vary in various areas of the dialect depending on the criteria for the dialect compartment. For example, Hwanghae, Gyeonggi, Gangwon and Chungcheong are usually grouped together as the Central dialect region. But, many view that only Hwanghae, Gyeonggi, and Gangwon dialects are included in the central dialect, while Chungcheong dialect is considered as separate dialect.
Gyeongsang (Southeastern)
Spoken in Gyeongsang Province (Yeongnam) of South Korea, including the cities of Busan, Daegu and Ulsan. This dialect is easily distinguished from the Seoul dialect because its pitch is more varied. Six vowels, i, e, a, eo, o, u.[citation needed]
Jeolla (Southwestern)
Spoken in the Jeolla Province (Honam) region of South Korea, including the city of Gwangju. Ten vowels: i, e, ae, a, ü, ö, u, o, eu, eo.[citation needed]
Jeju
Spoken on Jeju Island off the southwest coast of South Korea and is sometimes considered a separate Koreanic language.[10] The nine vowels of Middle Korean, including arae-a (ɔ). May have additional consonants as well.

Several linguists have suggested that a further dialect area should be split from the Northeastern dialects:[11]

Ryukchin (Yukchin)
Spoken in the historical Yukchin region which is located in the northern part of North Hamgyong Province, far removed from P'yŏng'an, but has more in common with P'yŏng'an dialects than with the surrounding Hamgyŏng dialects.[9] Since it has been isolated from the major changes of Korean language, it has preserved distinct features of Middle Korean. It is the only known tonal Korean language.[12]

A recent statistical analysis of these dialects suggests that the hierarchical structure within these dialects are highly uncertain, meaning that there is no quantitative evidence to support a family-tree-like relationship among them.[13]

Some researchers classify the Korean dialects in Western and Eastern dialects. Compared with Middle Korean, the Western dialects have preserved long vowels, while the Eastern dialects have preserved tones or pitch accent.[14] The Jeju language and some dialects in North Korean make no distinction between vowel length or tone.[14] But the Southeastern dialect and the Northeastern dialect may not be closely related to each other genealogically.

Standard language

Korean is a pluricentric language:

Despite North–South differences in the Korean language, the two standards are still broadly intelligible. One notable feature within the divergence is the North's lack of anglicisms and other foreign borrowings due to isolationism and self-reliancepure/invented Korean words are used in replacement.[16]

Usage of regional dialects have been decreasing in both North and South due to social factors. In North Korea, the central government is urging its citizens to use the northern standard language to prevent the use of foul language by the people: Kim Jong Un said in a speech "if your language in life is cultural and polite, you can achieve harmony and comradely unity among people."[17] In South Korea, due to relocation in the population to Seoul to find jobs and the usage of standard language in education and media, the prevalence of regional dialects has decreased.[18] The standard is also commonly used among younger Koreans nationwide and in online contexts. It is the form most widely taught internationally, and has received a further boost from the increasing popularity of K-pop.

Outside of the Korean peninsula

Koryo-mar, based on Hamgyong and Ryukchin dialects, is spoken by the Koryo-saram, ethnic Koreans in the post-Soviet states of Central Asia. It consists of a Korean base vocabulary, but takes many loanwords and calques from Russian language.

Sakhalin Korean Language (사할린 한국어), usually identified as a descendant of the southern dialect, is spoken by the Sakhalin Korean.

Examples of regional dialects

Hamgyŏng

Rasŏn, most of Hamgyŏng region, northeast P'yŏngan, Ryanggang Province (North Korea), Jilin (China).

Honorific
Munhwaŏ Hamgyŏng Ryukjin
하십시오 (hasibsio) 합소(세) (Habso(se)) 합쇼 (Habsyo)
해요 (haeyo) 하오 (Hao) 하오 (Hao)
Ordinary way of speaking (near Hamhung, Hyesan)
Munhwaŏ Hamgyŏng

당신네

dangsinne

딸이

ttal-i

찾아

chaj-a

왔소.

wattso.

당신네 딸이 찾아 왔소.

dangsinne ttal-i chaj-a wattso.

당신너

dangsinneo

딸이가

ttal-iga

찾아

chaj-a

왔슴메.

wattseumme.

당신너 딸이가 찾아 왔슴메.

dangsinneo ttal-iga chaj-a wattseumme.

Munhwaŏ Hamgyŏng

할아버지,

hal-abeoji,

빨리

ppalli

오세요.

oseyo.

할아버지, 빨리 오세요.

hal-abeoji, ppalli oseyo.

클아바네요,

keul-abaneyo,

빨리

ppalli

오옵소.

oobso.

클아바네요, 빨리 오옵소.

keul-abaneyo, ppalli oobso.

Munhwaŏ Hamgyŏng

밭을

bat-eul

매야

maeya

하니까

hanikka

일찍

iljjig

오너라.

oneola.

밭을 매야 하니까 일찍 오너라.

bat-eul maeya hanikka iljjig oneola.

밭으

bat-eu

매야

maeya

하길래

hagilrae

일찍

iljjig

오나라.

onala.

밭으 매야 하길래 일찍 오나라.

bat-eu maeya hagilrae iljjig onala.

P'yŏngan

P'yŏngan region, P'yŏngyang, Chagang, northern North Hamgyŏng (North Korea), Liaoning (China)

Honorific
Munhwaŏ Pyongan

하십시오

hasibsio

하십시오

hasibsio

하시

hasi

하시

hasi

해요

haeyo

해요

haeyo

해요

haeyo

해요

haeyo

Ordinary way of speaking
Munhwaŏ Pyongan

겨드랑이

gyeodeulang-i

겨드랑이

gyeodeulang-i

게드랑이

gedeulang-i

게드랑이

gedeulang-i

Munhwaŏ Pyongan

여름

yeoleum

여름

yeoleum

너름

neoleum

너름

neoleum

일곱

ilgob

일곱

ilgob

닐굽

nilgub

닐굽

nilgub

류행

ryuhaeng

류행

ryuhaeng

누행

nuhaeng

누행

nuhaeng

Munhwaŏ Pyongan

이거

igeo

내가

naega

가져왔어

gajyeowass-eo.

이거 내가 가져왔어

igeo naega gajyeowass-eo.

이거

igeo

내가

naega

개와서

gaewaseo

이거 내가 개와서

igeo naega gaewaseo

Hwanghae

Hwanghae region (North Korea). Also in the Islands of Yeonpyeongdo, Baengnyeongdo and Daecheongdo in Ongjin County of Incheon.

Honorific
Munhwaŏ Hwanghae

하십시오

hasibsio

하십시오

hasibsio

하서

haseo

하서

haseo

해요

haeyo

해요

haeyo

해요

haeyo

해요

haeyo

습니까

seubnikka

습니까

seubnikka

시꺄

shikkya

시꺄

shikkya

Ordinary way of speaking
Munhwaŏ Hwanghae

습관

seubgwan

습관

seubgwan

십관

sibgwan

십관

sibgwan

Munhwaŏ Hwanghae

bab

먹었니?

meog-eossni?

밥 먹었니?

bab meog-eossni?

bab

먹었네?

meog-eossne?

밥 먹었네?

bab meog-eossne?

Munhwaŏ Hwanghae

많이

manh-i

추워졌구나

chuwojyeottguna

많이 추워졌구나

manh-i chuwojyeottguna

많이

manh-i

추어졌누만

chueojyeottnuman

많이 추어졌누만

manh-i chueojyeottnuman

Areas in Northwest Hwanghae, such as Ongjin County in Hwanghae Province, pronounced 'ㅈ' (j'), originally pronounced the letter more closely to tz. However, this has largely disappeared. The rest is almost similar to the Gyeonggi and Pyongan dialect.

Gyeonggi

Seoul, Incheon, Gyeonggi region (South Korea), as well as Kaeseong, Gaepoong and Changpung in North Korea.

Honorific
Pyojuneo Gyeonggi

하십시오

hasibsio

하십시오

hasibsio

-

하오

hao

하오

hao

하우/허우

hau/heou

하우/허우

hau/heou

해요

haeyo

해요

haeyo

해요

haeyo

해요

haeyo

Ordinary way of speaking
Pyojuneo Gyeonggi

아파

apa

아파

apa

아퍼

apeo

아퍼

apeo

더러워

deoleowo

더러워

deoleowo

드러워

deuleowo

드러워

deuleowo

Pyojuneo Gyeonggi

참기름

chamgileum

참기름

chamgileum

챔기름

chaemgileum

챔기름

chaemgileum

neo

바보

babo

같아

gat-a

너 바보 같아

neo babo gat-a

neo

바보

babo

같애

gat-ae

너 바보 같애

neo babo gat-ae

Pyojuneo Gyeonggi

뭐하고

mwohago

있어?

iss-eo?

뭐하고 있어?

mwohago iss-eo?

뭐허구

mwoheogu

있어?

iss-eo?

뭐허구 있어?

mwoheogu iss-eo?

삼촌

samchon

삼촌

samchon

삼춘

samchun

삼춘

samchun

Pyojuneo Suwon

어디

eodi

gal

거야?

geoya?

어디 갈 거야?

eodi gal geoya?

어디

eodi

gal

거?

geo?

어디 갈 거?

eodi gal geo?

Gangwon

Yeongseo (Gangwon (South Korea)/Kangwŏn (North Korea) west of the Taebaek Mountains), Yeongdong (Gangwon (South Korea)/Kangwŏn (North Korea), east of the Taebaek Mountains)

Honorific
Pyojuneo Yeongseo Yeongdong

하십시오

hasibsio

하십시오

hasibsio

-Lack of data- -

하오

hao

하오

hao

하오,

hao,

하우

hau

하오, 하우

hao, hau

하오

hao

하오

hao

해요

haeyo

해요

haeyo

해오

haeyo

해오

haeyo

해요

haeyo

해요

haeyo

Ordinary way of speaking
Pyojuneo Gangwon

휴가

hyuga

휴가

hyuga

휘가

hwiga

휘가

hwiga

Pyojuneo Gangwon(Yeongdong)

요즘

yojeum

뭐해?

mwohae?

요즘 뭐해?

yojeum mwohae?

요즘

yojeum

뭐하나?

mwohana?

요즘 뭐하나?

yojeum mwohana?

Chungcheong

Daejeon, Sejong, Chungcheong region (South Korea)

Honorific
Pyojuneo Chungcheong

하십시오

hasibsio

하십시오

hasibsio

하시오

hasio

(충남 서해안 일부 지역)

(Some areas on the west coast of South Chungcheong Province)

하시오

hasio

하오

hao

하오

hao

하게

hage

하게

hage

해요

haeyo

해요

haeyo

해유

haeyu

(기본)

(General)

해유 (기본)

haeyu (General)

Ordinary way of speaking
Pyojuneo Chungcheong

무슨

museun

소리야?

soliya?

무슨 소리야?

museun soliya?

mwon

소리여~?

soliyeo~?

뭔 소리여~?

mwon soliyeo~?

뭐하는

mwohaneun

거야?

geoya?

뭐하는 거야?

mwohaneun geoya?

뭐허는

mwoheoneun

거여~?

geoyeo~?

/

/

뭐하는

mwohaneun

겨~?

gyeo~?

뭐허는 거여~? / 뭐하는 겨~?

mwoheoneun geoyeo~? / mwohaneun gyeo~?

Pyojuneo Chungcheong

그거

geugeo

바깥에다가

bakkat-edaga

뒀대

dwossdae

그거 바깥에다가 뒀대

geugeo bakkat-edaga dwossdae

고거

gogeo

바깥이다가

bakkat-idaga

뒀댜~

dwossdya~

고거 바깥이다가 뒀댜~

gogeo bakkat-idaga dwossdya~

이거

igeo

먹을래?

meog-eullae?

이거 먹을래?

igeo meog-eullae?

여거

yeogeo

먹을려?

meog-eullyeo?

/

/

이거

igeo

먹을쳐?

meog-eulchyeo?

여거 먹을려? / 이거 먹을쳐?

yeogeo meog-eullyeo? / igeo meog-eulchyeo?

그래

geulae

그래

geulae

그려~

geulyeo~

/

/

그랴~

geulya~

/

/

기여~

giyeo~

/

/

겨~

gyeo~

그려~ / 그랴~ / 기여~ / 겨~

geulyeo~ / geulya~ / giyeo~ / gyeo~

Pyojuneo Chungcheong

내가

naega

da

치워뒀으니까

chiwodwoss-eunikka

괜찮겠지

gwaenchanhgettji

내가 다 치워뒀으니까 괜찮겠지

naega da chiwodwoss-eunikka gwaenchanhgettji

내가

naega

da

치워뒀으니께

chiwodwoss-eunikke

갠찮겄지

gaenchanhgeottji

내가 다 치워뒀으니께 갠찮겄지

naega da chiwodwoss-eunikke gaenchanhgeottji

The rest is almost similar to the Gyeonggi dialect.

Jeolla

Gwangju, Jeolla region (South Korea)

Honorific
Pyojuneo Jeolla

하십시오

hasibsio

하십시오

hasibsio

허씨요

heossiyo

(기본)

(General)

허씨요 (기본)

heossiyo (General)

하오

hao

하오

hao

허소

heoso

허소

heoso

해요

haeyo

해요

haeyo

허라(우)

heola(u)

(서중부 지역)

(West Central Region)

허라(우)

heola(u)

Ordinary way of speaking
Pyojuneo Jeolla

의사

uisa

의사

uisa

으사

eusa

으사

eusa

Pyojuneo Jeolla

그렇지

geuleohji

그렇지

geuleohji

그라제

geulaje

/

/

글제

geulje

그라제 / 글제

geulaje / geulje

Pyojuneo Jeolla

진짜

jinjja

예쁘다

yeppeuda

진짜 예쁘다

jinjja yeppeuda

참말로

chammallo

이쁘다잉~

ippeudaing~

/

/

참말로

chammallo

귄있다잉~

gwin-ittdaing~

참말로 이쁘다잉~ / 참말로 귄있다잉~

chammallo ippeudaing~ / chammallo gwin-ittdaing~

Famously, natives of Southern Jeolla pronounce certain combinations of vowels in Korean more softly, or omit the latter vowel entirely.

Pyojuneo Jeolla

육학년

yoog-kak-nyeon

육학년

yoog-kak-nyeon

유각년

yoog-ag-nyeon

유각년

yoog-ag-nyeon

못해

mot-tae

못해

mot-tae

모대

mo-dae

모대

mo-dae

However, in the case of '모대(modae)', it is also observed in South Chungcheong Province and some areas of southern Gyeonggi Province close to South Chungcheong Province.

The rest is almost similar to the Chungcheong dialect.

Gyeongsang

Busan, Daegu, Ulsan, Gyeongsang region (South Korea)

Honorific
Pyojuneo Gyeongsang

하십시오

hasibsio

하십시오

hasibsio

하이소

haiso

하이소

haiso

하오

hao

하오

hao

하소

haso

하소

haso

해요

haeyo

해요

haeyo

해예

haeye

/

/

해요

haeyo

해예 / 해요

haeye / haeyo

Ordinary way of speaking
Pyojuneo Gyeongsang

neo

bab

먹었어?

meog-eott-eo?

너 밥 먹었어?

neo bab meog-eott-eo?

ni

bab

뭇나?

mutna?

니 밥 뭇나?

ni bab mutna?

mwo

먹었어?

meog-eoss-eo?

뭐 먹었어?

mwo meog-eoss-eo?

mwo

먹었노?

meog-eossno?

뭐 먹었노?

mwo meog-eossno?

Pyojuneo Gyeongsang

네가

nega

그렇게

geuleohge

말했잖아.

malhaettjanh-a.

네가 그렇게 말했잖아.

nega geuleohge malhaettjanh-a.

니가

niga

그렇게

geuleohge

말했다

malhaettda

아이가.

aiga.

니가 그렇게 말했다 아이가.

niga geuleohge malhaettda aiga.

Pyojuneo Gyeongsang

wae

그렇게

geuleohge

하는

haneun

거야?

geoya?

왜 그렇게 하는 거야?

wae geuleohge haneun geoya?

wa

geu

카는데?

kaneunde?

와 그 카는데?

wa geu kaneunde?

The rest is almost similar to the Jeolla dialect.

Jeju

Jeju Island/Province (South Korea); sometimes classified as a separate language in the Koreanic language family

example: Hangul[27][page needed]

Honorific
Pyojuneo Jeju

하십시오

hasibsio

하십시오

hasibsio

ᄒᆞᆸ서

hobseo

ᄒᆞᆸ서

hobseo

하오

hao

하오

hao

ᄒᆞᆸ소

hobso

ᄒᆞᆸ소

hobso

해요

haeyo

해요

haeyo

ᄒᆞ여마씀

hobyeomasseum

/

/

yang

/

/

ye

ᄒᆞ여마씀 / 양 / 예

hobyeomasseum / yang / ye

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The adopting proclamation stated that the Phyŏng'an (Pyeong'an) dialect spoken in the capital of the DPRK and its surroundings should be the basis for Munhwaŏ (standard North Korean language). Though this view is supported by some linguists, others posit that Munhwaŏ remains "firmly rooted" in the dialect of Seoul, the ROK's capital, which had been the national standard for the peninsula for centuries.


References

  1. ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
  2. ^ Ogura 1944, Map 10.
  3. ^ National Geography Information Institute 2017, p. 37.
  4. ^ Lee & Ramsey 2000, p. 316, Map 3.
  5. ^ Lee & Ramsey 2000, pp. 311–313.
  6. ^ Yeon 2012, p. 168.
  7. ^ 대전 사람들은 사투리를 안 쓴다? [People in Daejeon don't speak in dialect?] (in Korean). 중도일보. 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-12-22.
  8. ^ Lee & Ramsey 2000, pp. 313–314.
  9. ^ a b Lee & Ramsey 2000.
  10. ^ Janhunen 1996.
  11. ^ Lee & Ramsey 2000, p. 313.
  12. ^ 朝鲜语六镇话的方言特点[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ Lee 2015, pp. 8–9.
  14. ^ a b Yeon 2012.
  15. ^ Lee & Ramsey 2000, pp. 309–310.
  16. ^ Seo, Dong-shin (December 18, 2005). "North Chides South for Dirtying Korean Tongue". The Korea Times. Seoul, South Korea. Archived from the original on January 1, 2006. Retrieved October 23, 2019.
  17. ^ 정아란 (12 May 2020). "북한, 사투리·외래어·한자어 배격…"고유한 평양말 쓰자"" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  18. ^ 이기갑. "표준어와 방언의 오늘과 내일" (PDF). 새국어생활 (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Archived from the original on 6 November 2023. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  19. ^ 주승현 (29 August 2021). [공감세상] 삼척을 고향으로 대는 이유. The Hankyoreh. Archived from the original on 27 April 2023. Retrieved 27 April 2023.
  20. ^ "내래 밥 먹었지비? 평안·함경도 말 뒤섞인 엉터리". Archived from the original on 28 April 2023. Retrieved 28 April 2023.
  21. ^ 김영배. 서북 방언 (PDF). p. 58. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 September 2022. Retrieved 28 April 2023.
  22. ^ "김병제". Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Archived from the original on 21 May 2023. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  23. ^ "황해도 방언". Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Archived from the original on 21 May 2023. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  24. ^ "'서울 사투리?' 방송 인터뷰 모음.zip" ['Seoul dialect?' Collection of interviews.zip]. YouTube (in Korean). 29 March 2021. Archived from the original on 2021-12-11.
  25. ^ "90년대 말투는 서울 사투리가 아니다?...서울 사투리 특징 3가지" [The way people talk in the 90s is not a Seoul dialect?...Three characteristics of Seoul dialect]. YouTube (in Korean). 24 July 2018. Archived from the original on 2021-12-11.
  26. ^ "수원 사투리 쓰는 이창섭" [Lee Chang-seop speaks Suwon dialect.]. YouTube (in Korean). 4 July 2018. Archived from the original on 2021-12-11.
  27. ^ Cho & Whitman (2020).

Bibliography

Further reading