This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Korolyov, Moscow Oblast" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}@media all and (max-width:500px){.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{width:auto!important;clear:none!important;float:none!important))You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in Russian. (March 2024) Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Russian Wikipedia article at [[:ru:Королёв (город)]]; see its history for attribution. You may also add the template ((Translated|ru|Королёв (город))) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Korolyov
Королёв
Monument R-2 (It was established in 1997) at the entrance to the city from the M8 Highway
Monument R-2 (It was established in 1997) at the entrance to the city from the M8 Highway
Flag of Korolyov
Coat of arms of Korolyov
Location of Korolyov
Map
Korolyov is located in Russia
Korolyov
Korolyov
Location of Korolyov
Korolyov is located in Moscow Oblast
Korolyov
Korolyov
Korolyov (Moscow Oblast)
Coordinates: 55°55′N 37°49′E / 55.917°N 37.817°E / 55.917; 37.817
CountryRussia
Federal subjectMoscow Oblast[1]
Founded26 December 1938Edit this on Wikidata
City status since1938[2]
Government
 • Head[3]Trifonov, Igor Vladimirovich[3]
Elevation
160 m (520 ft)
Population
 • Total183,402
 • Rank98th in 2010
 • Subordinated toKorolyov City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
 • Capital ofKorolyov City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
 • Urban okrugKorolev Urban Okrug[5]
 • Capital ofKorolev Urban Okrug[5]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[6])
Postal code(s)[7]
141060, 141062, 141065, 141067–141071, 141073–141080, 141089, 994009
OKTMO ID46734000001
Websitekorolev.ru

Korolyov or Korolev (Russian: Королёв, IPA: [kərɐˈlʲɵf]) is an industrial city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, well known as the cradle of Soviet and Russian space exploration. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 183,402, the largest as a science city.[4] As of 2018, the population was more than 222,000 people.

It was known as Kaliningrad (Калинингра́д) from 1938 to 1996 and served as the leading Soviet center for production of anti-tank and air-defense guns. In 1946, in the aftermath of World War II, the artillery plant was reconstructed for production of rockets, launch vehicles, and spacecraft, under the guidance of Soviet scientist and academician Sergei Korolev, who envisioned, consolidated and guided the activities of many people in the Soviet space-exploration program. The plant later became known as the RKK Energia; when the Vostok space vehicle was being developed, this research center was designated as NII-88 or POB 989.

Russian Mission Control Center is also located in Korolyov. Though the real control is decentralized due to security reasons and all space aircraft may be controlled from many different locations across Russia, the historic center of control is still in Korolev, and is called FCC – Flights Control Center.

In July 1996, the city was renamed in commemoration of Sergei Korolev, the father of the Soviet/Russian space program, who died in 1966. Since 1997, Korolyov has hosted the International Space Olympics, an annual competition for young people to promote space related research.

History

The Mission control center "ЦУП" ("TsUP") of the Russian Federal Space Agency
Springtime evening panorama towards the central part of the city

In the 12th century, a Slavic settlement was located on the site of modern Korolyov. The settlement stood on a junction of trade routes between the Moscow and Vladimir-Suzdal principalities. After the Mongol conquests in the 13th century, the region was in decline.

The village of Podlipki had formed on the site by the 18th century, when one of the first textile factories in Russia was established there.

From the late 19 century, Podlipki was also known as a dacha village frequented by many literali, as can be witnessed by the name of Podlipki-Dachnye railway station.[citation needed] They later moved their dachas to Peredelkino in Moscow's southeastern suburb, when Podlipki became a closed city of the Russian SFSR.

In 1924, the first OGPU working commune in the Soviet Union was established at Podlipki. In 1938, the Kalininsky settlement near an artillery plant (which had previously been relocated from Leningrad to better protect it in case of any future war) was granted town status and named Kaliningrad (meaning Kalinin City, after Bolshevik leader Mikhail Kalinin; not to be confused with the Baltic port city also renamed Kaliningrad after Mikhail Kalinin in 1946). Over the next three decades the town expanded greatly as a home of rocket manufacturing for both military missiles and the Soviet space program. As such it was a closed city to foreigners, who could not travel there.

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Korolyov City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Korolyov City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Korolyov Urban Okrug.[5]

In June 2014, Yubileyny, Moscow Oblast Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction was merged into Korolyov City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[8] and on the municipal side, Yubileyny Urban Okrug was merged into Korolyov Urban Okrug.[5] The town of Yubileyny ceased to exist as an independent entity.[8]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
193928,122—    
195941,427+47.3%
1970105,945+155.7%
1979133,470+26.0%
1989159,363+19.4%
2002142,568−10.5%
2010183,402+28.6%
2021228,095+24.4%
Source: Census data

As of 1 January 2016, Korolyov was in 93 place out of 1112 cities in Russia based on demographics.

On 2 June 2014, the city of Yubileniy officially became a part of Korolyov. With a total population of 220 thousand people,[4] Korolyov became the third largest city in Moscow Oblast based on population after Balashikha (428,400[4]) and Khimki (239 967[4]).

Politics

City administration building

During the implementation of the municipal reform, by 1 January 2006, Korolyov was granted the status of the Korolyov urban district as the only settlement within it.

Authorities

On 14 September 2014, the candidate from the United Russia party, Alexander Khodyrev, was elected head of Korolyov.[9]

Economy

The main enterprise of the city is the RKK Energia, but there are several kinds of industry in the city. This naukograd (science city) is the place in which the first Youth Residential Complex in the Soviet Union was built. Another notable company located in the city is OAO Kompozit, which is engaged in the field of materials science.

Today the city is prosperous overall. But in the Soviet-era economy, the city typified the wide contrasts and ironic juxtapositions that arose as some aspects of life were heavily funded by the government while others remained chronically underfunded. Yuri Krotkov described in his 1967 memoir[10] how, at the same time that advanced technology was being built for space rockets, the textile plants of old Podlipki went on for decades with nearly no improvement on their 1920s equipment, and starkly impoverished workers in various hard and glamourless jobs of prerevolutionary days crossed paths, sometimes resentfully, with the skilled technicians and scientists, who were substantially better paid despite the slogans of Soviet ideology around the equal dignity of manual labourers.

Sports

The bandy club Vympel[11] has played in the Russian Bandy Supreme League, which is the second-highest division.[12] Their home arena has a capacity of 10 000.[13] A plan existed to equip the stadium with artificial ice,[14] but the project has been abandoned. Although an indoor ice hockey-sized arena entered the plans instead, the official reason given was financial problems.[15] Now Vympel only plays in the amateur league of Moscow Oblast. In 2014 a bandy federation for the city was founded.[16]

Notable people

The area was a place of elite dachas at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. Many famous people, such as Konstantin Stanislavsky, Anton Chekhov, Valery Bryusov, Boris Pasternak, Anna Akhmatova, Isaac Levitan, Pavel Tretyakov, Marina Tsvetaeva and Vladimir Lenin, lived here.

Twin towns and sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Korolyov is twinned with:

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #11/2013-OZ
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Entry on Korolyov
  3. ^ a b http://www.korolev.ru. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ a b c d e Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. ^ a b c d Law #53/2014-OZ
  6. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. ^ a b Law #54/2014-OZ. Additionally, the town of Yubileyny was struck from the Inventory Data of the Administrative-Territorial and Territorial Units of Moscow Oblast in August 2014.
  9. ^ "Главой города избран А. Н. Ходырев" [A. N. Khodyrev was elected head of the city]. Official website of the Korolyov administration. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved September 16, 2014.
  10. ^ Krotkov 1967, p. 76 ff.
  11. ^ "На встречу к звёздам – Вымпел (хоккейный клуб)". vimpel-bandy.ru.
  12. ^ "КАЛЕНДАРЬ —игр Первенства России по хоккею с мячом среди команд первой лиги — на сезон 2008/09 г.г." Archived October 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian language).
  13. ^ "Информация о стадионе "Вымпел", Королёв - Реестр - Федерация хоккея с мячом России". rusbandy.ru. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  14. ^ "В Королёве обсудили перспективы развития "Вымпела" - Архив новостей - Федерация хоккея с мячом России". rusbandy.ru. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  15. ^ "Болельщики "Вымпела" просят поддержки - Архив новостей - Федерация хоккея с мячом России". rusbandy.ru. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  16. ^ "korolev-bandy.com". Archived from the original on July 22, 2015.

↑ Population of Russian Federation by municipality from 1 January 2016. Численность населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2016 года. Таблица «31. Численность населения городов и пгт по федеральным округам и субъектам Российской Федерации на 1 января 2016 года». RAR-архив (1,0 Mб) [1]

Sources

Further reading