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Kovno Ghetto
Monument of the Kaunas Ghetto
LocationKaunas, German-occupied Lithuania
DateSummer 1941 to autumn 1943
Incident typeImprisonment, mass shootings, forced labor, starvation, mass deportations to Auschwitz and conversion into a labour camp
Perpetrators Germany
OrganizationsSchutzstaffel, RSHA
Ghettos Reichskommissariat Ostland (marked with red-gold stars)
Ghettos Reichskommissariat Ostland (marked with red-gold stars)

The Kovno Ghetto was a ghetto established by Nazi Germany to hold the Lithuanian Jews of Kaunas during the Holocaust. At its peak, the Ghetto held 29,000 people, most of whom were later sent to concentration and extermination camps, or were shot at the Ninth Fort. About 500 Jews escaped from work details and directly from the Ghetto, and joined Soviet partisan forces in the distant forests of southeast Lithuania and Belarus.


The Nazis established a civilian administration under SA Brigadefuhrer Hans Cramer to replace military rule in place from the invasion of Lithuania on June 22, 1941.[1] The Lithuanian Provisional Government was officially disbanded by the Nazis after only a few weeks, but not before approval for the establishment of a ghetto under the supervision of Lithuanian military commandant of Kaunas Jurgis Bobelis, extensive laws enacted against Jews and the provision of auxiliary police to assist the Nazis in the genocide. Between July and August 15, 1941, the Germans concentrated Jews who survived the initial pogroms, some 29,000 people, in a ghetto established in Vilijampolė (Slabodka).[1] It was an area of small primitive houses and no running water which had been cleared of its mainly Jewish population in pogroms by Lithuanian activists beginning on June 24.


Civilians and German soldiers looking at the massacre of 68 Jews in the Lietukis garage of Kaunas on June 25 or 27, 1941
Civilians and German soldiers looking at the massacre of 68 Jews in the Lietukis garage of Kaunas on June 25 or 27, 1941

Initially, the ghetto had two parts, called the "small" and "large" ghetto, separated by Paneriai Street and connected by a small wooden bridge over the street.[1] Each ghetto was enclosed by barbed wire and closely guarded from August 15, 1941.[1] Both were overcrowded, with each person allocated less than ten square feet of living space. The Germans and Lithuanians destroyed the small ghetto on October 4, 1941, and killed almost all of its inhabitants at the Ninth Fort.[1] Later, the Germans continually reduced the ghetto's size, forcing Jews to relocate several times.[1] Later that same month, on October 29, 1941, the Germans staged what became known as the "Great Action".[1] They selected around 10,000 Jews, including 5,000 children, assessed as "unfit" to work at the Ninth Fort.[1] On October 29, 1941, Einsatzgruppen units shot most of these individuals at the Ninth Fort.[1] The death toll on that one day was 9,200 Jews.[1]

The ghetto in Kovno provided forced labor for the German military. Jews were employed primarily as forced laborers at various sites outside the ghetto, especially in the construction of a military airbase in Aleksotas.[1] The Jewish council (Aeltestenrat; "Council of Elders"), headed by Dr. Elkhanan Elkes, and his deputy, Leib Garfunkel, also created workshops inside the ghetto for those women, children, and elderly who could not participate in the labor brigades.[1] Eventually, these workshops employed almost 6,500 people.[1] The council hoped the Germans would not kill Jews who were producing for the army.[1]

Underground school and Kinder Aktion

As an act of defiance an underground school was conducted in the Kovno Ghetto when such education was banned in 1942. A remarkable photo of one of the classes of that school features in the US Holocaust publication, "The Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto". Identification of the teacher visible in that photo is given in a website that deals with the hidden school.[2]

On March 27–28, 1944, some 1,600 children aged 12 or less, alongside many of their parents who attempted to intervene, and elderly people aged 55 or more, approximately 2,500 in total, were rounded up and murdered in the Kinder Aktion ("children action"). 40 Jewish Ghetto policemen who refused under torture to disclose hiding locations were also murdered by Bruno Kittel. During this time, police cars roamed the Ghetto streets and music was blared over loudspeakers to mute the terrified screams of families. Reports of similar actions at other towns had reached the Ghetto prior to the round-up, and some parents managed to smuggle their children to non-Jewish foster homes outside the Ghetto. However, the vast majority of Ghetto children were murdered. Very few Jewish children survived by the time Kovno was liberated by the Russian forces on August 1, 1944.[3]

Smuggling babies out of the Ghetto

From 1942 births were not permitted in the ghetto and pregnant women faced death. However a number of babies of ages from about 9 months to 15 months were smuggled out of the Kovno Ghetto to willing Lithuanian foster mothers.[4]


The orchestra operated in the ghetto between November 1, 1942, and September 15, 1943. Its leader and musical conductor was the famous pre-war Lithuanian musician Michael Hofmekler.[5] Percy Haid, a Riga born Jew, was the house composer. The orchestra performed about 83 concerts, most of them were held in the building of the former Slobodka Yeshiva.[5][6]

Final days

In the autumn of 1943, the SS assumed control of the ghetto and converted it into the Kauen concentration camp.[1] Wilhelm Göcke served as the camp's commandant. The Jewish council's role was drastically curtailed.[1] The Nazis dispersed more than 3,500 Jews to subcamps where strict discipline governed all aspects of daily life.[1] On October 26, 1943, the SS deported more than 2,700 people from the main camp.[1] The SS sent those deemed fit to work to Vaivara concentration camp in Estonia, and deported children and elderly people to Auschwitz.[1]

On July 8, 1944, the Germans evacuated the camp, deporting most of the remaining Jews to the Dachau concentration camp in Germany or to the Stutthof camp, near Danzig, on the Baltic coast. Three weeks before the Soviet army arrived in Kovno, the Germans razed the ghetto to the ground with grenades and dynamite. As many as 2,000 people burned to death or were shot while trying to escape the burning ghetto. The Red Army occupied Kovno on August 1, 1944. Of Kovno's few Jewish survivors, 500 had survived in forests or in a single bunker which had escaped detection during the final liquidation; the Germans evacuated an additional 2,500 to concentration camps in Germany.[1]


Throughout the years of hardship and horror, the Jewish community in Kovno documented its story in secret archives, diaries, drawings and photographs. Many of these artifacts lay buried in the ground when the ghetto was destroyed. Discovered after the war, these few written remnants of a once thriving community provide evidence of the Jewish community's defiance, oppression, resistance, and death. George Kadish (Hirsh Kadushin), for example, secretly photographed the trials of daily life within the ghetto with a hidden camera through the buttonhole of his overcoat.

The Kovno ghetto had several Jewish resistance groups. The resistance acquired arms, developed secret training areas in the ghetto, and established contact with Soviet partisans in the forests around Kovno.

In 1943, the General Jewish Fighting Organization (Yidishe Algemeyne Kamfs Organizatsye) was established, uniting the major resistance groups in the ghetto. Under this organization's direction, some 300 ghetto fighters escaped from the Kovno ghetto to join Jewish partisan groups. About 70 died in action.

The Jewish council in Kovno actively supported the ghetto underground. Moreover, a number of the ghetto's Jewish police participated in resistance activities. The Germans executed 34 members of the Jewish police for refusing to reveal specially constructed hiding places used by Jews in the ghetto.

Notable prisoners

Aharon Barak, survivor of the Kovno Ghetto and later President of the Supreme Court of Israel (1995–2006)
Aharon Barak, survivor of the Kovno Ghetto and later President of the Supreme Court of Israel (1995–2006)

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC (2021-08-13). "Kovno". Retrieved 2021-09-14.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ "The Underground School in the Kovno Ghetto". 1944-03-27. Retrieved 2013-01-21.
  3. ^ Schalkowsky, Samuel (2014-04-14). The Clandestine History of the Kovno Jewish Ghetto Police: By Anonymous Members of the Kovno Jewish Ghetto Police. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-01297-5.
  4. ^ "The Underground School in the Kovno Ghetto". 1944-03-27. Retrieved 2013-01-21.
  5. ^ a b "Kovno". Retrieved 2021-09-14.
  6. ^ "Kovno Ghetto and Lithuania | Music of the Holocaust". Retrieved 2021-09-14.


Coordinates: 54°54′57″N 23°53′18″E / 54.91583°N 23.88833°E / 54.91583; 23.88833