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Kutubuan
Laku Kutubu
Geographic
distribution
Lake Kutubu region, Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationPapuan Gulf ?
  • Kikorian
    • Kutubuan
Subdivisions
GlottologNone

The Kutubuan languages are a small family of neighboring languages families in Papua New Guinea. They are named after Lake Kutubu in Papua New Guinea.

Languages

There has been some debate over whether they are closer to each other than to other languages, but Usher includes them both in the Kikorian branch of the tentative Papuan Gulf stock. Within the two branches, the lexicostatistical figures are 60–70%. Between the two branches, they are 10–20%.

Proto-language

Some lexical reconstructions by Usher (2020) are:[1]

gloss Proto-Lake Kutubu
head *uni
hair/feather(s) *iti
eye/sixteen *hʲĩ
nose *sabe
tooth *mete
tongue *atu
foot/leg *kotage
bone *kigi
skin/bark *ga[o/u]
breast *hʲokõ
dog *g[e/ẽ/a]s[a/ã]
pig/game *mena
bird *hʲaka
egg *kapa
tree *ita
moon *he̝ge̝
water *hẽ
fire *ita
stone *kana
path *ig[i]a
eat/drink *ne-
one *hʲaga

Vocabulary comparison

The following basic vocabulary words are from Franklin (1975), Franklin & Voorhoeve (1973), McElhanon and Voorhoeve (1970), and Shaw (1986), as cited in the Trans-New Guinea database:[2]

gloss Foi Fasu (Namumi dialect) Fasu
head a̧řuhai unahaie wamo
hair u̧sæ̧ unahai iti iti; uni iti
ear yo ḳʰiyʌ sinaeki; sinæki senaki
eye i̧y hi̧; hĩ hi; hi̧; hĩ
nose s̭abɛi sapasuma sape
tooth ṱi akai mere
tongue auřu airu alu; aru
leg ṱamʌ kofai; kɔfai korake
louse ṱʌbʌľi yapani
dog ḳɛsʌ kasa kasa
pig girɔ saro
bird yaʔ minai mena
egg hʌ̧ⁱ hai mena hai
blood weḷia kakusa yapi
bone kʰikʰi kiki kiki
skin ḳaḳo kau kau
breast o̧ḳo̧ hotu; hɔtu hoko
tree iʔʌ ira ira
man amɛnʌ abano; abanɔ aporo
woman ḳa̧· hinamu hinamo
sun iřiyapo iya; maiya; maya maiya; maĩya
moon hɛḳɛ hɩki heke
water ipu hi̧; hĩ hẽ; hȩ; hę
fire iřʌ irə kipu; irʌkupi dufi; ira lufi
stone kʰa̧nʌ ɩki eke
name yaᵽo iyanu yano
eat niyæi nesi anene; na
one mɛna̧ḳɛ hakasa; nakasa meno
two ha̧ḳɛ tita teta

Evolution

Proposed Kutubu reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma are:[3]

Foi language:

Fasu language:

References

  1. ^ Timothy Usher, New Guinea World, Proto–Lake Kutubu
  2. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.
  3. ^ Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. Vol. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.