StatusLegal since 2003
(Lawrence v. Texas)
Gender identityAltering sex on birth certificate and other documents allowed
Discrimination protectionsSexual orientation and gender identity protections in employment, housing and public accommodations since 2020
Family rights
Recognition of relationshipsSame-sex marriage since 2014/2015
AdoptionSame-sex couples allowed to adopt

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in Kansas may face some legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents[citation needed]. Same-sex sexual activity is legal in Kansas, and the state has prohibited discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity in employment, housing and public accommodations since 2020.

Two lawsuits, one in state court and the other in federal court, challenged the constitutionality of the state's ban on same-sex marriage, and on November 4, 2014, a U.S. District Court judge ruled Kansas' ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional. His ruling was stayed as the state sought a stay pending appeal without success, and it took effect on November 12, 2014. From November 12, 2014 to the Supreme Court's ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges on June 26, 2015, marriage licenses were generally available to same-sex couples, but the state government continued to deny recognition to same-sex marriages in all other respects.

History and legality of same-sex sexual activity

Prior to European settlement of Kansas, there were no known social or legal punishments for engaging in homosexual activity. Among several Native American tribes, customs of "two-spirit" individuals existed: people who would dress, act and live as the opposite gender, as well as perform tasks associated with the opposite gender. Such individuals are known as míⁿxoge in the Kansa language, spoken by the Kaw people. The Native Americans did not share the typical Western views of gender and sexuality.

In 1855, sodomy ("crime against nature") was made a felony with a penalty of "not less than ten years". In 1859, this was changed to "not more than 10 years". In the 1925 case of State v. Hulbert, the Kansas Supreme Court held that fellatio, whether heterosexual or homosexual, violated the state's sodomy statute. A comprehensive reform of the law in 1969 resulted in a penalty of six months in jail and/or a fine of 1,000 dollars. The revision also legalized heterosexual sodomy; Kansas was one of the first U.S. states to do so. In 1976, a proposed bill to repeal the now-only homosexual sodomy law was approved by the Kansas House of Representatives by a vote of 21 to 19. However, it failed to be considered in the Senate.[1]

In 1989, in State v. Moppin, the state Supreme Court held that cunnilingus did not violate the state sodomy statute. The Kansas Legislature acted quickly, passing a law the following year forbidding the "oral-genital stimulation between the tongue of a male and the genital area of a female." This law excluded lesbian relations but reintroduced criminal penalties for certain heterosexual conduct. In 1992, the law was amended to include lesbian relations as well.[1]

Sterilization against "habitual criminals", including those convicted under the sodomy law, has a long history in the state of Kansas. In 1913, the Kansas Legislature passed a law allowing the sterilization of state inmates. This law was unanimously upheld by the state Supreme Court in 1928. By the end of 1934, 1,362 people had been sterilized under the law; 19% via the procedures of castration or oophorectomy, which the state defended as "limit[ing] lewdness and vice". Through 1948, the number of sterilizations had reached about 3,000, the third-highest in the entire United States, a majority on the ground of "insanity and mental retardation". The law was finally repealed in 1965.[1]

The U.S. Supreme Court's 2003 decision in Lawrence v. Texas rendered laws banning consensual sexual activity unenforceable, including that of Kansas.[2] State v. Limon, the first case decided under the Lawrence precedent, invalidated a provision of the state's Romeo and Juliet law that assigned harsher sentences in statutory rape cases where the parties were of the same sex.[3]

Recognition of same-sex relationships

Marriage

Main article: Same-sex marriage in Kansas

Same-sex marriage became legal in Kansas following the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Obergefell v. Hodges on June 26, 2015, which found the denial of marriage rights to same-sex couples unconstitutional. By June 29, the next business day after the decision, 25 of the state's 32 judicial districts were issuing licenses to same-sex couples, and some of those that were not had yet to receive an application from a same-sex couple.[4] By June 30, all judicial districts were either issuing same-sex marriage licenses or had announced their intention to do so. Kansas for the previous decade had recognized neither same-sex marriages nor any other form of legal recognition of same-sex unions. The state explicitly banned same-sex marriage and all other types of same-sex unions both by statute and by constitutional amendment.

The state's definitions and restrictions had been challenged in several lawsuits. On October 7, 2014, officials in Johnson County began accepting licenses for marriage applications, due to the Supreme Court's recent refusal to hear a Utah case now binding on Kansas. The state Attorney General filed a lawsuit in order to stop those actions. One couple obtained a marriage license and married on October 10, on the steps of the Johnson County courthouse. On October 10, 2014, the Kansas Supreme Court ordered officials in Johnson County to stop issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples, though it allowed for court clerks to accept applications for marriage licenses from same-sex couples. It scheduled a hearing for November 6.[5]

On November 18, 2014, the Kansas Supreme Court ruled that Johnson County had been within its jurisdiction to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples based on its interpretation of the law. It lifted the stay on Johnson County from issuing the licenses, but did not direct other counties to issue them.[6]

Judge Daniel D. Crabtree heard oral arguments on October 31, 2014 in another lawsuit in U.S. district court, Marie v. Moser.[7] He found the state's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional on November 4, but stayed enforcement of his ruling for a week.[8] The state sought a stay pending appeal without success from the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals, and Crabtree's order preventing the state from enforcing its ban on same-sex marriage took effect on November 12 when the U.S. Supreme Court declined his request for a stay pending appeal.[9]

Domestic partnership

The cities of Lawrence and Topeka have established domestic partnership registries.[10][11]

Adoption and parenting

In November 2012, the Kansas Court of Appeals ruled in the case of In the Matter of the Adoption of I. M. that a single person who is not a biological parent of a child cannot petition to adopt that child without terminating the other parent's parental rights.[12] However, the Kansas Supreme Court ruled on February 22, 2013, in Frazier v. Goudschaal, that the partner of a biological parent may receive parental rights according to the best interest of the children in some circumstances, such as where there is no second parent and thus no termination of parental rights is involved, and the partner has assumed a parenting role of the children.[13]

Since the legalization of same-sex marriage, married same-sex couples have been allowed to adopt. Lesbian couples can access in vitro fertilization, and state law recognizes the non-genetic, non-gestational mother as a legal parent to a child born via donor insemination, but only if the parents are married.[14] In addition, Kansas permits and recognizes both gestational and traditional surrogacy contracts, though the latter may result in more legal complications than the former. The state treats same-sex and different-sex couples equally under the same terms and conditions.[15]

Kansas law allows adoption agencies to choose not to place children in certain homes if it would violate the agency's religious or moral convictions.[16]

Discrimination protections

Further information: LGBT employment discrimination in the United States

Map of Kansas counties and cities that had sexual orientation and/or gender identity anti–employment discrimination ordinances prior to Bostock .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Sexual orientation and gender identity with anti–employment discrimination ordinance   Sexual orientation and gender identity solely in public employment   Sexual orientation in public employment   No anti-discrimination ordinance¹ ¹Since 2020 as a result of Bostock, discrimination on account of sexual orientation or gender identity in public and private employment is outlawed throughout the state. Discrimination against state employees based on their sexual orientation or gender identity has been illegal since 2019, and previously between 2007 and 2015.
Map of Kansas counties and cities that had sexual orientation and/or gender identity anti–employment discrimination ordinances prior to Bostock
  Sexual orientation and gender identity with anti–employment discrimination ordinance
  Sexual orientation and gender identity solely in public employment
  Sexual orientation in public employment
  No anti-discrimination ordinance¹
¹Since 2020 as a result of Bostock, discrimination on account of sexual orientation or gender identity in public and private employment is outlawed throughout the state. Discrimination against state employees based on their sexual orientation or gender identity has been illegal since 2019, and previously between 2007 and 2015.

Between 2007 and 2015, Kansas prohibited discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity in government employment due to an executive order issued by Governor Kathleen Sebelius in August 2007.[17] Governor Sam Brownback rescinded that order on February 10, 2015.[18] In January 2019, Governor Laura Kelly, shortly after taking office, signed an executive order to protect state government employees and contractors from discrimination based on their sexual orientation or gender identity.[19][20]

The cities of Fairway, Kansas City, Lawrence,[21] Leawood, Lenexa, Manhattan, Merriam,[22] Mission,[23] Mission Hills, Mission Woods, Olathe,[24] Overland Park, Prairie Village,[25] Roeland Park,[26] Shawnee, Westwood and Westwood Hills, as well as Wyandotte County, prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity in public and private employment, housing and public accommodations.[27][28]

Other cities, including the capital city of Topeka, Emporia and Hutchinson, prohibit discrimination against city employees on account of their sexual orientation and gender identity. Likewise, the county of Shawnee,[29] and the city of Wichita prohibit discrimination against city/county employees but on the basis of sexual orientation only.[30]

On November 6, 2012, the voters of the cities of Salina and Hutchinson both voted to repeal city anti-discrimination ordinances on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity.[31]

In January 2014, Kansas House Bill 2453 was introduced which would have allowed people motivated by religious opposition to same-sex relationships to refuse to provide services to same-sex couples.[32] On February 12, the Kansas House of Representatives passed the legislation by a 72–49 vote.[33] The Kansas Senate did not take up the legislation.[34] It was part of a broader movement to anticipate resistance to the recognition of same-sex marriages.[35]

Since 2016, Kansas law has prohibited public universities from "[denying] a religious student association any benefit available to any other student association based on those organizations' sincerely held religious beliefs".

Bostock v. Clayton County

Main article: Bostock v. Clayton County

On June 15, 2020, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Bostock v. Clayton County, consolidated with Altitude Express, Inc. v. Zarda, and R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes Inc. v. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that discrimination in the workplace on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity is discrimination on the basis of sex, and Title VII therefore protects LGBT employees from discrimination.[36][37][38]

In August 2020, the Kansas Human Rights Commission announced in light of Bostock that it will also investigate and resolve cases alleging discrimination in housing and public accommodations, such as retail stores and educational institutions. Any business with four or more employees will be covered; whereas the Supreme Court ruling only affects businesses with at least 15 employees.[39]

Hate crime law

At present, Kansas' hate crime law provides penalty enhancements for the commission of a crime motivated by the victim's sexual orientation. It does not cover gender identity. However, federal law has covered both categories since the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act was signed into law by President Barack Obama in October 2009.

Conversion therapy

See also: List of U.S. jurisdictions banning conversion therapy

In June 2020, Roeland Park became the first city in the state to ban conversion therapy on minors.[40] Lawrence followed suit in April 2021.[41]

Transgender rights

Further information: Transgender rights in the United States

Kansas allows transgender people to change the gender marker on their birth certificate, driver's license and other personal documents. Previously, it was one of the only three states in the U.S. not to do so. (Ohio and Tennessee being the other two).[42]

In October 2018, Lambda Legal filed a suit in court arguing that the policy of denying transgender people an updated birth certificate reflecting their gender identity is unconstitutional.[43] The move followed judicial decisions striking down similar bans in Idaho and Puerto Rico earlier that year.

In June 2019, Kansas became the 48th U.S. state to allow transgender individuals to change their gender on official documents. The Office of Vital Statistics will issue an updated birth certificate upon receipt of an affidavit signed by the applicant requesting a change in sex designation, a completed "Application to Amend a Kansas Birth Certificate" form, and one of the following: an already updated driver's license, an already updated passport, or certification from a healthcare professional or mental health professional confirming "based on his or her professional opinion the true gender identity of the applicant and that it is expected that this will continue to be the gender with which the applicant will identify in the future". The Department of Revenue will issue an updated driver's license or state ID after the submission of either a court order, an already updated birth certificate, or medical attestation including a letter signed by the applicant requesting the change and a letter from a licensed physician stating that the "applicant has undergone appropriate clinical treatment or that the physician has re-evaluated the applicant and determined that gender reclassification based on physical criteria is appropriate".[44][45]

The Kansas State High School Activities Association states that schools may decide on a case-by-case basis the appropriate athletic gender team for a transgender student.[46]

In April 2021, the Kansas Legislature passed legislation banning transgender athletes from participating in women's sport teams. Governor Laura Kelly vetoed the bill.[47][48]

Public opinion

A 2017 Public Religion Research Institute (PRRI) opinion poll found that 57% of Kansas residents supported same-sex marriage, while 37% opposed it and 6% were unsure. Additionally, 67% supported an anti-discrimination law covering sexual orientation and gender identity. 26% were opposed.[49]

Public opinion for LGBT anti-discrimination laws in Kansas
Poll source Date(s)
administered
Sample
size
Margin of
error
% support % opposition % no opinion
Public Religion Research Institute January 2-December 30, 2019 492 ? 72% 24% 4%
Public Religion Research Institute January 3-December 30, 2018 547 ? 70% 26% 4%
Public Religion Research Institute April 5-December 23, 2017 686 ? 67% 26% 7%
Public Religion Research Institute April 29, 2015-January 7, 2016 876 ? 68% 26% 6%

Summary

Same-sex sexual activity legal
(Since 2003)
Equal age of consent (16)
(Since 2005)
Anti-discrimination laws in employment
(Since 2020)
Anti-discrimination laws in housing
(Since 2020; per decision of the Kansas Human Rights Commission)
Anti-discrimination laws in public accommodations
(Since 2020; per decision of the Kansas Human Rights Commission)
Same-sex marriages
(Since 2015)
Joint and stepchild adoption by same-sex couples
Lesbian, gay and bisexual people allowed to serve openly in the military
(Since 2011)
Transgender people allowed to serve openly in the military
(Since 2021)[50]
Intersex people allowed to serve openly in the military
(Current DoD policy bans "hermaphrodites" from serving or enlisting in the military)[51]
Third gender option
Conversion therapy banned on minors
/
(In some cities and counties)
Gay panic defense abolished
Right to change legal gender on official state identity documents
MSMs allowed to donate blood
/
(Since 2020; 3-month deferral period)[52]

References

  1. ^ a b c "The History of Sodomy Laws in the United States - Kansas". www.glapn.org.
  2. ^ New York Times: "Supreme Court Strikes Down Texas Law Banning Sodomy," June 26, 2003, access April 16, 2011
  3. ^ State v. Limon, 280 Kan. 275, 122 P.3d 22, October 21, 2005.
  4. ^ Morrison, Oliver (June 29, 2015). "Some Kansas judges will not say whether they will issue same-sex marriage licenses". Wichita Eagle. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  5. ^ Johnson, Chris (October 10, 2014). "Kansas AG seeks to halt same-sex marriages in his state". Washington Blade. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
  6. ^ "Same-sex marriage now allowed in most populous Kansas county". November 19, 2014 – via www.reuters.com.
  7. ^ Hanna, John (October 31, 2014). "Kansas Urges Judge Not to Rule on Gay Marriage". ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  8. ^ Johnson, Chris (November 4, 2014). "Judge rules against Kansas same-sex marriage ban". Washington Blade. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  9. ^ Snow, Justin (November 12, 2014). "Supreme Court allows Kansas same-sex marriages to proceed". Metro Weekly. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
  10. ^ Kellaway, Mitch (2014-05-28). "Topeka, Kan., Now Protects Gender Identity, Domestic Partnerships". Advocate.com. Retrieved 2014-06-29.
  11. ^ Lawhorn, Chad (August 1, 2007). "Domestic partnership registry opens today". Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
  12. ^ In re I. M. (Kan. Ct. App. 2012).Text
  13. ^ "MARCI FRAZIER v. KELLY GOUDSCHAAL" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  14. ^ "Kansas's equality profile". Movement Advancement Project.
  15. ^ "What You Need to Know About Surrogacy in Kansas". AmericanSurrogacy.
  16. ^ "Kansas Governor Signs Anti-LGBT Adoption Bill Into Law". www.advocate.com. May 18, 2018.
  17. ^ "Sebelius order protects gay, lesbian state workers". Kansas City Business Journal. August 31, 2007. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
  18. ^ "Brownback rescinds executive order that offered protections on basis of sexual orientation". The Topeka Capital-Journal. February 10, 2015. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
  19. ^ Hanna, John (January 15, 2019). "Kansas governor expands ban on anti-LGBT bias to contractors". Miami Herald.
  20. ^ Shorman, Jonathan (January 15, 2018). "Kelly reinstates protections for LGBT state workers in Kansas eliminated by Brownback". The Wichita Eagle.
  21. ^ "Cities and Counties with Non-Discrimination Ordinances that Include Gender Identity". Human Rights Campaign. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
  22. ^ "Non-Discrimination Ordinance | Merriam, Kansas - Official Website". www.merriam.org.
  23. ^ Palmer, Kyle. "Prairie Village and Mission Just Approved LGBTQ Protections. What Cities Are Next?". www.kcur.org.
  24. ^ "Olathe City Council passes non-discrimination ordinance". KSHB. December 4, 2019.
  25. ^ Johnson, Michelle Tyrene. "Prairie Village Approves Ordinance Barring LGBTQ Discrimination". www.kcur.org.
  26. ^ "Roeland Park reverses earlier vote, passes anti-discrimination ordinance; mayor breaks tie". Archived from the original on 2014-11-28. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
  27. ^ "Kansas City, Kan., Bans Anti-LGBT Discrimination". www.advocate.com. June 2, 2018.
  28. ^ "Kansas' Equality Profile". Movement Advancement Project.
  29. ^ "SHAWNEE COUNTY HUMAN RESOURCES POLICY MANUAL December 2008" (PDF).
  30. ^ Campaign, Human Rights. "MEI 2018: See Your City's Score". Human Rights Campaign.
  31. ^ "Salina & Hutchinson repeal anti-discrimination protections". Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  32. ^ Lowry, Brian (February 14, 2014). "Kan. Senate president: Bill that allows service refusal to same-sex couples on religious grounds unlikely to pass". The Wichita Eagle. Archived from the original on February 15, 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
  33. ^ "Kansas House passes bill allowing refusal of service to same-sex couples". Cnn.com. 2014-02-13. Retrieved 2014-06-29.
  34. ^ Hanna, John (February 18, 2014). "Kansas Senate won't consider gay couples discrimination bill". Topeka Capital-Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
  35. ^ Merevick, Tony (February 19, 2014). "In One Day, Bills Allowing Anti-LGBT Discrimination Fail In Four States". BuzzFeed. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
  36. ^ Biskupic, Joan (June 16, 2020). "Two conservative justices joined decision expanding LGBTQ rights". CNN.
  37. ^ "US Supreme Court backs protection for LGBT workers". BBC News. June 15, 2020.
  38. ^ Liptak, Adam (June 15, 2020). "Civil Rights Law Protects Gay and Transgender Workers, Supreme Court Rules". The New York Times.
  39. ^ "Kansas commission adds LGBT nondiscrimination protections". Hays Post. August 23, 2020.
  40. ^ "Roeland Park becomes first city in Kansas with conversion therapy ban". Shawnee Mission Post. June 2, 2020.
  41. ^ "Lawrence commission approves ban on conversion therapy". The Herald Sun. Lawrence. April 21, 2021.
  42. ^ Kansas, National Center for Transgender Equality
  43. ^ "LGBT Group Files 'Civil Rights' Lawsuit Against Kansas for Requiring Birth Certificates That Detail Biological Sex". Faithwire. October 18, 2018.
  44. ^ "Kansas to allow trans residents to change birth certificates". NBC News. June 25, 2019.
  45. ^ "Kansas to allow transgender people to change their gender on birth certificates". The Wichita Eagle. June 24, 2019.
  46. ^ "Policies by state". Transathlete.com.
  47. ^ ((cite web|url=https://au.news.yahoo.com/kansas-governor-laura-kelly-vetoes-bill-banned-transgender-athletes-from-competing-womens-girls-sports-204431760.html%7Ctitle=Kansas Gov. Laura Kelly vetoes bill that would have banned transgender athletes from competing|work=Yahoo! News|date=April 22, 2021|last=Young|first=Ryan
  48. ^ "Kansas lawmakers pass ban on trans athletes in girls school sports, but bill isn't veto-proof". FOX4. Topeka. April 9, 2021.
  49. ^ "PRRI – American Values Atlas". ava.prri.org.
  50. ^ Baldor, Lolita; Miller, Zeke (January 25, 2021). "Biden reverses Trump ban on transgender people in military". Associated Press.
  51. ^ "Medical Conditions That Can Keep You From Joining the Military". Military.com.
  52. ^ McNamara, Audrey (April 2, 2020). "FDA eases blood donation requirements for gay men amid "urgent" shortage". CBS News.