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Lancashire dialect
Native toEngland
RegionLancashire
EthnicityEnglish
Early forms
Old English
  • Middle English (West Midlands and Northern dialects dependant on area)
DialectsDifferent varieties within the dialects, traditionally divided between the South Lancashire dialect (part of the Northwest Midlands group) on the one hand, and the North Lancashire dialect (of the Northern group) on the other.
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologlanc1236
IETFen-u-sd-gblan
Lancashire within England, showing ancient extent
Coordinates: 53°48′0″N 2°36′0″W / 53.80000°N 2.60000°W / 53.80000; -2.60000
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Lancashire dialect (or colloquially, Lanky) refers to the Northern English vernacular speech of the English county of Lancashire. The region is notable for its tradition of poetry written in the dialect.

Scope of Lancashire dialect

Main article: Lancashire

Lancashire emerged during the Industrial Revolution as a major commercial and industrial region. The county encompassed several hundred mill towns and collieries and by the 1830s, approximately 85% of all cotton manufactured worldwide was processed in Lancashire.[1] It was during this period that most writing in and about the dialect took place, when Lancashire covered a much larger area than it does today (at least from an administrative point of view—the historic county boundary remains unchanged). The administrative county was subject to significant boundary changes in 1974,[2] which removed Liverpool and Manchester with most of their surrounding conurbations to form part of the metropolitan counties of Merseyside and Greater Manchester.[3] At this time, the detached Furness Peninsula and Cartmel (Lancashire over the Sands) were made part of Cumbria, and the Warrington and Widnes areas became part of Cheshire.

The linguist Gerard Knowles noted that Lancashire dialect was still spoken in the city of Liverpool in 1830, before the period of mass immigration from Ireland that led the dialect of the city to change radically.[4] Modern Liverpool speech is usually treated as a separate dialect, named Scouse. In the post-war era, migration to other towns in Merseyside, and also to the new towns created at Runcorn, Skelmersdale and Warrington, has led to an expansion in the area in which Scouse is spoken, as the next generation acquired Scouse speech habits that often displaced the traditional Lancashire or Cheshire dialects of the area.[5]

The area transferred in 1974 to modern Cumbria, known as "Lancashire over the sands", is sometimes also covered as in scope of Cumbrian dialect: for example, The Cumbrian Dictionary of Dialect, Tradition and Folklore was written by the Barrovian William Robinson and included this area.[6] As there was mass migration in the 19th century to Barrow-in-Furness from Ireland, Staffordshire, the Black Country, Scotland and nearby rural areas, it has (like Liverpool) developed a dialect different from the surrounding rural area.[6]

In recent years, some have also classified the speech of Manchester as a separate Mancunian dialect, but this is a much less established distinction. Many of the dialect writers and poets in the 19th and early 20th century were from Manchester and surrounding towns.[7]

Pronunciation

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Lancashire uses rhotic pronunciation.[8]

Grammar

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History and research

Dialect division in the 19th century

Alexander John Ellis, one of the first to apply phonetics to English speech, divided the county of Lancashire into four areas. Three of these four were considered North Midland in his categorisation of dialects, whereas the fourth (mostly the section that is in modern Cumbria, known as "Lancashire over the sands") was considered Northern. Dialect isoglosses in England seldom correspond to county boundaries, and an area of Lancashire could have a dialect more similar to an area of a neighbouring county than to a distant area of Lancashire.

Ellis expressly excluded the Scouse dialect of Liverpool from the areas below, although his Area 22 included some sites in modern Merseyside (e.g. Newton-le-Willows, Prescot).[9]

Ellis often spoke of "the Lancashire U" in his work.[10] This was similar to the ʊ in other Northern and North Midland dialects but was actually a more centralised ʊ̈. In addition, the dialects he studied were all rhotic at the time of writing.

Dialect area number Dialect area name Distinctive characteristics Sites in Lancashire Areas of other counties in same dialect area
21 Southern North Midland[11] ɐʏ in MOUTH words. ɪŋk for the present participle. Bury, Failsworth, Manchester, Moston, Oldham, Patricroft, Royton, Rochdale, Stalybridge Parts of north-east Cheshire and north-west Derbyshire
22 Western North Midland[12] in FACE words. ʊə in GOAT words, although ɔɪ occurs in words such as "coal" and "hole". ɛɪ in some FLEECE words (e.g. "speak"). Blackburn, Bolton, Burnley, Clitheroe, Colne Valley, Earlestown, Farington, Halliwell, Haslingden, Higham, Hoddlesden, Leigh, Leyland, Mellor, Newton-le-Willows, Ormskirk, Penwortham, Prescot, Sabden, Samlesbury, Skelmersdale, Walton-le-Dale, Warrington, Westhoughton, Whalley, Wigan, Worsthorne None. Ellis said that he considered including the Yorkshire sites of Halifax, Huddersfield, Marsden and Saddleworth in this area, but decided to include them in area 24 instead.
23 Northern North Midland[13] in MOUTH words. ɑɪ in PRICE words. Abbeystead, Blackpool, Garstang, Goosnargh, Kirkham, Poulton-le-Fylde, Preston, Wyresdale Isle of Man
31 West Northern[14] ia in FACE words. eɪ in FLEECE words. aɪ in PRICE words. iʊ in GOOSE words. ʊu in MOUTH words. Broughton-in-Furness, Cark-in-Cartmel, Caton, Cockerham, Coniston, Dalton, Heysham, High Nibthwaite, Hornby, Lancaster, Lower Holker, Morecambe, Newton-in-Furness, Quernmore, Skerton, Ulverston All of Westmorland, south and central Cumberland, south Durham and northwest Yorkshire

[notes 1]

Dialect glossaries

A number of dialect glossaries were published in the 18th and 19th Centuries, often by philologists who were interested in the old words retained in certain dialects.

Of these, only the works on Oldham and Adlington contain any phonetic notation, and this was in a slightly different code to the modern IPA.

Dialect Reference Short vowels Long vowels Diphthongs Triphthongs
Adlington Hargreaves, 1904[15] a ɑ e ɪ ɔ ʊ o ə aː ɑ: eː ɛː iː ɔ: uː oː əː aɪː aːe eiː iːə ʊə ɔɪː ɔʊː uɪ ʊiː aɪə
Oldham Schilling, 1906[16] a e ɪ ɔ ʊ o ə aː eː iː ɔ: uː oː ɜː aɪ eɪ ɪə aʊ ʊə ɛʊ ɛə ɔɪ ɔə uɪ ɪɛ

Survey of English Dialects and related research

Led by Harold Orton at the University of Leeds, the Survey of English Dialects surveyed 313 sites across England, the Isle of Man and some bordering areas of Wales in the 1950s and early 1960s. The Survey recorded the dialect used in fourteen sites in Lancashire. These sites were mostly rural. A second phase, researching more urban areas, had been planned from the outset but financial problems meant that this second phase never occurred and the Survey's coverage was mostly confined to rural parts of England.[17]

The fieldworkers for the sites were Stanley Ellis and Peter Wright.[18] The latter was a native of Fleetwood and wrote his PhD on the dialect, using his father as the principal informant.[19] In 1981, Wright published a book The Lanky Twang: How it is spoke that explained the dialects of Lancashire through a series of illustrations, often humorous.[20]

The table below shows the sites as reported in Book 1 of the Survey's outputs for the northern counties.[21]

Code Site Date survey administered Number of informants Fieldworker Tape recording made
La13 Bickerstaffe, west Lancashire 28 June – 1 July 1955 2 Stanley Ellis No
La2 Cartmel, modern south Cumbria 28 May – 6 June 1954 3 Stanley Ellis Yes, not survey respondent
La1 Coniston, modern south Cumbria 20–25 April 1955 2 Stanley Ellis Yes, survey respondent
La4 Dolphinholme, near Lancaster 21–25 May 1954 3 Stanley Ellis Yes, survey respondent
La11 Eccleston, near Chorley 23–26 March 1954 3 Stanley Ellis Yes, survey respondent
La5 Fleetwood 1954 intermittently 4 Peter Wright Yes, survey respondent
La14 Halewood, near Liverpool 29 March – 3 April 1954 3 Stanley Ellis No
La12 Harwood, near Bolton 16–23 February 1954 2 Stanley Ellis Yes, survey respondent
La10 Marshside, Southport 8–13 April 1954 4 Stanley Ellis Yes, survey respondent
La6 Pilling, Fylde coast 24–29 January 1952 3 Peter Wright No
La9 Read, near Burnley 3–7 March 1954 2 Stanley Ellis Yes, survey respondent
La8 Ribchester, between Blackburn and Preston 11–17 March 1954 4 Stanley Ellis Yes, survey respondent
La7 Thistleton, on the Fylde near Blackpool 19–23 January 1952 4 Peter Wright No
La3 Yealand, near Lancaster 20–25 April 1955 2 Stanley Ellis No

There were several other monographs written by dialectologists by Harold Orton's department at the University of Leeds, including some urban areas such as Bury, Middleton, St. Helens and Southport. These are now contained in the Archive of Vernacular Culture at the Brotherton Library in Leeds.[22]

Modern research

Bolton area

Graham Shorrocks, a linguist from Farnworth, conducted a series of research projects on the dialect of the Bolton area. These were consolidated into two linked books named A Grammar of the Dialect of the Bolton Area, published in 1998 and 1999.

In addition, the Harwood area of Bolton, which had been a site in the Survey of English Dialects, was made into a site for the Europe-wide linguistic project Atlas Linguarum Europae.[23]

John C. Wells, who grew up in Up Holland,[24][25] made some passing comments on Lancastrian speech (mostly on the southern parts of the county) in his 1982 series of books, Accents of English.

The Dialects of England regions

The linguist Peter Trudgill specified a "Central Lancashire" dialect region, defined particularly by its rhoticity, around Blackburn, Preston and the northern parts of Greater Manchester. He classified the county of Merseyside, excluding the St Helens borough and Southport as another dialect region, grouped most of Greater Manchester in the "Northwest Midlands" region, and grouped the non-rhotic northern parts of Lancashire in with Cumbria and most of Yorkshire in the "Central North" region.[35]

BBC Voices Survey

In 2005 and 2006,[36] the BBC, working with the University of Leeds, undertook a survey of the speech of the country.[37] The recordings are now available on the British Library's website.[38] An accompanying book, Talking for Britain: a journey through the voices of a nation, was published in 2005; the author noted that the speech of Lancashire in 2005 differed markedly from "the impenetrable tracts of rural Lancastrian that the Survey of English Dialects found in the 1950s".[39]

Other research

Academic analysis of the corpus of Lancashire dialect writing and poetry has continued into the 21st century. Areas of research include identifying the syntax of the dialect,[40][41][42] methods of oral performance,[43][44] the lexicography of dialect words,[45] and the relationship between dialect and social class in the United Kingdom.[46][47]

Culture

Poetry and other literature

Graham Shorrocks wrote that Lancashire has been the county with the strongest tradition of dialect poetry since the mid-19th century.[48] Many of these gave commentaries on the poverty of the working class at the time and occasional political sentiments: for example, the ballad Joan of Grinfilt portrayed an unemployed handloom worker who would rather die as a soldier in a foreign war than starve at home.[49] Vicinus argued that, after 1870, dialect writing declined in quality owing to "clichés and sentimentality".[50] Writing in 1999, Shorrocks argues that "Many dialect writers nowadays cannot speak dialect, or cannot speak it in any convincing fashion, and much of what is written seems exhausted, poor, and, crucially, detached from living speech.[51] Lancashire dialect writing, at least in the nineteenth and the early twentieth century, often drew on Lancashire folklore.

The Lancashire Authors Association was founded in 1909 and still exists for writers in the dialect, producing an annual paper called The Record.[51]

Some dialect poets include:

Dialect poets have occasionally appeared on the BBC since its establishment. Sam Smith featured on the radio in the 1920s.[56] In the 2010s, BBC radio programmes analysed the Manchester Ballads (which featured dialect)[57] and reported on contemporary poets that kept the tradition of dialect poetry alive.[58][59]

In April 2011, Pendle Borough Council printed phrases from local dialect poems on stone-cube artworks in the area.[60]

In November 2016, Simon Rennie from Exeter University announced his collection of Lancashire dialect poetry from the time of the Lancashire Cotton Famine of 1861–65.[61] He said, "It's fascinating how people turned to and used poetry, in their local languages, to express the impact events so far away were having on them."[61]

Organizations and media

The Lancashire Dialect Society was founded in 1951; The Journal of the Lancashire Dialect Society has included articles on the Survey of English Dialects and on the dialects of Germany, Switzerland and the United States.[62] The society collected a library of publications relating to dialect studies which was kept at the John Rylands University Library of Manchester from 1974 onwards.[63] This collection was afterwards taken away and deposited at the Lancashire County Library in Preston.

The Lancashire Authors' Association is devoted to the study of Lancashire literature, history, traditions and dialect.[64] The Association’s library collection was founded in Horwich in 1921 and contains dialect works by authors including Edwin Waugh, Samuel Laycock and Teddy Ashton. The collection has been housed at public libraries across Lancashire, and was moved to the University of Bolton Library in 2021.[65]

Various newspapers in Lancashire and the magazine Lancashire Life have included content relating to the Lancashire dialect. R. G. Shepherd contributed many articles interesting both for their philosophy and their excursions into local dialect to The West Lancashire Gazette and The Fleetwood Chronicle. Dialect has also featured in The Bolton Journal, The Leigh Reporter and The Lancashire Evening Post as well as in "Mr. Manchester's diary" in The Manchester Evening News.[66]

Between 1979 and 2015, the North West Sound Archive contained a range of records in Lancashire dialect (as well as Cumberland and Westmorland dialect). The Archive closed owing to financial reasons in 2015, and its materials were relocated to the Manchester Central Library, Liverpool Central Library, and the Lancashire Archives.[67]

In film

Films from the early part of the 20th century, particularly those produced by Mancunian Films, often contain Lancashire dialect: the films of George Formby, Gracie Fields and Frank Randle are some examples.[68]

The 2018 film Peterloo used reconstructed Lancashire dialect from the early 19th century, based on the works of Samuel Bamford, who was portrayed in the film.[69]

In music

Similarly, in music, the Lancashire dialect is often used in regional folk songs. The folk song "Poverty Knock"[70] is one of the best-known songs of such nature, describing life in a Lancashire cotton mill.[71] The Houghton Weavers is a band formed in 1975 that continues to sing in Lancashire dialect.[72] In 1979, the Houghton Weavers presented a series on local folk music on BBC North West entitled Sit thi deawn.[73]

The band the Lancashire Hotpots, from St Helens, have also used the Lancashire dialect in their work, particularly for humor.[74]

Notes and references

  1. ^ Ellis was writing before the lexical sets devised by John C. Wells, but these sets are used here for comparisons with other articles on Wikipedia. Ellis's equivalent was a system of letters as represented in early West Saxon speech.
  1. ^ Gibb, Robert (2005). Greater Manchester: a panorama of people and places in Manchester and its surrounding towns. Myriad. p. 13. ISBN 1-904736-86-6.
  2. ^ George, D. (1991) Lancashire
  3. ^ Local Government Act 1972. 1972, c. 70
  4. ^ Knowles, Gerard (1973). Scouse: the urban dialect of Liverpool. p. 17.
  5. ^ Crosby, Alan (2000). The Lancashire Dictionary of Dialect, Tradition and Folklore. pp. xviii–xix.
  6. ^ a b Robinson, William (1997). The Cumbrian Dictionary of Dialect, Tradition and Folklore. Smith Settle. p. xiii. ISBN 1858250668.
  7. ^ Crosby, Alan (2000). The Lancashire Dictionary of Dialect, Tradition and Folklore. p. xiv.
  8. ^ Set out below in the Modern Research section
  9. ^ Knowles, Gerard (1973). Scouse: the urban dialect of Liverpool. p. 18.
  10. ^ Ellis, Alexander John (1889). On Early English Pronunciation Volume V. p. 10.
  11. ^ Ellis, Alexander John (1889). On Early English Pronunciation Volume V. pp. 315–329.
  12. ^ Ellis, Alexander John (1889). On Early English Pronunciation Volume V. pp. 329–351.
  13. ^ Ellis, Alexander John (1889). On Early English Pronunciation Volume V. pp. 351–363.
  14. ^ Ellis, Alexander John (1889). On Early English Pronunciation Volume V. pp. 537–637.
  15. ^ Hargreaves, Karl Andrew (1904). A Grammar Of The Dialect Of Adlington (Lancashire). p. 2.
  16. ^ Schilling, Karl Georg (1906). A Grammar Of The Dialect Of Oldham (Lancashire). Darmstadt, G. Otto's hof-buchdruckerei. p. 15.
  17. ^ Frees, Craig (1991). "The Historiography of Dialectology" (PDF). Lore and Language. 10 (2): 71–72. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  18. ^ Orton, Harold (1962). Survey of English Dialects: Introduction. Leeds: EJ Arnold & Son. p. 33.
  19. ^ Orton, Harold; Halliday, Wilfrid J (1962). Survey of English Dialects: Volume 1 Basic Material, Six Northern Counties and Man: Part 1. Leeds: EJ Arnold & Son. pp. 21–22.
  20. ^ Wright, Peter (1981), The Lanky Twang: How it is spoke, Lancaster: Dalesman
  21. ^ Orton, Harold; Halliday, Wilfrid J (1962). Survey of English Dialects: Volume 1 Basic Material, Six Northern Counties and Man: Part 1. Leeds: EJ Arnold & Son. pp. 20–25.
  22. ^ "Student Research Papers". University of Leeds. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  23. ^ Shorrocks, Graham (1980). A Grammar of the Dialect of Farnworth and District (PDF). p. 35.
  24. ^ "J C Wells - personal history". Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
  25. ^ Wells, John (16 March 2012). "John Wells's phonetic blog: English places".
  26. ^ Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 358, ISBN 0-521-29719-2
  27. ^ a b Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 359, ISBN 0-521-29719-2
  28. ^ Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 361, ISBN 0-521-29719-2
  29. ^ Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 356, ISBN 0-521-29719-2
  30. ^ a b Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 362, ISBN 0-521-29719-2
  31. ^ Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 365–66, ISBN 0-521-29719-2
  32. ^ Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 368, ISBN 0-521-29719-2
  33. ^ Beal, Joan (2004). "English dialects in the North of England: phonology". A Handbook of Varieties of English (pp. 113-133). Berlin, Boston: Mouton de Gruyter. p. 127.
  34. ^ Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 370, ISBN 0-521-29719-2
  35. ^ Trudgill, Peter (2000). The Dialects of England. Wiley. ISBN 0631218157.
  36. ^ "BBC news archive - Voices". BBC. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  37. ^ "Where I live - Lancashire - Voices". BBC. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  38. ^ "BBC Voices". British Library. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  39. ^ Elmes, Simon (2005). Talking for Britain: A journey through the voices of our nation. Penguin. p. 177. ISBN 0-14-051562-3.
  40. ^ Siewierska, Anna; Hollmann, Willem (2007). "Ditransitive clauses in English with special reference to Lancashire dialect". In Hannay, Mike; Steen, Gerard J (eds.). Structural-Functional Studies in English Grammar: In honour of Lachlan Mackenzie. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 83–102. ISBN 9789027292599.
  41. ^ Siewierska, Anna; Hollmann, Willem (2007). "A construction grammar account of possessive constructions in Lancashire dialect: some advantages and challenges". English Language & Linguistics. 11 (2): 407–424. doi:10.1017/S1360674307002304. S2CID 122076268.
  42. ^ Siewierska, Anna; Hollmann, Willem (2006). "Corpora and (the Need for) Other Methods in a Study of Lancashire Dialect". Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik. 54 (2): 203–216. doi:10.1515/zaa-2006-0210. S2CID 8615237.
  43. ^ Hakala, Taryn (2010). "A Great Man in Clogs: Performing Authenticity in Victorian Lancashire". Victorian Studies. 52 (3): 387–412. doi:10.2979/VIC.2010.52.3.387. JSTOR 10.2979/VIC.2010.52.3.387. S2CID 144071795.
  44. ^ Hollingworth, Brian (2013). "From Voice to Print: Lancashire Dialect Verse, 1800-70". Philological Quarterly. 92 (2): 289–313.
  45. ^ Ruano-García, Javier (2012). "Late Modern Lancashire English in lexicographical context: representations of Lancashire speech and the English Dialect Dictionary: An investigation of how nineteenth-century Lancashire dialect literature contributed to Joseph Wright's English Dialect Dictionary". English Today. 28 (4). doi:10.1017/S0266078412000405. S2CID 144690041.
  46. ^ Hakala, Taryn (2012). "M. R. Lahee and the Lancashire Lads: Gender and Class in Victorian Lancashire Dialect Writing". Philological Quarterly. 92 (2): 271–288.
  47. ^ McCauley, Larry (2001). ""Eawr Folk": Language, Class, and English Identity in Victorian Dialect Poetry". Victorian Poetry. 39 (2): 287–300. doi:10.1353/vp.2001.0014. S2CID 161328242.
  48. ^ Shorrocks, Graham (1999). "Working-Class Literature in Working-Class Language: the North of England". In Hoenselaars, Ton; Buning, Marius (eds.). English Literature and the Other Languages. Rodopi. p. 90. ISBN 9042007842.
  49. ^ Shorrocks, Graham (1999). "Working-Class Literature in Working-Class Language: the North of England". In Hoenselaars, Ton; Buning, Marius (eds.). English Literature and the Other Languages. Rodopi. p. 89. ISBN 9042007842.
  50. ^ Shorrocks, Graham (1999). "Working-Class Literature in Working-Class Language: the North of England". In Hoenselaars, Ton; Buning, Marius (eds.). English Literature and the Other Languages. Rodopi. p. 95. ISBN 9042007842.
  51. ^ a b Shorrocks, Graham (1999). "Working-Class Literature in Working-Class Language: the North of England". In Hoenselaars, Ton; Buning, Marius (eds.). English Literature and the Other Languages. Rodopi. p. 93. ISBN 9042007842.
  52. ^ Leaver, Eric. "Looms were mill poet's muse". Lancashire Evening Telegraph (Blackburn). 8 February 1978. Front page.
  53. ^ Hodson, J. (2017). Dialect and Literature in the Long Nineteenth Century. Taylor & Francis. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-317-15148-7. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  54. ^ Anon. "Edwin Waugh". Gerald Massey. Archived from the original on 12 April 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  55. ^ Hollingworth, Brian, ed. (1977) Songs of the People. Manchester: Manchester University Press ISBN 0-7190-0612-0; pp. 151–56
  56. ^ "SAM SMITH (Lancashire Dialect Entertainer)". 2ZY Manchester. 16 November 1926. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  57. ^ "Music Matters: Lancashire dialect in song". BBC Radio 3. 21 May 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  58. ^ "Flog it! Blackburn". BBC One. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  59. ^ "Tongue and Talk: the Dialect Poets". BBC Radio 4. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  60. ^ "Old Pendle dialect phrases to be put on cube artworks". BBC News. 15 April 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  61. ^ a b "'Forgotten' Lancashire dialects revealed in poetry research". BBC News. 2 November 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  62. ^ Brook, G. L. (1963) English Dialects. London: Andre Deutsch; pp. 156–57
  63. ^ "Dear Professor Brook, Ah'm fain t'tell thee as wi'n dun fer thee all yon books fer t'Lankysheer Dialect Society tha fotched ter t'University Library a while sin ..."--The Journal of the Lancashire Dialect Society, no. 23, pp. 3–4
  64. ^ "The Lancashire Authors' Association". The Lancashire Authors' Association. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  65. ^ "Lancashire Authors' Association Collection at the University of Bolton Library". Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  66. ^ Wright, Peter (1976) Lancashire Dialect. Clapham, N. Yorks.: Dalesman; pp. 18–19
  67. ^ "North West Sound Archive set to close due to 'financial circumstances'". Lancashire Telegraph. 22 December 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  68. ^ Lancashire English, Fred Holcroft, introduction, 1997
  69. ^ Schindel, Daniel (4 July 2019). "Mike Leigh on Why His New Film About an 1819 Massacre Feels Eerily Relevant Today". Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  70. ^ Anon. "Poverty Knock". Traditional & Folk Songs with lyrics & midi music. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  71. ^ Barton, Laura (6 February 2008). "Hear where you're coming from". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  72. ^ Barnes, Liam (27 September 2011). "Houghton Weavers on 'Nu Folk', music critics and their long career". Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  73. ^ "Sit Thi Deawn (1979)". British Film Institute. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  74. ^ Folk's t'internet sensations – World music – Music – Entertainment – Manchester Evening News Archived 25 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine

Further reading

Sound recordings

  1. ^ The society was founded in 1951 at Manchester by George Leslie Brook, professor of English language and medieval English literature (The Journal, no. 10).