Left Democratic Front
LeaderPinarayi Vijayan
(Chief Minister of Kerala)
ChairpersonE. P. Jayarajan
FounderP. K. Vasudevan Nair
E. M. S. Namboodiripad
Founded1979; 43 years ago (1979)
HeadquartersAKG Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India


Seats in Lok Sabha
2 / 20
Seats in Rajya Sabha
7 / 9
Seats in Kerala Legislative Assembly
99 / 140

The Left Democratic Front (LDF) is an alliance of left-wing political parties in the state of Kerala, India. It is the current ruling political alliance of Kerala, since 2016.[4] It is one of the two major political alliances in Kerala, the other being Indian National Congress-led United Democratic Front, each of which has been in power alternately for the last four decades.[5] LDF has won the elections to the State Legislature of Kerala in the years 1980,[6] 1987,[7] 1996,[8] 2006,[9] 2016[10] and had a historic re-election in 2021[11] where an incumbent government was re-elected for first time in 40 years.[12] LDF has won 6 out of 10 elections since the formation of the alliance in 1980. The alliance consists of CPI(M), CPI, KC(M), NCP, JD(S) and various smaller parties.[13]

LDF has been in power in the State Legislature of Kerala under E. K. Nayanar (1980–1981, 1987–1991, 1996–2001),[14] V. S. Achuthanandan (2006–2011),[15] Pinarayi Vijayan (2016–current).[16] E. K. Nayanar served as the Chief Minister of Kerala for 11 years and later became the longest serving Chief Minister of Kerala.[17]

The alliance led by Pinarayi Vijayan returned to power in 2016 Assembly Election winning 91 out of 140 seats and further increasing its tally to 99 seats in the 2021 Assembly Election. Pinarayi Vijayan became the first Chief minister of Kerala to be re-elected after completing a full term (five years) in office after a historic election in 2021 where an incumbent government was re-elected for the first time in 40 years.[18]

AKG Centre, Thiruvananthapuram – Headquarters of LDF
AKG Centre, Thiruvananthapuram – Headquarters of LDF

Current members

Left Democratic Front is the Communist-led alliance of political parties in Kerala
Left Democratic Front is the Communist-led alliance of political parties in Kerala
Current members[19][20]
No. Party Symbol Flag
1 Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Indian Election Symbol Hammer Sickle and Star.png
2 Communist Party of India
CPI symbol.svg
3 Kerala Congress (M)
Indian election symbol two leaves.svg
4 Janata Dal (Secular)
Indian election symbol female farmer.svg
5 Nationalist Congress Party
Clock symbol of NCP.png
Flag of Nationalist Congress Party.svg
6 Rashtriya Janata Dal
Indian Election Symbol Hurricane Lamp.png
RJD Flag.svg
7 Kerala Congress (B)
Indian election symbol rising sun.svg
8 Indian National League
9 Congress (Secular)
Indian Election Symbol Coconut Tree.png
Congress (Secular) Flag.png
10 Janadhipathya Kerala Congress
11 Kerala Congress (Skaria Thomas)


See also: Communism in Kerala

Early years (1957 - 1979)

1st cabinet ministry of Kerala led by E. M. S. Namboodiripad (1957)

The political scenario in Kerala (1957–1980) was characterized by continually shifting alliances, party mergers and splits, factionalism within the coalitions and within political parties, and the formation of a numerous splinter groups.[21] 1957 Kerala Legislative Assembly election was the first assembly election in the Indian state of Kerala. The Communist Party of India won the election with 60 seats. The election led to the formation of first democratically elected communist government in India.

Founder E. M. S. Namboodiripad, First Chief Minister of Kerala
Founder E. M. S. Namboodiripad, First Chief Minister of Kerala
Co-founder, P. K. Vasudevan Nair
Co-founder, P. K. Vasudevan Nair

A Communist-led government under E. M. S. Namboodiripad resulted from the first elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1957, making him the first communist leader in India to head a popularly elected government.[22][23] It was the second ever Communist government to be democratically elected, after Communist success in the 1945 elections in the Republic of San Marino, a microstate in Europe.[24][25] The coalition politics of Kerala began with second election held to the state legislative assembly in 1960.[21] The Communist Party of India (Marxist) first came into power in Kerala in 1967, under Seven party front, which was an alliance of CPI(M), CPI, IUML, and four other parties.[26] In 1970's, the major political parties in the state were unified under two major coalitions, one of them led by Indian National Congress and Communist Party of India and the other by CPI(M).

Formation of LDF (1979)

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, two main pre-poll political alliances were formed: the Left Democratic Front (LDF), led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist) and Communist Party of India and the United Democratic Front (UDF), led by the Indian National Congress.[21] These pre-poll political alliances of Kerala have stabilized strongly in such a manner that, with rare exceptions, most of the coalition partners stick their loyalty to the respective alliances (Left Democratic Front or United Democratic Front).

Left Democratic Front (1980 - Present)

E. K. Nayanar, Longest serving Chief Minister of Kerala
E. K. Nayanar, Longest serving Chief Minister of Kerala

LDF first came into power in 1980 election under the leadership of E. K. Nayanar sworn in as the Chief Minister of Kerala on 26 March 1980[27] for the first time in 1980. He formed government with the support of Congress (A) under A. K. Antony and Kerala Congress under K. M. Mani, Nayanar later became the longest serving Chief Minister of Kerala, ever since 1980 election, the power has been clearly alternating between the two alliances till the 2016.[21] LDF has won 6 out of 10 elections since the formation of the alliance in 1980. Since 1980, none of alliances in Kerala has been re-elected till the 2016. The 1987, 1996 elections led E. K. Nayanar, and the 2006 elections led by V. S. Achuthanandan formed governments and completed their full terms but were not re-elected. In 2016, LDF won the 2016 election led by Pinarayi Vijayan and had a historic re-election in 2021 election where an incumbent government was re-elected for first time in 40 years. Pinarayi Vijayan is the first Chief minister of Kerala to be re-elected after completing a full term (five years) in office.[28]

List of LDF Conveners

No Year Name
1 1980 - 1986 P. V. Kunjikannan
2 1986 - 1987 T. K. Ramakrishnan
3 1987 - 1998 M. M. Lawrence
4 1998 - 2001 V. S. Achuthanandan
5 2001 - 2006 Paloli Mohammed Kutty
6 2006 - 2018 Vaikom Viswan
7 2018 - 2022 A. Vijayaraghavan
8 2022 - present E. P. Jayarajan

Chief Ministers

Pre-Left Democratic Front Parties Chief Ministers (1956 – 1979)

List of political alliances of Kerala in power (1980 - present)

No. Political alliance Total days in governance Number of Chief ministers
1 LDF 8209 days 3
2 UDF 7,295 days 3

List of Chief Ministers by length of term (1980 - present)

2nd Nayanar Ministry (1987)
2nd Pinarayi Ministry (2022)
Portrait Name
Ministry (Year)
Length of term
Longest continuous term Total years of premiership
E. K. Nayanar
1st Nayanar
(1980 - 1981)

2nd Nayanar
(1987 - 1991)

3rd Nayanar
(1996 - 2001)
5 years, 27 days 11 years, 10 days
V. S. Achuthanandan 2016.jpg
V. S. Achuthanandan
(born 1923)
Achuthanandan (2006 - 2011)
4 years, 364 days 4 years, 364 days
Pinarayi Vijayan cm.jpg
Pinarayi Vijayan
(born 1945)
1st Pinarayi
(2016 - 2021)

2nd Pinarayi
(2021 - present)
6 years, 187 days 6 years, 187 days

Electoral history

Assembly election results
Election Leader Seats won Change Outcome
1980 E. K. Nayanar
93 / 140
New Government
63 / 140
Decrease 30 Opposition
78 / 140
Increase 15 Government
48 / 140
Decrease 42 Opposition
80 / 140
Increase 32 Government
2001 V. S. Achuthanandan
40 / 140
Decrease 40 Opposition
98 / 140
Increase 58 Government
68 / 140
Decrease 30 Opposition
2016 Pinarayi Vijayan
91 / 140
Increase 23 Government
99 / 140
Increase 8 Government

Electoral history

Election Seats won Ruling
LDF UDF Others
1980 93 46 1 LDF 47
1982 63 77 0 UDF 14
1987 78 61 1 LDF 17
1991 48 90 2 UDF 40
1996 80 59 1 LDF 21
2001 40 99 1 UDF 59
2006 98 42 0 LDF 56
2011 68 72 0 UDF 4
2016 91 47 2 LDF 44
2021 99 41 0 LDF 59

List of elected members

Kerala Legislative Assembly

The LDF is the ruling alliance in Kerala which has 99 seats out of the 140 in the Kerala Niyamasabha.

Map of Kerala showing 2021 State Legislative Assembly Election Results
Map of Kerala showing 2021 State Legislative Assembly Election Results
No. Party Current No. of MLAs in Assembly
1 Communist Party of India (Marxist) 62
2 Communist Party of India 17
3 Kerala Congress (M) 5
4 Nationalist Congress Party 2
5 Janata Dal (Secular) 2
6 Kerala Congress (B) 1
7 Rashtriya Janata Dal 1
8 Indian National League 1
9 Congress (Secular) 1
10 Janadhipathya Kerala Congress 1
11 National Secular Conference 1
12 LDF Supported Independents 5
Total Seats 99

The following list shows the MLAs belonging to LDF in the Niyamasabha.


  CPI(M)     CPI     KC(M)     JD(S)     RJD     NCP  

  INL     KC(B)     Cong(S)     RSP(L)     NSC  


Sl.no Constituency Name of the
elected MLA
Kasaragod district
1 Udma C. H. Kunhambu CPI(M)
2 Kanhangad E. Chandrasekharan CPI
3 Thrikaripur M. Rajagopalan CPI(M)
Kannur district
4 Payyanur T. I. Madusoodhanan CPI(M)
5 Kalliasseri M.Vijin CPI(M)
6 Taliparamba M.V Govindan Master CPI(M)
7 Kannur Kadannappalli Ramachandran Cong (S)
8 Dharmadom Pinarayi Vijayan CPI(M)
9 Thalassery A. N. Shamseer CPI(M)
10 Kuthuparamba K.P Mohanan RJD
11 Mattanur K. K. Shailaja CPI(M)
12 Azhikode K.V Sumesh CPI(M)
Wayanad district
13 Mananthavady O. R. Kelu CPI(M)
Kozhikode district
14 Nadapuram E. K. Vijayan CPI
15 Koyilandy Kanathil Jameela CPI(M)
16 Perambra T. P. Ramakrishnan CPI(M)
17 Balussery K.M Sachin Dev CPI(M)
18 Elathur A. K. Saseendran NCP
19 Kozhikode North Thottathil Raveendran CPI(M)
20 Beypore P.A Muhammed Riyas CPI(M)
21 Kunnamangalam P. T. A. Rahim Independent
22 Kozhikode Ahamed Devarkovil INL
23 Thiruvambady Linto Joseph CPI(M)
24 Kuttiyadi K.P Kunhammad Kutty CPI(M)
Malappuram district
25 Nilambur P. V. Anvar Independent
26 Tanur V. Abdurahiman NSC
27 Thavanur K.T. Jaleel Independent
28 Ponnani P.Nandakumar CPI(M)
Palakkad district
29 Pattambi Muhammed Muhsin CPI
30 Shornur P Mammikutty CPI(M)
31 Ottapalam K.Premkumar CPI(M)
32 Kongad K.Shanthakumari CPI(M)
33 Malampuzha A Prabhakaran CPI(M)
34 Tarur P.P Sumod CPI(M)
35 Chittur K. Krishnankutty JD(S)
36 Nenmara K. Babu CPI(M)
37 Alathur K. D. Prasenan CPI(M)
38 Thrithala M.B Rajesh CPI(M)
Thrissur district
39 Chelakkara K Radhakrishnan CPI(M)
40 Wadakkanchery Xavier Chittilappilly CPI(M)
41 Kunnamkulam A. C. Moideen CPI(M)
42 Guruvayur N.K Akbar CPI(M)
43 Manalur Murali Perunelli CPI(M)
44 Ollur K. Rajan CPI
45 Thrissur P Balachandran CPI
46 Nattika C.C Mukundan CPI
47 Kaipamangalam E. T. Tyson CPI
48 Irinjalakuda R Bindhu CPI(M)
49 Puthukkad K.K Ramachandran CPI(M)
51 Kodungallur V. R. Sunil Kumar CPI
Ernakulam district
52 Vypeen K.N Unnikrishnan CPI(M)
53 Kalamasseri P.Rajeev CPI(M)
54 Kochi K. J. Maxi CPI(M)
55 Kothamangalam Antony John CPI(M)
56 Kunnathunadu P.V Sreenijan CPI(M)
Idukki district
57 Devikulam A Raja CPI(M)
58 Udumbanchola M. M. Mani CPI(M)
59 Peerumade E. S. Bijimol CPI
60 Idukki Roshy Augustine KC(M)
Kottayam district
61 Vaikom C. K. Asha CPI
62 Ettumanoor V.N Vasavan CPI(M)
63 Changanassery Adv Job Michael KC(M)
64 Poonjar Sebastian Kulathunkal KC(M)
65 Kanjirappalli Dr N Jayaraj KC(M)
Alappuzha district
66 Cherthala P.Prasad CPI
67 Alappuzha P. P. Chitharanjan CPI(M)
68 Ambalappuzha H.Salam CPI(M)
69 Kayamkulam Prathiba Hari CPI(M)
70 Mavelikkara M.S Arunkumar CPI(M)
71 Chengannur Saji Cherian CPI(M)
72 Kuttanad Thomas K. Thomas NCP
73 Aroor Dhaleema Jojo CPI(M)
Pathanamthitta district
74 Thiruvalla Mathew T. Thomas JD(S)
75 Ranni Pramod Narayanan KC(M)
76 Aranmula Veena George CPI(M)
77 Konni K. U. Jenish Kumar CPI(M)
78 Adoor Chittayam Gopakumar CPI
Kollam district
79 Kunnathur Kovoor Kunjumon RSP (L)
80 Kottarakkara K.N Balagopal CPI(M)
81 Pathanapuram K. B. Ganesh Kumar KC(B)
82 Punalur P. S. Supal CPI
83 Chadayamangalam J.Chinchu Rani CPI
84 Kollam M. Mukesh CPI(M)
85 Eravipuram M. Noushad CPI(M)
86 Chathannoor G.S. Jayalal CPI
87 Chavara Sujith Vijayan Pillai Independent
Thiruvananthapuram district
88 Varkala V. Joy CPI(M)
89 Aruvikkara G.Stephen CPI(M)
90 Nemam V.Shivankutty CPI(M)
91 Attingal O.S Ambika CPI(M)
92 Chirayinkeezhu V. Sasi CPI
93 Nedumangad G.R Anil CPI
94 Vamanapuram D. K. Murali CPI(M)
95 Kazhakoottam Kadakampally Surendran CPI(M)
96 Vattiyoorkavu V. K. Prasanth CPI(M)
97 Parassala C. K. Hareendran CPI(M)
98 Kattakkada I. B. Sathish CPI(M)
99 Neyyattinkara K. A. Ansalan CPI(M)
50 Thiruvananthapuram Adv Antony Raju JKC

Rajya Sabha

Main article: List of Rajya Sabha members from Kerala


  CPI(M) (4)   CPI (2)   KC(M) (1)

# Name[29] Party Term Start[30] Term End[30]
1 A. A. Rahim CPM 03-Apr-2022 03-Apr-2028
2 V. Sivadasan CPM 24-Apr-2021 23-Apr-2027
3 John Brittas CPM 24-Apr-2021 23-Apr-2027
4 Elamaram Kareem CPM 02-Jul-2018 01-Jul-2024
5 P. Santhosh Kumar CPI 03-Apr-2022 03-Apr-2028
6 Binoy Viswam CPI 02-Jul-2018 01-Jul-2024
7 Jose K Mani KC(M) 01-Dec-2021 01-Jul-2024

Lok Sabha

Main article: List of members of the 17th Lok Sabha

  CPI(M) (1)   KC(M) (1)

# Constituency Name Party
1 Kottayam Thomas Chazhikadan Kerala Congress (M)
2 Alappuzha A. M. Ariff Communist Party of India (Marxist)

Kerala local body elections

The Left Democratic Front (LDF), who also forms the state government, won in more than half of all gram panchayats and block panchayats, two-thirds of district panchayats and in five out of six municipal corporations.

2020 Kerala local elections
Local self-government body Local Bodies in lead Total
LDF UDF Others Tie
Gram Panchayats 514 321 42 64 941
Block Panchayats 108 38 0 6 152
District Panchayats 11 3 0 0 [a] 14
Municipalities 43 41 2 0 [b] 86
Corporations 5 1 0 0 6
2015 Kerala local elections
Local self-government body Local Bodies won Total
Gram Panchayats 549 365 14 13 941
Block Panchayats 90 61 0 1 152
District Panchayats 7 7 0 0 14
Municipalities 44 41 1 0 87
Corporations 4 2 0 0 6

Political activism

See also: Political activism in Kerala

On 7 December 2011, the LDF organized a 208KM human wall demanding the construction of a new dam in place of the present 115-year leaky dam at Mullapperiyar. The human wall was the second-longest of the kind in Kerala which stretched across two districts.[31]

LDF launched its website ahead of 2011 Kerala Assembly Election.[32]

See also


  1. ^ The ties were later resolved, LDF now control 11 and UDF controls 3 district panchayats. Refer Aftermath section
  2. ^ The ties were later resolved and LDF now control 43 municipalities and UDF controls 41. Refer Aftermath section


  1. ^ Chakrabarty, Bidyut (2014). Communism in India: Events, Processes and Ideologies. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-1999-7489-4. LCCN 2014003207.
  2. ^
  3. ^ "Kerala: Welfarism Remains the Dominant Narrative, but There Is an Undercurrent of Phobia".
  4. ^ "The Left returns in Kerala". The Hindu.
  5. ^ "Election history of Kerala". CEO Kerala. Chief Election Officer, Kerala.
  6. ^ "Victory of CPI-M-led LDF in Kerala elections manifests swing away from Congress(I)". India Today. 15 February 1980.
  7. ^ "It was a vote for secularism, democracy and progress: E.K. Nayanar". India Today. 15 April 1987.
  8. ^ "Elections 1996: Marxists-led LDF dislodges Congress(I) and its allies". India Today. 31 May 1996.
  9. ^ "Return of the warrior V. S. Achuthanandan". India Today. 10 April 2016.
  10. ^ "Pinarayi Vijayan takes oath as Kerala Chief Minister Hailing from a poor toddy tapper's family, Vijayan, a first time Chief Minister, took the oath in Malayalam". Indian Express. 26 May 2016.
  11. ^ "Election results: Left creates history in Kerala". Times of India. 2 May 2021.
  12. ^ "How 'captain' Pinarayi Vijayan led LDF in Kerala, is set to break a decades-old record". The Print.
  13. ^ "Alliance Wise and Party Wise Kerala Election Results 2021 LIVE". First Post.
  14. ^ "KERALA NIYAMASABHA E.K.NAYANAR". stateofkerala.in.
  15. ^ "Kerala Council of Ministers:2006–2011". www.keralaassembly.org.
  16. ^ "Chief Ministers of kerala". kerala.gov.in.
  17. ^ "E.K.Nayanar". niyamasabha.org.
  18. ^ "LDF shatters Kerala's 40-year record, Pinarayi Vijayan now the Marxist Helmsman". The Economic Times. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  19. ^ TNN (27 December 2018). "Kerala: Four new parties find berths in LDF". Times of India. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  20. ^ "Kerala Congress (M) Jose K Mani faction joins LDF". The News Minute. 14 October 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  21. ^ a b c d "India". Australia: Refugee Review Tribunal. 19 March 2007. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2019 – via archive.is.
  22. ^ Olle Törnquist (1991). "Communists and democracy: Two Indian cases and one debate" (PDF). Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars. Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars. 23 (2): 63–76. doi:10.1080/14672715.1991.10413152. ISSN 0007-4810. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011. The first democratically elected communist-led government in India actually came to power in 1957 in the southwest-Indian state of Kerala. Two years later this government was undemocratically toppled-by the union government and the Congress-I party with Indira Gandhi in the forefront. But the communists were reelected and led several of the following state governments.
  23. ^ Sarina Singh; Amy Karafin; Anirban Mahapatra (1 September 2009). South India. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74179-155-6. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  24. ^ K.G. Kumar (12 April 2007). "50 years of development". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  25. ^ Manali Desai (27 November 2006). State Formation and Radical Democracy in India. Taylor & Francis. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-203-96774-4. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  26. ^ Luke Koshi, Saritha S. Balan (19 June 2017). "Kerala chronicles: When a coalition of 7 political parties came together only to fall apart". The News Minute. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  27. ^ "History of Kerala legislature - Government of Kerala, India". kerala.gov.in. Archived from the original on 14 August 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  28. ^ "LDF shatters Kerala's 40-year record, Pinarayi Vijayan now the Marxist Helmsman". The Economic Times. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  29. ^ "Statewise List". Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  30. ^ a b "Statewise Retirement". Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  31. ^ "208-km human chain formed for new Kerala dam". Hindustan Times.
  32. ^ Nair, N.J. (18 March 2011). "Assembly polls log on to cyberspace". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 22 March 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.

Further reading