Left Democratic Front
AbbreviationLDF
LeaderPinarayi Vijayan
(Chief Minister of Kerala)
ChairmanE. P. Jayarajan
FounderP. K. Vasudevan Nair
E. M. S. Namboodiripad
Founded1979; 45 years ago (1979)
HeadquartersAKG Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
IdeologyBig tent
Factions:
Communism[1]
Social democracy[2]
Progressivism[3]
Welfarism[4]
Political positionLeft-wing[5]
Seats in Lok Sabha
1 / 20
Seats in Rajya Sabha
6 / 9
Seats in Kerala Legislative Assembly
99 / 140
Website
ldfkeralam.org

The Left Democratic Front (LDF) is an alliance of left-wing political parties led by Communist Party of India (Marxist) in the Indian state of Kerala. It is the current ruling political alliance of Kerala, since 2016.[6] It is one of the two major political alliances in Kerala, the other being Indian National Congress-led United Democratic Front, each of which has been in power alternately for the last four decades.[7] LDF has won the elections to the State Legislature of Kerala in the years 1980,[8] 1987,[9] 1996,[10] 2006,[11] 2016[12] and had a historic re-election in 2021[13] where an incumbent government was re-elected for first time in 40 years.[14] LDF has won 6 out of 10 elections since the formation of the alliance in 1980. The alliance consists of CPI(M), CPI and various smaller parties.[15]

LDF has been in power in the State Legislature of Kerala under E. K. Nayanar (1980–1981, 1987–1991, 1996–2001),[16] V. S. Achuthanandan (2006–2011),[17] Pinarayi Vijayan (2016–current).[18] E. K. Nayanar served as the Chief Minister of Kerala for 11 years and later became the longest serving Chief Minister of Kerala.[19]

The alliance led by Pinarayi Vijayan returned to power in 2016 Assembly Election winning 91 out of 140 seats and further increasing its tally to 99 seats in the 2021 Assembly Election. Pinarayi Vijayan became the first Chief minister of Kerala to be re-elected after completing a full term (five years) in office after a historic election in 2021 where an incumbent government was re-elected for the first time in 40 years.[20]

History

See also: Communism in Kerala

Early years (1957–1979)

1st cabinet ministry of Kerala led by E. M. S. Namboodiripad (1957)

The political scenario in Kerala (1957–1980) was characterized by continually shifting alliances, party mergers and splits, factionalism within the coalitions and within political parties, and the formation of a numerous splinter groups.[21] 1957 Kerala Legislative Assembly election was the first assembly election in the Indian state of Kerala. The Communist Party of India won the election with 60 seats. The election led to the formation of first democratically elected communist government in India. A Communist-led government under E. M. S. Namboodiripad resulted from the first elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1957, making him the first communist leader in India to head a popularly elected government.[22][23] It was the second ever Communist government to be democratically elected, after Communist success in the 1945 elections in the Republic of San Marino, a microstate in Europe.[24][25] The coalition politics of Kerala began with second election held to the state legislative assembly in 1960.[21] The Communist Party of India (Marxist) first came into power in Kerala in 1967, under Seven party front, which was an alliance of CPI(M), CPI, IUML, and four other parties.[26] In 1970's, the major political parties in the state were unified under two major coalitions, one of them led by Indian National Congress and Communist Party of India and the other by CPI(M).

Formation of LDF (1979)

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, two main pre-poll political alliances were formed: the Left Democratic Front (LDF), led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist) and Communist Party of India and the United Democratic Front (UDF), led by the Indian National Congress.[21] These pre-poll political alliances of Kerala have stabilized strongly in such a manner that, with rare exceptions, most of the coalition partners stick their loyalty to the respective alliances (Left Democratic Front or United Democratic Front).

Left Democratic Front (1980–present)

2nd Nayanar Ministry (1987)

LDF first came into power in 1980 election under the leadership of E. K. Nayanar sworn in as the Chief Minister of Kerala on 26 March 1980[27] for the first time in 1980. He formed government with the support of Congress (A) under A. K. Antony and Kerala Congress under K. M. Mani, Nayanar later became the longest serving Chief Minister of Kerala, ever since 1980 election, the power has been clearly alternating between the two alliances till the 2016.[21] LDF has won 6 out of 10 elections since the formation of the alliance in 1980. Since 1980, none of alliances in Kerala has been re-elected till the 2016. The 1987, 1996 elections led E. K. Nayanar, and the 2006 elections led by V. S. Achuthanandan formed governments and completed their full terms but were not re-elected. In 2016, LDF won the 2016 election led by Pinarayi Vijayan and had a historic re-election in 2021 election where an incumbent government was re-elected for first time in 40 years. Pinarayi Vijayan is the first Chief minister of Kerala to be re-elected after completing a full term (five years) in office.[20]

List of LDF Conveners

No Portrait Name Year
1 P. V. Kunjikannan 1980–1986
2 T. K. Ramakrishnan 1986–1987
3 M. M. Lawrence 1987–1998
4 V. S. Achuthanandan 1998–2001
5 Paloli Mohammed Kutty 2001–2006
6 Vaikom Viswan 2006–2018
7 A. Vijayaraghavan 2018–2022
8 E. P. Jayarajan 2022–present

Current members

Current members[28][29]
Party Party Symbol Party Flag Base Kerala Unit Leader Seats in Kerala Legislative Assembly
CPI(M) Communist Party of India (Marxist)
National Party M. V. Govindan
62 / 140
CPI Communist Party of India
State Party Binoy Viswam
17 / 140
KEC(M) Kerala Congress (M)
State Party Jose K. Mani
5 / 140
JDS(T) Janata Dal Secular (Thomas)[30]
State Party Mathew T. Thomas
2 / 140
NCP(SP) Nationalist Congress Party (Sharadchandra Pawar) State Party P. C. Chacko
2 / 140
RJD Rashtriya Janata Dal
State Party M. V. Shreyams Kumar
1 / 140
KEC(B) Kerala Congress (B)
registered unrecognised K. B. Ganesh Kumar
1 / 140
INL Indian National League
registered unrecognised Ahamed Devarkovil
1 / 140
CON(S) Congress (Secular)
registered unrecognised Kadannappalli Ramachandran
1 / 140
JKC Janadhipathya Kerala Congress
registered unrecognised Antony Raju
1 / 140
KEC(S) Kerala Congress (Skaria Thomas) registered unrecognised Binoy Joseph
0 / 140

Non Member Supporters[31][32]

Chief ministers

Main article: List of chief ministers of Kerala

List of chief ministers from Left Democratic Front in Kerala (1980–present)

No[a] Portrait Name[b] Tenure Total Party[c] Ministry
1 E. K. Nayanar
(1919–2004)
25 January 1980 20 October 1981 1 year, 268 days 10 years, 353 days Communist Party of India (Marxist) Nayanar I
26 March 1987 24 June 1991 4 years, 90 days Nayanar II
20 May 1996 17 May 2001 4 years, 362 days Nayanar III
2 V. S. Achuthanandan
(b. 1923)
18 May 2006 18 May 2011 5 years, 0 days 5 years 0 days Achuthanandan
3 Pinarayi Vijayan
(b. 1945)
25 May 2016 19 May 2021 8 years, 46 days 8 years, 46 days Pinarayi I
20 May 2021 At Present Pinarayi II

List of chief ministers from parties of Left Democratic Front (1957-1980)

No[d] Portrait Name[e] Tenure Total Party[f] Ministry
1 E. M. S. Namboodiripad
(1909–1998)
5 April 1957 31 July 1959 2 years, 117 days 4 years 357 days Communist Party of India Namboodiripad I
6 March 1967 1 November 1969 2 years, 240 days Communist Party of India (Marxist) Namboodiripad II
2 C. Achutha Menon
(1913–1991)
1 November 1969 3 August 1970 275 days 7 years, 80 days Communist Party of India Achutha Menon I
4 October 1970 25 March 1977 6 years, 172 days Achutha Menon II
3 P. K. Vasudevan Nair
(1926–2005)
29 October 1978 12 October 1979 348 days 348 days Vasudevan Nair

List of political alliances of Kerala in power (1980–present)

No. Political alliance Total days in governance Number of Chief ministers
1 LDF 8799 days 3
2 UDF 7,295 days 3

Electoral history

Kerala Legislative Assembly elections

Vote share in consecutive Kerala Assembly elections
1982
47.25%
1987
44.97%
1991
45.88%
1996
45.88%
2001
43.70%
2006
48.63%
2011
44.94%
2016
43.48%
2021
45.43%
Performance of Left Democratic Front, Kerala in Kerala Assembly elections
Election Year Leader Seats won Change Outcome
1980 E. K. Nayanar
93 / 140
New Government
1982
63 / 140
Decrease 30 Opposition
1987
78 / 140
Increase 15 Government
1991
48 / 140
Decrease 42 Opposition
1996
80 / 140
Increase 32 Government
2001 V. S. Achuthanandan
40 / 140
Decrease 40 Opposition
2006
98 / 140
Increase 58 Government
2011
68 / 140
Decrease 30 Opposition
2016 Pinarayi Vijayan
91 / 140
Increase 23 Government
2021
99 / 140
Increase 8 Government

Assembly election result by alliance

Election Seats won Ruling
Coalition
Majority
LDF UDF Others
1980 93 46 1 LDF 47
1982 63 77 0 UDF 14
1987 78 61 1 LDF 17
1991 48 90 2 UDF 40
1996 80 59 1 LDF 21
2001 40 99 1 UDF 59
2006 98 42 0 LDF 56
2011 68 72 0 UDF 4
2016 91 47 2 LDF 44
2021 99 41 0 LDF 58

Indian General Elections (Loksabha)

Performance of Left Democratic Front, Kerala in Loksabha elections
Election Year Legislature Seats won /
contested
Change in seats Total votes Per. of votes Change in vote % Ref.
1980 7th Lok Sabha
10 / 20
Increase 10 N/A N/A N/A [33]
1984 8th Lok Sabha
2 / 20
Decrease 8 4,607,568 42.24% N/A [34][35]
1989 9th Lok Sabha
3 / 20
Increase 1 6,370,627 42.93% Increase 0.70% [36]
1991 10th Lok Sabha
4 / 20
Increase 1 6,446,253 44.28% Increase 1.35% [37][38]
1996 11th Lok Sabha
10 / 20
Increase 6 6,469,266 44.87% Increase 0.59% [39]
1998 12th Lok Sabha
9 / 20
Decrease 1 6,628,189 44.55% Decrease 0.32% [40]
1999 13th Lok Sabha
9 / 20
Steady 6,713,244 43.70% Decrease 0.85% [41]
2004 14th Lok Sabha
18 / 20
Increase 9 6,962,151 46.15% Increase 2.45% [42]
2009 15th Lok Sabha
4 / 20
Decrease 14 6,717,418 41.89% Decrease 4.26% [43]
2014 16th Lok Sabha
8 / 20
Increase 4 7,211,257 40.12% Decrease 1.77% [44]
2019 17th Lok Sabha
1 / 20
Decrease 7 7,156,387 36.29% Decrease 3.83% [45]
2024 18th Lok Sabha
1 / 20
Steady 6,590,526 33.34% Decrease 2.95%

In Kerala Municipal Corporations

Corporation Election Year Seats won/
Total seats
Sitting side
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation 2020
52 / 100
Government
Kozhikode Municipal Corporation
49 / 75
Government
Kochi Municipal Corporation
34 / 74
Government
Kollam Municipal Corporation
39 / 55
Government
Thrissur Municipal Corporation
24 / 55
Government
Kannur Municipal Corporation
19 / 55
Opposition

List of elected members

Kerala Legislative Assembly

The LDF is the ruling alliance in Kerala which has 99 seats out of the 140 in the Kerala Niyamasabha.

Map of Kerala showing 2021 State Legislative Assembly Election Results
No. Party Current No. of MLAs in Assembly
1 Communist Party of India (Marxist) 62
2 Communist Party of India 17
3 Kerala Congress (M) 5
4 Nationalist Congress Party (Sharadchandra Pawar) 2
5 Janata Dal (Secular) 2
6 Kerala Congress (B) 1
7 Rashtriya Janata Dal (Previously LJD) 1
8 Indian National League 1
9 Congress (Secular) 1
10 Janadhipathya Kerala Congress 1
11 National Secular Conference 1
12 LDF Supported Independents 5
Total Seats 99

The following list shows the MLAs belonging to LDF in the Niyamasabha.

Key

  CPI(M)   CPI   KC(M)   JD(S)   LJD   NCP

  INL   KC(B)   Cong(S)   RSP(L)   NSC

  Independent

Sl.no Constituency Name of the
elected MLA
Party
affiliation
Kasaragod district
1 Udma C. H. Kunhambu CPI(M)
2 Kanhangad E. Chandrasekharan CPI
3 Thrikaripur M. Rajagopalan CPI(M)
Kannur district
4 Payyanur T. I. Madusoodhanan CPI(M)
5 Kalliasseri M.Vijin CPI(M)
6 Taliparamba M.V Govindan Master CPI(M)
7 Kannur Kadannappalli Ramachandran Cong (S)
8 Dharmadom Pinarayi Vijayan CPI(M)
9 Thalassery A. N. Shamseer CPI(M)
10 Kuthuparamba K.P Mohanan LJD
11 Mattanur K. K. Shailaja CPI(M)
12 Azhikode K.V Sumesh CPI(M)
Wayanad district
13 Mananthavady O. R. Kelu CPI(M)
Kozhikode district
14 Nadapuram E. K. Vijayan CPI
15 Koyilandy Kanathil Jameela CPI(M)
16 Perambra T. P. Ramakrishnan CPI(M)
17 Balussery K.M Sachin Dev CPI(M)
18 Elathur A. K. Saseendran NCP
19 Kozhikode North Thottathil Raveendran CPI(M)
20 Beypore P.A Muhammed Riyas CPI(M)
21 Kunnamangalam P. T. A. Rahim Independent
22 Kozhikode Ahamed Devarkovil INL
23 Thiruvambady Linto Joseph CPI(M)
24 Kuttiyadi K.P Kunhammad Kutty CPI(M)
Malappuram district
25 Nilambur P. V. Anvar Independent
26 Tanur V. Abdurahiman NSC
27 Thavanur K.T. Jaleel Independent
28 Ponnani P.Nandakumar CPI(M)
Palakkad district
29 Pattambi Muhammed Muhsin CPI
30 Shornur P Mammikutty CPI(M)
31 Ottapalam K.Premkumar CPI(M)
32 Kongad K.Shanthakumari CPI(M)
33 Malampuzha A Prabhakaran CPI(M)
34 Tarur P.P Sumod CPI(M)
35 Chittur K. Krishnankutty JD(S)
36 Nenmara K. Babu CPI(M)
37 Alathur K. D. Prasenan CPI(M)
38 Thrithala M.B Rajesh CPI(M)
Thrissur district
39 Chelakkara K Radhakrishnan CPI(M)
40 Wadakkanchery Xavier Chittilappilly CPI(M)
41 Kunnamkulam A. C. Moideen CPI(M)
42 Guruvayur N.K Akbar CPI(M)
43 Manalur Murali Perunelli CPI(M)
44 Ollur K. Rajan CPI
45 Thrissur P Balachandran CPI
46 Nattika C.C Mukundan CPI
47 Kaipamangalam E. T. Tyson CPI
48 Irinjalakuda R Bindhu CPI(M)
49 Puthukkad K.K Ramachandran CPI(M)
51 Kodungallur V. R. Sunil Kumar CPI
Ernakulam district
52 Vypeen K.N Unnikrishnan CPI(M)
53 Kalamasseri P.Rajeev CPI(M)
54 Kochi K. J. Maxi CPI(M)
55 Kothamangalam Antony John CPI(M)
56 Kunnathunadu P.V Sreenijan CPI(M)
Idukki district
57 Devikulam A Raja CPI(M)
58 Udumbanchola M. M. Mani CPI(M)
59 Peerumade E. S. Bijimol CPI
60 Idukki Roshy Augustine KC(M)
Kottayam district
61 Vaikom C. K. Asha CPI
62 Ettumanoor V.N Vasavan CPI(M)
63 Changanassery Adv Job Michael KC(M)
64 Poonjar Sebastian Kulathunkal KC(M)
65 Kanjirappalli Dr N Jayaraj KC(M)
Alappuzha district
66 Cherthala P.Prasad CPI
67 Alappuzha P. P. Chitharanjan CPI(M)
68 Ambalappuzha H.Salam CPI(M)
69 Kayamkulam Prathiba Hari CPI(M)
70 Mavelikkara M.S Arunkumar CPI(M)
71 Chengannur Saji Cherian CPI(M)
72 Kuttanad Thomas K. Thomas NCP
73 Aroor Dhaleema Jojo CPI(M)
Pathanamthitta district
74 Thiruvalla Mathew T. Thomas JD(S)
75 Ranni Pramod Narayanan KC(M)
76 Aranmula Veena George CPI(M)
77 Konni K. U. Jenish Kumar CPI(M)
78 Adoor Chittayam Gopakumar CPI
Kollam district
79 Kunnathur Kovoor Kunjumon RSP (L)
80 Kottarakkara K.N Balagopal CPI(M)
81 Pathanapuram K. B. Ganesh Kumar KC(B)
82 Punalur P. S. Supal CPI
83 Chadayamangalam J.Chinchu Rani CPI
84 Kollam M. Mukesh CPI(M)
85 Eravipuram M. Noushad CPI(M)
86 Chathannoor G.S. Jayalal CPI
87 Chavara Sujith Vijayan Pillai Independent
Thiruvananthapuram district
88 Varkala V. Joy CPI(M)
89 Aruvikkara G.Stephen CPI(M)
90 Nemam V.Shivankutty CPI(M)
91 Attingal O.S Ambika CPI(M)
92 Chirayinkeezhu V. Sasi CPI
93 Nedumangad G.R Anil CPI
94 Vamanapuram D. K. Murali CPI(M)
95 Kazhakoottam Kadakampally Surendran CPI(M)
96 Vattiyoorkavu V. K. Prasanth CPI(M)
97 Parassala C. K. Hareendran CPI(M)
98 Kattakkada I. B. Sathish CPI(M)
99 Neyyattinkara K. A. Ansalan CPI(M)
50 Thiruvananthapuram Adv Antony Raju JKC

Rajya Sabha

Main article: List of Rajya Sabha members from Kerala

Keys:

  CPI(M) (4)   CPI (2)   KC(M) (1)

# Name[46] Party Term start[47] Term end[47]
1 A. A. Rahim CPM 03-Apr-2022 03-Apr-2028
2 V. Sivadasan CPM 24-Apr-2021 23-Apr-2027
3 John Brittas CPM 24-Apr-2021 23-Apr-2027
4 Elamaram Kareem CPM 02-Jul-2018 01-Jul-2024
5 P. Santhosh Kumar CPI 03-Apr-2022 03-Apr-2028
6 Binoy Viswam CPI 02-Jul-2018 01-Jul-2024
7 Jose K Mani KC(M) 01-Dec-2021 01-Jul-2024

Lok Sabha

Main article: List of members of the 17th Lok Sabha

  CPI(M) (1)   KC(M) (1)

# Constituency Name Party
1 Kottayam Thomas Chazhikadan Kerala Congress (M)
2 Alappuzha A. M. Ariff Communist Party of India (Marxist)

Kerala local body elections

The Left Democratic Front (LDF), who also forms the state government, won in more than half of all gram panchayats and block panchayats, two-thirds of district panchayats and in five out of six municipal corporations.

2020 Kerala local elections
Local self-government body Local Bodies in lead Total
LDF UDF Others Tie
Gram Panchayats 514 321 42 64 941
Block Panchayats 108 38 0 6 152
District Panchayats 11 3 0 0 [g] 14
Municipalities 43 41 2 0 [h] 86
Corporations 5 1 0 0 6
2015 Kerala local elections
Local self-government body Local Bodies won Total
LDF UDF NDA Others
Gram Panchayats 549 365 14 13 941
Block Panchayats 90 61 0 1 152
District Panchayats 7 7 0 0 14
Municipalities 44 41 1 0 87
Corporations 4 2 0 0 6

Political activism

See also: Political activism in Kerala

On 7 December 2011, the LDF organized a 208 km human wall demanding the construction of a new dam in place of the present 115-year leaky dam at Mullapperiyar. The human wall was the second-longest of the kind in Kerala which stretched across two districts.[48]

LDF launched its website ahead of 2011 Kerala Assembly Election.[49]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ A number in parentheses indicates that the incumbent has previously held office
  2. ^ Year in parentheses indicates life span
  3. ^ This column only names the chief minister's party. The state government he heads may be a complex coalition of several parties and independents; these are not listed here.
  4. ^ A number in parentheses indicates that the incumbent has previously held office
  5. ^ Year in parentheses indicates life span
  6. ^ This column only names the chief minister's party. The state government he heads may be a complex coalition of several parties and independents; these are not listed here.
  7. ^ The ties were later resolved, LDF now control 11 and UDF controls 3 district panchayats. Refer Aftermath section
  8. ^ The ties were later resolved and LDF now control 43 municipalities and UDF controls 41. Refer Aftermath section

References

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    Withnall, Adam (2 January 2019). "Protesters form 620 km 'women's wall' in India as female devotees pray at Hindu temple for first time". The Independent. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
    "Manipur: CPI State Secretary, Blogger Arrested over CAA Protests". The Wire. Archived from the original on 25 December 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
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  21. ^ a b c d "India". Australia: Refugee Review Tribunal. 19 March 2007. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2019 – via archive.is.
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Further reading