Legislative elections in South Korea determine the composition of the National Assembly for the next four years.
Any South Korean citizen over the age of 25 is eligible to stand for election. And, under the terms of the Public Official Election Act, the active electoral right, that is, the right to vote is vested in every South Korean citizen who has reached the age of 18. There are certain restrictions, which are mostly the same for both the active and passive electoral rights. The only difference is that to be eligible to stand for election, a person who has been convicted of a crime must have their convictions expunged.)
Since the promulgation of the March 1988 electoral law, the assembly has been elected every four years through a Supplementary Member system, meaning that some of the members are elected from constituencies according to the system of first past the post, while others are elected at a national level through proportional representation. As of 2016, 253 members represent constituencies, while 47 were elected from PR lists. In contrast to elections to the Assembly, presidential elections occur once every five years, and this has led to frequent situations of minority government and legislative deadlock.
The election campaign period, as set by the Election Law, is short – 14 days. According to the book Internet Election Campaigns in the United States, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, the election campaign periods in Korea (23 days for presidential elections and 14 days for National Assembly elections) were made intentionally short in order to "prevent excessive campaign spending for long-running election campaigns and harmful effects from overheated elections", but, on the downside, "this works against new candidates who are not well known".
Winning party: · Conservative Liberal
1946 – 1948 – 1950 – 1954 – 1958 – 1960 – 1963 – 1967 – 1971 – 1973 – 1978 – 1981 – 1985 – 1988
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