Dark theme for GNOME
Versions of a web site in normal display mode (left) and dark mode (right)

A light-on-dark color scheme, better known as dark mode, dark theme or night mode – is a color scheme that uses light-colored text, icons, and graphical user interface elements on a dark background. It is often discussed in terms of computer user interface design and web design. Many modern websites and operating systems offer the user an optional light-on-dark display mode.

Some users find dark mode displays more visually appealing, and claim that it can reduce eye strain.[1] Displaying white at full brightness uses roughly six times as much power as pure black on a 2016 Google Pixel, which has an OLED display.[2] However, conventional LED displays cannot benefit from reduced power consumption.[3] Most modern operating systems support an optional light-on-dark color scheme.[4]


The video game Zork running on a green-on-black CRT display

Predecessors of modern computer screens, such as cathode-ray oscillographs, oscilloscopes, etc., tended to plot graphs and introduce other content as glowing traces on a black background.

With the introduction of computer screens, originally user interfaces were formed on cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) like those used for oscillographs or oscilloscopes. The phosphor was normally a very dark color, and lit up brightly when the electron beam hit it, appearing to be white, green, blue, or amber on a black background, depending on phosphors applied on a monochrome screen. RGB screens continued to operate similarly, using all the beams set to "on" to form white.

With the advent of teletext, research was done into which primary and secondary light colors and combinations worked best for this new medium.[5] Cyan or yellow on black was typically found to be optimal from a palette of black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan and white.

The opposite color set, a dark-on-light color scheme, was originally introduced in WYSIWYG word processors to simulate ink on paper, and became the norm.

Microsoft introduced a dark theme in the Anniversary Update of Windows 10 in 2016.[6] In 2018, Apple followed in macOS Mojave.[7] In September 2019, iOS 13 and Android 10 both introduced dark modes.[8][9]

Firefox and Chromium have optional dark theme for all internal screens. It will also be possible for third-party developers to implement their own dark themes.[10]

In 2019, a "prefers-color-scheme" option was created for front-end web developers, being a CSS property that signals a user's choice for their system to use a light or dark color theme.[11]

Energy usage

Light on dark color schemes require less energy to display on OLED displays. This positively impacts battery life and reduces energy consumption.[12]

While an OLED will consume around 40% of the power of an LCD displaying an image that is primarily black, it can use more than three times as much power to display an image with a white background, such as a document or web site.[13] This can lead to reduced battery life and energy usage unless a light-on-dark color scheme is used. The long-term reduced power usage may also prolong battery life or the useful life of the display and battery.

The energy savings that can be achieved using a light-on-dark color scheme are because of how OLED screens work: in an OLED screen, each subpixel generates its own light and it only consumes power when generating light. This is in contrast to how an LCD works: in an LCD, subpixels either block or allow light from an always-on (lit) LED backlight to pass through.

"AMOLED Black" color schemes (that use pure black instead of dark gray) do not necessarily save more energy than other light-on-dark color schemes that use dark gray instead of black, as the power consumption on an AMOLED screen decreases proportionately to the average brightness of the displayed pixels. Although it is true that AMOLED black does save more energy than dark gray, the additional energy savings are often negligible; AMOLED black will only give an additional energy saving of less than 1%, for instance, over the dark gray that's used in the dark theme for Google's official Android apps.[14] In November 2018, Google confirmed that dark mode on Android saved battery life.[15]

Issues with the web

Some argue that a color scheme with light text on a dark background is easier to read on the screen, because the lower overall brightness causes less eyestrain. Others[16][17][18] argue to the contrary. Some pages on the web are designed for white backgrounds; Image assets (GIF, PNG, SVG, WOFF, etc) can be used improperly causing visual artifacts if dark mode is forced (instead of designed for) with a plugin like darkreader.

There is a prefers-color-scheme media feature on CSS, to detect if the user has requested light or dark color scheme and serve the requested color scheme. It can be indicated from the user's operating system preference or a user agent.[11][19]

CSS example:

@media (prefers-color-scheme: dark) {
    body {
        color: #ccc;
        background: #222;

JavaScript example:[20]

if (window.matchMedia('(prefers-color-scheme: dark)').matches) {

See also


  1. ^ Cummins, Eleanor (November 21, 2018). "Dark mode is easier on your eyes—and battery". Popular Science. Archived from the original on January 21, 2023.
  2. ^ Emily Price (November 11, 2018). "Use Dark Mode to Conserve Your Phone's Battery Power". Lifehacker. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
  3. ^ Eisfeld, Henriette; Kristallovich, Felix (2020). The Rise of Dark Mode : A qualitative study of an emerging user interface design trend.
  4. ^ Murphy, David (October 28, 2020). "Embrace Evil by Enabling Dark Mode in Every App". Lifehacker. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  5. ^ Petterson, Rune (March 1985). "Use of colors in Teletext and Videotex". ResearchGate.
  6. ^ "The Anniversary Update's most exciting features: Windows 10 users weigh in". PCWorld. Retrieved August 7, 2023.
  7. ^ "macOS Mojave: Dark Mode, Stacks, & More". MacRumors. October 25, 2019. Archived from the original on August 8, 2022. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
  8. ^ Hardwick, Tim (June 6, 2019). "How to Enable Dark Mode in iOS 13". MacRumors. Archived from the original on August 8, 2022. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
  9. ^ Callaham, John (September 3, 2019). "Here's how to enable the Android 10 dark theme mode". Android Authority. Archived from the original on August 8, 2022. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
  10. ^ Porter, Jon (June 3, 2019). "Dark mode is coming to iOS 13". The Verge. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  11. ^ a b "prefers-color-scheme - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets". MDN Web Docs. Archived from the original on March 18, 2021. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
  12. ^ Gottsegen, Gordon (November 10, 2018). "Using Android's dark mode improves battery life, Google confirms". CNET. Archived from the original on December 27, 2022.
  13. ^ Stokes, Jon. (2009-08-11) This September, OLED no longer "three to five years away" Archived 2012-01-25 at the Wayback Machine. Arstechnica.com. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  14. ^ Raga, Dylan (June 27, 2019). "No, "AMOLED Black" Does NOT Save More Battery Than Dark Gray". XDA.
  15. ^ Welch, Chris (November 2, 2018). "Google confirms dark mode is a huge help for battery life on Android". The Verge.
  16. ^ Sharma, Adamya (June 29, 2020). "Love dark mode? Here's why you may still want to avoid it". Android Authority. Archived from the original on September 24, 2020. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
  17. ^ Clarke, Laurie (July 30, 2019). "Dark mode isn't as good for your eyes as you believe". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
  18. ^ Budiu, Raluca (February 2, 2020). "Dark Mode vs. Light Mode: Which Is Better?". Nielsen Norman Group. Archived from the original on February 14, 2023.
  19. ^ Walsh, David (January 28, 2019). "prefers-color-scheme: CSS Media Query". David Walsh Blog. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
  20. ^ "Window.matchMedia() - Web APIs". MDN Web Docs. Archived from the original on March 2, 2021. Retrieved March 18, 2021. The Window interface's matchMedia() method returns a new MediaQueryList object that can then be used to determine if the document matches the media query string, as well as to monitor the document to detect when it matches (or stops matching) that media query