Lincoln Heights
View of Lincoln Heights and Downtown Los Angeles from the San Rafael Hills
Boundaries of Lincoln Heights as drawn by the Los Angeles Times
Lincoln Heights
Lincoln Heights
Location within Central Los Angeles
Coordinates: 34°04′25″N 118°12′35″W / 34.073597°N 118.209627°W / 34.073597; -118.209627
CountryUnited States
StateCalifornia
CountyLos Angeles
CityLos Angeles
Time zoneUTC-8 (PST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-7 (PDT)
ZIP code
90031
Area code(s)323, 213, etc

Lincoln Heights is one of the oldest neighborhoods in Los Angeles, California. It is a densely populated, youthful area that has a high percentage of Latino, Asian, and Pacific Islander residents. It includes several historic or notable landmarks.

Geography and transportation

Lincoln Heights is bounded by the Los Angeles River on the west, the San Bernardino Freeway (I-10) on the south, and Indiana Street on the east; the district's Eastern border is unclear due to the area's uneven terrain. Adjacent communities include El Sereno on the east, City Terrace on the southeast, Boyle Heights on the south, Chinatown and Solano Canyon on the west, Cypress Park on the northwest, Mt. Washington on the north, and Montecito Heights on the northeast. Major thoroughfares include Valley Boulevard; Mission Road; Pasadena Avenue; North Main, Marengo, Daly, and Figueroa Streets; and North Broadway. The Golden State Freeway (I-5) runs through the district, and the Metro L Line has a station in the far northwestern portion of the district.

History

Lincoln Heights is considered to be one of the oldest neighborhoods outside of Downtown Los Angeles , dating to the 1870s and found within the original Spanish four leagues pueblo of Los Angeles land grant. Located on bluffs overlooking the Los Angeles River, it was the home to some of the city's most notable residents, who built numerous Victorian mansions, many of which have been preserved under the city's historic preservation program.[1] Historically, the neighborhood was known as "East Los Angeles" when it was home to the commanding general of the Confederate States Army, Albert Sidney Johnston, predecessor of Robert E. Lee. His brother-in-law, Dr. John Strother Griffin, also called the suburb home. Johnston Street, Griffin Avenue, and Hancock Street are named after their family.[citation needed] The neighborhood's original name was East Los Angeles, but in 1917 residents voted to change the name to Lincoln Heights.

The area was the first suburban neighborhood of Los Angeles, having been subdivided in 1873. Lincoln Heights was well located to serve as a home for people who worked in the industrial areas lining the Los Angeles River. By the late 1880s a neighborhood commercial district had been built around the intersection of North Broadway and Truman Streets, with business buildings such as the Hayden Block. This is identified as the first suburban neighborhood shopping district in Los Angeles; it was demolished in the mid-20th century to make way for I-5, the Golden State Freeway.[2]

Thereafter, what would be known as North Broadway became a crowded commercial thoroughfare, and by the turn of the 20th century, unfettered industrial construction within the once scenic floodplain made it less appealing for Angelenos of means, who moved out first to the Arroyo Seco area and Hollywood, then (from the 1920s onward) to rapidly developing Mid-Wilshire. As wealthy residents departed, Lincoln Heights became home to a large Italian American population,[3] as well as some Irish American and French American (the 1850s era immigration) residents by the 1930s, also a wave of poor white American residents known as "Okies" from the Great Plains moved into the area. With an increasingly large Mexican American population, Lincoln Heights became a 'barrio by the 1960s. It and its cross-river neighbor "Little Italy" (what is now Chinatown) formed the heart of southern California's Italian-American community. One of the major landmarks from this period, the San Antonio Winery, continues to operate.

In the 21st century, Lincoln Heights is no longer widely considered a barrio, due to the on-going changes being brought by gentrification. The neighborhood has slowly been gentrifying due to the Northeast Los Angeles housing price escalation of 2013 and 2014.[4][5]

Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument No. 144, 2054 Griffin Avenue
Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument No. 144, 2054 Griffin Avenue

Population

The 2000 U.S. census counted 26,616 residents in the 2.51-square-mile Lincoln Heights neighborhood—or 10,602 people per square mile, an average population density for the city. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 29,637. In 2000 the median age for residents was 27, considered young for city and county neighborhoods. The percentages of residents aged 10 through 18 were among the county's highest.[6]

The neighborhood was considered "not especially diverse" ethnically within Los Angeles, with a relatively high percentage of both Asian and Latino people. The breakdown was Latinos, 70.7%; Asians, 25.2%; whites, 2.7%; blacks, 0.4%; and others, 1.0%. Mexico (57.0%) and Vietnam (16.9%) were the most common places of birth for the 55.8% of the residents who were born abroad—which was a high percentage for Los Angeles.[6]

The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $30,579, considered low for the city. Renters occupied 75.9% of the housing stock, and house- or apartment-owners held 24.1%. The average household size of 3.6 people was considered high for Los Angeles.[6]

The percentages of never-married men (53.0%) and women (40.6%) were among the county's highest. The 19.5% of families headed by single parents was considered about average for city neighborhoods. There were 500 veterans, or 2.8% of the population, a low proportion compared to the rest of the city.[6]

Government and infrastructure

LAFD Fire Station No. 1
LAFD Fire Station No. 1

Los Angeles Fire Department Fire Station 1[7] is located in the Lincoln Heights area. The station is in the Battalion 2 district.

The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health operates the Central Health Center in Downtown Los Angeles, serving Lincoln Heights.[8]

Education

Just 5.5% of Lincoln Heights residents aged 25 and older had earned a four-year degree by 2000, a low percentage for the city.[6]

Schools

Source:[9]

Public

PUC Schools operates the Milagro Charter School (K-5) and the Excel Charter Academy (6-8) in Lincoln Heights.[12][13][14]

Private

Public libraries

Lincoln Heights Branch Library
Lincoln Heights Branch Library

Lincoln Heights Branch of the Los Angeles Public Library is on Workman Street.

Landmarks

Notable people

In popular culture

See also

References

  1. ^ Garner, Scott (January 25, 2019). "Neighborhood Spotlight: Lincoln Heights was L.A.'s first suburb". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  2. ^ Los Angeles Citywide Historic Context Statement. Context: Commercial Development, 1859-1980. Theme: Neighborhood Commercial Development, 1880-1980. Prepared for: City of Los Angeles Department of City Planning Office of Historic Resources, August 2017
  3. ^ Hernandez, Samanta Helou (April 9, 2019). "Exploring Main Street in Chinatown, Lincoln Heights". Curbed LA. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  4. ^ Masters, Nathan (2011-11-10). "Who Moved East L.A.?". KCET. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
  5. ^ Winton, Richard (July 27, 2019). "LAPD officer out with girlfriend fatally shot at taco stand in Lincoln Heights". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d e [1] "Lincoln Heights," Mapping L.A., Los Angeles Times
  7. ^ "Los Angeles Fire Department — Fire Station 1". Archived from the original on March 13, 2009.
  8. ^ "Los Angeles Department of Public Health — Community Health Services".
  9. ^ "Schools: Lincoln Heights," Mapping L.A., Los Angeles Times
  10. ^ "Where Passion Meets Education". ESP Magnet. Retrieved March 22, 2020.
  11. ^ East Los Angeles Service Area (ELASC) Archived 2014-11-09 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ "Milagro Charter School Archived 2011-12-06 at the Wayback Machine." PUC Schools. Retrieved on November 27, 2011.
  13. ^ "Excel Charter Academy Archived 2008-05-15 at the Wayback Machine." PUC Schools. Retrieved on November 27, 2011. "Excel Charter Academy 1855 North Main Street Los Angeles, CA 90031-3227"
  14. ^ "Contact School Milagro Charter School Archived 2008-05-15 at the Wayback Machine." PUC Schools. Retrieved on November 27, 2011. "Milagro Charter School 1855 North Main Street Los Angeles, CA 90031-3227"
  15. ^ Los Angeles Public Library reference file
  16. ^ "gook". www.sundance.org. Retrieved April 25, 2020.